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THE LIBRARY 

of 
VICTORIA UNIVERSITY 

Toronto 



i" 









PRSS?113TED TO 
! CANADIAN SCHOOL OF MISSIONS 



COMPLIM^TS OF 
MISS GP.AC^ SYKFS 




T,ik.-n from the MarM<- Tal.lrt ;it Hsianfu, Shensi. 



THE 

ANALECTS 



OF 



CONFUCIUS 



BY 



WILLIAM EDWARD SOOTHILL 

Principal of the Imperial University, Shansi, 

Compiler of the Student s Pocket Dictionary, Translator of 

the Wenchow New Testament, Author of 

a Mission in China, Etc., Etc. 



1910. 

PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR. 

Printed by the Fukuin Printing Company, Ld., Yokohama 
Agents : in China. The Presbyterian Mission Press 

in Japan. The Methodist Publishing House, Tokyo. 

in England. Messrs. Oliphant, Anderson & Ferrier. 

in U. S. A. The Fleming H. Revell Company. 



EMMANUEL 



PREFACE. 



The Discourses of Confucius, commonly known as the 
Analects, no student of Chinese, least of all the mission 
ary, can afford to neglect. In this brief treatise is revealed 
to us, more or less fully, the mind of China s most illust 
rious son, and consequently the mind of his race at its 
best. Here is the model on which for two thousand years 
this people has blocked the plastic mass of its mind and 
character. To understand the matrix is to understand at 
least the form if not the material of the impression, and 
in this book we have the die from which millions have 
been minted, sometimes of fine, more oft of baser metal. 
Nevertheless, however varied the substance, the form 
sought after has ever been the same, and he who under 
stands the revelation of China s model of wisdom, grace 
and honour herein exhibited, will also apprehend what is 
the noblest ideal, however imperfect, that this multitud 
inous race has set before itself. He will, too, by this 
means come into so close a mental touch with its aspira 
tions as to see distinction and dignity where before a 
swamp of mental and moral stagnation may have seemed 
to be his sole environment. 

If any one ask why another translation be presented, the 
teply offered is that this work receives less attention at the 



II PREFACE. 

hands of the student than its importance deserves, and a 
new issue will at least once more draw attention to its exist 
ence and value. Should a further explanation be demand 
ed let it be that, except in an emasculated form, Dr. 
Lcgge s scholarly work is no longer within the reach of 
the student of limited means ; that that work was published 
long before the majority of the students of to-day were 
born ; and that, justly or unjustly, its phraseology has been 
criticised as too formal to make the Analects express to 
an English what they do to a Chinese mind. 

My plan of work has been to make, in the first instance, 
an entirely new translation, without any reference to the 
interpretations of my predecessors. On the completion of 
such translation I then sought the invaluable aid of Dr. 
Legge, of Pere Zottoli, and of H. E. Ku Hung Ming. 
Dr. Legge s monumental work on the Classics is too well- 
known to call for further mention ; he has been throughout 
my guide, philosopher and friend. The more I see of 
his work the more deeply am I impressed with his pro 
found scholarship, his painstaking accuracy, his amazing 
research, and his perspicuity of expression. PereZottoli s 
version, published in 18/9, is in Latin and may be obtain 
ed in his Cursus Literature Siniciu, which covers the 
whole range of the Chinese classical education of a decade 
ago. H. E. Ku s work was published in 1898, under the 
title, "The Discourses and Sayings of Confucius," and the 
student is indebted to him for a rendering which is doubly 
valuable as expressing in fluent English an educated 
Chinaman s interpretation of this Classic. 

Zottoli s is a an admirable work, though often marked 



PREFACE. Ill 

by an exceedingly close adherence to the text ; its 
rigidity of phraseology is uncalled for in an English 
rendering. Ku s version on the other hand, being made 
for English readers unacquainted with the Chinese tongue, 
is more a paraphrase than a translation, hence the libera 
lity of expression he allows himself presents a view of the 
Analects, by no means always Confucian, that is not to 
be looked for in the pages of translators more constrained 
by canons in general acceptation. Legge s work while emi 
nently a translation and not a paraphrase, is by no means 
slavishly literal, for his treatment of his " Author," albeit 
perhaps like his Author with a touch at times somewhat 
heavy, is always both sound and sympathetic, and as to his 
Introduction, it is a revelation of patient indomitable schol 
arship. To these three works, then, I have often been 
indebted for correctness of apprehension, and in some cases 
also for choiceness of phrasing. 

Pere Couvreur s work came into my hands during 
the course of revision, as also did the Illustrated Four 
Books in mandarin, (see page 97). The latter takes the 
form of a catechism and was of some interest at first, but 
failed to be of service later on. Were it revised it would 
be of use to the Western student. Pere Couvreur s is an 
excellent version, and often exhibits that facility for felicity 
of expression for which his countrymen are noted. 

A writer in the China Review thirty years ago satirising 
the " insupportable uncouthness " of the translations of his 
day, declares that " no language has ever been so ill treat 
ed as Chinese," and he lays down the law, he is writing 
about verse, that a translation should be " free from any- 



IV PREFACE. 

thing which may suggest to the reader that the text exists 
in another language." " No one, surely," he goes on to 
say, " who wished to pass for a genuine Highlander would 
carefully exhibit a pair of trousers under his kilt, and most 
of us like not when a woman has a great peard. But 
translators, as a general rule, are not content that the great 
peard should be there, they must stick it out, aggravate it, 
and flaunt it in our faces. They are anxious for nothing 
so much as to remind the reader at every turn that their 
work was Chinese before it was English, and, in fact, has 
only half cast its Chinese skin." Behold an ideal for a 
genius ! The least I can hope to have done herein is 
to shave off the " peard " ; for even if one stripped off 
the skin the Mongolian physiognomy must still remain 
beneath ! 

Should the reader derive as much benefit from his study 
of this fine old Classic as I have derived from translating 
it, his time will be well spent. For several months I have 
been living with a gentleman, China s greatest gentleman, 
whose company I have found edifying to the character, 
and whose sententious sayings I have again found, after 
twenty years of compulsory neglect, to reveal the nobility 
of human life from a thoughtful Chinaman s standpoint, 
and to enable one the better to present the rubies of Eter 
nal Christian Truth, fresh polished and in more graceful 
setting. 

Our Lord did not destroy the Philosophy of the West; 
He purified and ennobled it. Nor will He destroy the 
Philosophy of the East, but will " fulfil " it, transform 
ing what is worthy from vain adulatory approval into a 



PREFACE, V 

concrete asset in the nation life and character. And if 
the West, with a Philosophy more brilliant than anything 
China has ever possessed, yet both needed and accepted 
the radiant Christian hope of Life and Immortality, 
and its entrancing vision of a diviner humanity, for 
the salvation of its soul, the satisfaction of its intellect and 
the perfecting of its Philosophy, how much greater is the 
need of this vast race, whose vital necessity is this same 
regenerating inspiration. 



WENCHOW, 

29, December, 1906. 



NOTE. This book was to have been published in 1907. It has how 
ever taken more than three years to print. Distance from the printers, a 
fire on their premises when part of it was destroyed, and the Author s 
removal to another sphere of work are responsible for the delay. 

T aiyuanfu, Shansi. August, 1910. 



CONTENTS. 



L INTRODUCTION: 

PAGE 

I. The ancient history of China I 

II. The life and times of Confucious ... 21 

III. The history and authenticity of the 

Analects 64 

IV. Works on the Analects 74 

V. The disciples 79 

VI. Chronological table ... ... 9 

VII. Ancient geography of China 99 

VIII. Terminology 104 

Abbreviations 116 

II. TEXT AND NOTES 117 

III. RADICAL INDEX 934 

IV. TOPOGRAPHICAL LIST 1024 

ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Frontispiece. Portrait of Confucius, taken from the Hsianfu 
tablet. To face page 99. Map of Ancient China. 



INTRODUCTION. 

I. The Ancient History of China. 

The origin of the Chinese, like that of the other nations 
of the Earth, is veiled in the mystery of unrecorded aeons. 
Whence they came and how, who with certitude shall tell ? 
Surmise, we may, but who shall confirm ? Infer we may, 
from footprints dim and o ertrodden, and who shall deny ? 
That this vast multitude had a beginning is certain, but 
where and when did it take its rise? Were they one of 
the many Mongolian tribes which occupied the Far East 
when Asia was still joined to the continent of America ? 
Did they, through the discovery of writing and its con 
comitant advantages, raise themselves above their fellows, 
the Tartars, the Ainos, the Japanese, perhaps the Red 
Indians ? Or did they, as is generally advocated, some 
three thousand years before Christ, leave the original 
habitat of civilised humanity in Western Asia, in obedience 
to some great centrifugal movement which drove the tribes 
of mankind forth from their common centre to replenish 
the Earth and subdue it? Such may have been the case : 
who shall tell ? 

Let us at any rate accept this as the most reasonable 
theory, and think of the fathers of the Chinese race wander- 



2 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

ing, perhaps for generations, over the boundless praries of 
the North West, maintaining their families by pastoral oc 
cupations as they slowly forged their eastward way, a 
gradually increasing host, bringing with them, along with 
other arts of civilisation, a knowledge of and preference 
for husbandry, which led them to settle down upon the 
fertile lowlands of Shansi, and there to abandon a nomad 
life for a pursuit more in keeping with their inclinations. 
At least we may with reasonable assurance maintain that 
they were a pastoral before an agricultural people, for 
apart from the testimony of their architecture in the tent- 
like shape of the national roof, there is even less disputable 
evidence in the etymology of their language, sheep and 
cattle figuring as root-words in early and important 
characters. Such evidence we have in words like |J 
good, H excellent, J| justice, $ pastor, shepherd ; and 
numerous others. 

Granted then that the race set out from some common 
cradle of humanity, what did they find on reaching their 
Canaan, the country of their adoption ? The waste howling 
wilderness, through which they had wearily plodded their 
homeless way, no longer stretched forbidding hands 
against them, but even as the Israelite found a land which 
to him, after his forty years of aimless wandering, seemed 
to be flowing with milk and honey, so the pioneers of this 
vast race found a land of beauty, a " Land of Flowers," 
the name with which they early designated their heritage. 

Nor was it an unhabited country that they discovered, 
for, even before them, numerous tribes of Hittites, Amale- 
kities, Jebusites, and Perizzites, in the shape of uncivilised 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 3 

tribes, had from generation to generation preceded them 
from the common ancestral home. These now viewed 
with natural anxiety this encroachment on their preserves, 
but were nevertheless compelled to submit to the iron law 
of humanity arid retire, the fierce hunter before the peace- 
loving farmer, to the north, the south, the west, and pos 
sibly even across the eastern waters. To this day some 
such tribes still maintain an isolated existence in the land, 
hedged in more by hereditary ignorance and apathy than 
by the active oppression of their masters, or the mountain 
fastnesses amongst which they dwell. 

When the Chinese invasion set in the Lolo, the Shan, 
the Miao-tzu, and many another tribesman roamed the 
country at will ; to-clay he must adopt the civilisation of 
his conqueror, or win his livelihood from the sheltered 
mountains of Yunnan, Kueichou, Ssuch uan, Kuangsi, 
Kuangtung, Chekiang, and of the islands of Formosa and 
Hainan. The original denizen of American wood and 
prarie strove with reeking tomahawk against the relentless 
invader of his hunting grounds, and with his face to the foe 
and his belt gory with white men s scalps, he took payment 
in blood for the land from which with tardy footsteps 
he receded. In China the conquest, though equally ef 
fective, was carried out more slowly, the tribes were less 
fierce and probably fewer in number than were the redskins, 
the disparity in numbers also between the races was less 
marked, and whilst violent collisions occurred, occurred 
indeed all down the ages until the Manchu Tartars ac 
quired the throne, early Chinese history records rather a 
policy of mutual toleration than of implacable hostility. 



4 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

Concerning those pioneer days our evidence is of the 
scantiest, for the authentic histoiy oi China goes back 
little beyond the first inillenium B. C. What little can be 
learnt of those early days \ve find, along with another inil 
lenium of semi-historical records, in what remains to us of 
the Shu Ching fj g^ the editing of which is attributed 
to Confucius, and also in the pages oi Ssii-Ma Ch ien 
T5 Jl!| xS> * ne Herodotus of China. The Shu takes us 
back to three great monarchs of yore, Yao, Shun and Yii 
fg^ ^ 3^ B. C. 2356 2197. Ssii-Ma Ch ien, like the 
Bamboo Books, goes three centuries still further back, to 
the period of Huang Ti ^ 7jj\ B. C. 2697. He also 
makes a passing reference to Yen Ti tfe 7ft* > i.e. Shen 
Nung jfiijl Jl^ the reputed founder of Agriculture, B. C. 
2737, and successor of Fu Hsi { ^^ the reputed 
Founder of Chinese civilisation, who first introduced 
clothing, cooking, dwelling in houses, and the art of writ 
ing to the human, that is the Chinese race. Tradition and 
imagination, local and imported, have carried back the 
mythical period to the days of Sui Jen JJg A> tne dis- 
coverer of the art of producing fire, to Yti Ch ao /fj 4il> 
the Nest Possessor, or inventor of dwellings, and to Pan 
Ku jjjji -j\ who chiselled out from chaos the heavens 
and the earth, the mountains and the seas. But such 
legendary testimony to the evolution of human civilisation, 
probably Hindu rather than Chinese, witnesses less to the 
method than to the early recognition of the process. 

In brief, then, we may say that, ignoring the purely 
mythical, we posses three periods of Ancient History, the 
legendary, which is not recorded in the Shu Ching ; the 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 5 

semi-historical, whose chronology is involved in doubt, 
but whose records contain authentic information regarding 
actual personages ; and the historical, whose chronology 
can be verified by the eclipses referred to therein, and 
whose relation of events may in general be accepted as 
trustworthy. 

The earliest records handed down to us by Confucius, 
begin shortly before the first of the three great dynasties 
ofHsia J|> Shang ^ (or Yin Jft), and Chou JfK In 
these he introduces us to Yao and Shun, whom he and his 
successors have glorified as ideal Rulers, models for all 
future ages. 

YAO* ^ > known personally as T ao T ang Shih 
PS Hi R> anc * imperially as T ang Ti Yao, ^ ^f- ijj*^ is 
generally assigned to B. C. 2356. In character the Shu 
describes him as being endowed by nature with reverence, 
intelligence, refinement, and thoughtfulness. That as a 
Ruler he had predecessors, whether universally acknow 
ledged or not, may be inferred from the state of govern 
ment and civilisation indicated in the Shu, but to him is 
directly ascribed the earliest unification of the Empire, and 
the elevation from their previous state of semi-barbarism 
of " the black-haired race." To him is also attributed the 
regulation of the Calender, a work of exceeding difficulty 
in those early days, by the employment of astronomers 
He announced that the year consisted of 366 days and in 
stituted, or at least restored, the intercalary month for 
the proper regulating of the year. 

* See j^ g, H JL Shu Ching Yao tien. 



6 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

A vast body of water is said to have covered the Em 
pire, "embracing the mountains and overtopping the hills, 
threatening the heavens with their flood." This resem 
blance to the Noachic flood, together with the similarity 
of sound between the two names, for Yao is in some 
southern dialects pronounced Nyao or Nya, led some early 
translators to infer that Yao was Noah, an inference hard 
ly supported by the Chinese records. Yao sent his minis 
ter Kun Jjjj to reduce this mighty flood, who failed and 
is said to have been put to death in consequence. Later, 
Yu 3$ the son of Kun, subsequently founder of the Hsia 
dynasty, made a more successful attempt. 

Finally, when Yao had been on the throne seventy 
years, being anxious to arrange the succession in his life 
time, he passed over his own unworthy son, and married 
his two daughters to a stranger named Shun ^j^ recom 
mended to him as one whose virtu re was so great, that 
he had been able to transform the character of his un 
principled parents and his dastardly half-brother, all of 
whom had frequently sought his life. 

SHUN ^f^ who was found to satisfy all Yao s require 
ments, reigned as his regent from 2287 to 2258 the year 
of Yao s death, when Shun mourned him for three years 
and then reigned under his own dynastic title of Yu Ti 
Shun gj tffr $$^ his personal appellation being Yu Yu 
Shih 4} I li J> During his fifty years of rule he made 
personal tours of inspection all over his Kmpire, the 
calendar was perfected, the country divided into provinces, 
the channels deepened for the waters, laws and ordinances 
laid down, and proper officers appointed to administer the 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 7 

government for the people s welfare. When he had been 
on the throne thirty-three years, being over ninety years 
of age, he appointed his minister, the afore-mentioned Yii 
as his successor, sharing the Imperial power with him till 
his death. Shun died in 2208, and Yii after the usual 
three years of mourning took over the reins of govern 
ment. 

THE HStA H DYNASTY. WithYU^> 2205 
2198, begins the first great Chinese dynasty, which ended 
439 years afterwards with the infamous Emperor Chieh 
j| . Yii, as already noted, had distinguished himself in 
the days of Yao, by his successful labours in draining the 
country of the devastating waters which covered its surface. 
Setting out four days after his marriage, for nine years he 
took no rest, heedless of food or clothing, cold or heat ; 
heedless also of his wife and child, whose door he thrice 
passed without entering, though the cry of the child 
whom he had never seen reached his ears. In his address 
to Shun we have a picture of the herculean labours that 
fell to the lot of this early Chinese pioneer, and the faith 
fulness with which he devoted himself to his country s 
welfare. " The floods," says he, " assailed the very 
heavens, vast in their extent they encircled the mountains 
and overtopped the hills, and the people were perplezed 
and hemmed in. By four different modes did I travel 
(cart for road, boat for water, sledge for mud and spikes 
for hills), clearing the timber along the mountains, and 
shewing the people how to obtain fresh food to eat. A 
way did I open for the nine rivers to flow to the four seas, 
and ... sowed grain, thus shewing the people how to ob- 



THE ANALECTS . INTRODUCTION. 

tain the food of labour as well as the food of the chase. I 
urged them to barter and to exchange their stocks of 
goods, and in this manner all the people obtained grain, 
and all the States were brought into order."* 

While Yii was draining the country he, at the same time, 
partitioned it on the principle of five concentric squares, 
the first being of five hundred li square, the next five 
hundred li beyond that, and so on. The central square 
was the Imperial demesne, the next belonged to the nobles, 
the third was for defence, the fourth was the frontier 
square, and the fifth was the wild domain. All this is 
attributed to the period preceding the death of Yao. 

On the demise of Shun, Yii at first withdrew, in order 
that the son of his sovereign might ascend the throne, but 
the people still had a voice, if not in the selection, at least 
in the acceptance of a sovereign, and that voice being 
insistent, Yii was induced to accept the throne. His reign 
lasted but eight years, when during a progress to the 
south, evidently with the old pioneering fever still strong 
upon him, he died, as is said, in this province of Chekiang. 
Like his two predecessors he elected his prime minister to 
succeed him, but was in fact followed by his son Ch i J^^ 
who thereby set up the great Hsia dynasty, thus establish 
ing for good and for ill the principle of royal primogeni 
ture in the Empire. The dynastic title of Ilsia is sup 
posed to have been adopted from the name of the district 
over which Yii had been in command before his call to 
the throne. 



* 



ljfi Hook IV l^gJ Fuller details are given in I he 



ij 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 9 

With an interregnum of forty years this dynasty lasted 
from 2205 to 1765 B. C, and consisted of seventeen sove 
reigns. Of these there is little of note recorded until we 
reach the last, the Emperor Chieh gfe^ a name held up to 
abhorrence in Chinese classical literature. Endowed with 
great physical strength, able to twist iron bars like ropes, 
he yet became the slave of an abandoned wife jfc Jg^ 
presented to him by her father, the Chief of Shih $jjj, to 
propitiate him and thereby procure the withdrawal of his 
invading forces. The Court was transformed into a palace 
of debauchery, Chieh though past middle age yielding 
himself, along with his wife and courtiers, to the most out 
rageous profligacy ; a lake of wine, trees laden with de 
licacies, ivory chambers, majestic towers, every luxury 
that lust and licence could suggest. 

In the fifty second year of Chief s reign the Prince of 
the State of Shang, impelled as he felt by Heaven itself, at 
tacked this debased and debasing ruler, deposed and im 
prisoned him until his death three years later, and himself 
took over the control of the Empire. 

THE SHANG -jg, or YIN & DYASTY. With 
T ang yj^ the Prince of Shang, commences the second of 
the three great ancient dynasties. As in the case of the 
Hsia so with the Shang its first dynastic title was adopted 
from the name of its Founder s territory, examples of 
which usage are found in our own House of York, Lan 
caster, etc. The title Yin was adopted three and a half 
centuries later, from the name of the town to which the 
Emperor P an Keng j| |g removed his capital. 

The prolonged existence of the House of Hsia had by 



IO THE ANALECTS. INTRODUCTION. 

this time so established the recognition of the divine right 
of kings that T ang, while expressing confidence that he 
had been divinely appointed as the scourge of God against 
an evil sovereign, was not left with unruffled conscience 

o 

over the part he had taken in destroying the great Yii s 
succession.* But if history interpret truly, there was no 
one as well qualified for, or justified in, accomplishing this 
epoch-making dynastic revolution, for not only was Chieh 
a criminal against the Empire s welfare, but T ang himself 
was no rank outsider, since, equally with Chieh, he traced 
his ancestry back to Huang Ti, that root whence all his 
predecessor on the throne are believed to have sprung. 

His " Announcement " on ascending the throne, f refer 
red to in An. xx, is a manly statement, one of the best in 
the Shu, revealing along with a transparent humility, a 
readiness to bear his own and the sins of his people, and a 
devotion to their interests that were worthy of a more en 
lightened age. It is also recorded of him that once when a 
terrible drought wasted the land and a human victim was 
deemed necessary, he himself went clad in white to the 
Altar of Heaven, and there offered to immolate himself as 
a victim to God on behalf of his people. The Shu goes 
on to say that copious rain immediately fell which saved 
the country. 

He changed the Imperial colour, which was black under 
the Hsia dynasty to white, took the last month of the Hsia 
year for his first month, and employed sagacious men as 
his co-adjutors, with whose aid he reduced the Empire to 



Slf n. i. t fll ; jg 15 nook iv. 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. II 

order. One of these, I Yin ffi ^3\ referred to in An 
xii. 22, he appointed Regent at his death, and when the 
young monarch, T ai Chia -fc f$ ^ grandson of T ang, 
yielded to self-indulgence instead of attending to the 
duties of his position, I Yin removed him for a period to 
the tombs of his ancestors. In that sacred spot he was 
urged to ponder over their virtues and his own errors, 
with eminently satisfactory results to the young man and 
his future rule. 

Fourteen sovereigns followed T ai Chia before the above 
named P an Keng, B. C. 1401 1374, in succession to his 
brother, ascended the throne. Deeming it advisable to 
remove his capital, whether to propitiate the Fates by re 
turning to the neighbourhood of the ancient seat, or in 
consequence of some overflow of the Yellow River, he 
induced his people, with much difficulty, as is shewn in 
the Shu, "gf flf Book vii, to remove to a place called Yin 
$ in modern Honan, this being the fifth removal during 
the Shang dynasty. Eleven sovereigns followed him, two 
of whom were his brothers, thus making with himself and 
his predecessor four brothers who successively sat on the 
throne. 

Wu Ting, j T whose posthumous name is Kao Tsung 
rHj n> a son f Hsiao, one of these brothers, arrested for 
a time the downfall of the dynasty so imminent at this 
period. On his accession, in a dream he described as God 
given, he saw the features of a man whom he was instruct 
ed to seek out as his minister. Search was duly made 
and this man Fu Yen |sj j^l was discovered and called 
from following his occupation of a builder. Being brought 



12 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

before the king he proved to possess a sagacity so emi 
nent, that Wu Ting on installing him in office addressed 
him in the following interesting terms :* " Suppose me 
a sword, and let me use you as my whetstone ; suppose me 
crossing a wide stream, let me employ you as my boat 
and oars ; suppose me a year of drought, let me use you 
as my copious rain ; you shall open your mind and refresh 
mine ; you shall be my medicine, which if it do not disturb 
will not cure ; you shall treat me as one walking barefoot, 
who not looking at the ground will hurt his feet." Wu 
Ting s reign lasted for the lengthy period of nearly sixty 
years, from B. C. 1324 to 1266. 

One of his successors, Wu I j j> 1 198-1 195, seventy 
years later, is said to have been the first maker of an 
image in China, which indeed he made not for worship, 
but in order to ridicule all religion. The image he called 
the "Spirit of Heaven," and backed himself against it in 
play, appointing some one to throw for " Heaven." The 
image lost and he disgraced it. Making a leather bag 
and filling it with blood, probably also placing the image 
within it, he set it up in a high place and pierced it with 
arrows, declaring as the blood flowed down that he was 
killing Heaven. Ssii-im Ch ien records that shortly after 
wards he was killed by lightning. 

The dynasty was now fast crumbling to pieces, but an 
other Chieh was to arise before a succourer came forth 
to put an end to a House which, beginning nobly, was to 
perish, like its predecessor, in the profligacy of a king and 

* # ; S TS viii. 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 13 

the shamelessness of his consort, and which was to be 
succeeded in its turn by a third, which time and luxury 
would also emasculate and destroy. 

The dynasty of Shang with its 28 sovereigns, lasting 
644 years from B, C. 1766 to 1123, was brought to an 
awful close with the reign of the tyrant Chou %$ ^^ 
Noted like his prototype Chieh for his great physical 
prowess, he was in addition a man of mental alertness, 
both of which gifts he prostituted to the gratification of 
his passions, inventing orgies that put those of Nero into 
the shade. Like Chieh, too, his debauchery arose from a 
passionate attachment to the woman who became his wife, 
by name Ta Chi jjg. ^ the beautiful daughter of the 
Chief of Su j$j^ against whom Chou had once marshalled 
his troops. Again unbridled extravagance and disgrace 
ful revelry, to which was added horrible inhumanity, 
plunged the country into the miseries of tyrannical mis- 
government. The wild excesses of Chieh being insufficient 
to gratify the voluptuous palate of this monster and his 
evil wife, others were invented. A lake of wine in which 
men and women wallowed and perished intoxicated, trees 
hung with the choicest delicacies, naked men and women 
drunk with wine chasing each other round the palace 
gardens ; tortures of the most cruel description ; the heart 
less breaking of men s shin bones to see which had the 
most marrow, the young or the old ; the Heater for 
burning men, the Roaster for grilling them alive ; the 
disembowelling of men to examine their hearts, the chop 
ping of others to minced meat, such a tale of debauchery, 
callousness and woe as, if not exaggerated, has never been 



14 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

surpassed, if equalled, since the world began. That the 
Empire must be rid of such a savage became manifest, and 
the man appointed to this great work was already in the 
making. 

THE CHOU J|] DYNASTY. That man was Fa, $ 
otherwise known as Wu Wang, j^ 3E> He it was who 
became the saviour of his country, and the Founder of the 
Chou dynasty. Born in the State of Ch i JU>, of which 
his father was lord, he was brought up under the best of 
influences. His father Ch ang ^ the Chief of the West, 
better known by his posthumous title of King Wen 5C 3E\ 
was a ruler intellectual, honourable, and of great admini 
strative ability. So admirably did he councluct the gov 
ernment of his State, that people flocked from the oppres 
sion of other rulers to enroll themselves under his protec 
tion. Accused before the tyrant Emperor as a danger to 
the royal power he was thrown into prison, and while 
incarcerated there he occupied his lonely hours in the 
study of Fu Hsi s diagrams, represented by the modern 
Pa Kua /\ tjtj^ and in the compilation of a commentary 
thereon which, completed by his son King Wu, has come 
down to us as an important part of the Yi Ching JJ |5g 
China s famous book of divination. The expenditure by 
his son of a large sum in the way of ransom, and the pre 
sentation to the Tyrant by Wen s affectionate subjects of 
a handsome concubine and a number of fine horses, secur 
ed his release. Being commissioned thereupon to reduce 
the frontier tribes, he augmented his army, which became 
so efficient that, when he died, he left his son Fa the most 
powerful noble in -the land. 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. 15 

In due time the impulse came to Fa, to succour his dis 
tressed country from the miseries it was suffering under 
the grinding heel of its tyrant, and on first taking the field 
he was at once voluntarily joined by Soo princes and 
chieftains, who flocking to his banner urged an immediate 
advance on the Capital. Fa, however, asserting that 
Heaven had not yet utterly cast off the Emperor, diverted 
the host against and subdued the unprincipled ruler of Li 
3j^ as a warning to the Emperor of the temper and re 
solve of his barons. Impervious to such an admonition, 
and deeming himself in secure possession of his ancient in 
heritance, the tyrant added impost to impost and crime to 
crinie, for the gratification of his ever changing never 
satiated deskes, until the cry of the people aroused Fa to 
once more lead forth his forces. 

In his " Great Declaration " he thus indicts his sover 
eign :* " He has sawn through the shin bones of men 
who were wading in the morning, he has cut out the heart 
of the good man, he has used his majesty to kill and slay, 
he has poisoned and afflicted all within the four seas ; he 
honours and trusts the depraved and crooked, he has ex 
pelled his advisers and the guardians of his throne, he has 
cast aside the laws, and imprisoned or enslaved his upright 
officers. He has ceased to observe the sacrifices to Heaven 
and Earth, and to make offerings in the Ancestral Temple* 
He makes wonderful devices and extraordinary contriv 
ances to please his woman. Hence God is no longer with 
him, but with a curse sends down upon him this timely ruin." 



V. I. 



16 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

After this declaration Fa led on the attack against the 
enervated host of this wanton Emperor, and on the plains 
of Mu $C obtained a brilliant victory. The tyrant fled to 
the palace of Lu T ai, the splendid scene of his vile de 
baucheries and crimes, and having arrayed himself in his 
Imperial robes, set fire to the palace and perished in the 
flames, while the evil consort of his shameful vices was 
seized and executed. 

Thus began the great dynasty of Chou, which dating 
from B. C. 1122 ended 867 years later in B.C. 255. 
King Wu, reigned for seven brief before joining his fore 
fathers. Me died it is said when 93 years of age, leaving 
a son, a minor of thirteen, in charge of his brother, Duke 
Wen 3 of Chou J^ a man noted through later ages for 
his noble character and statesmanlike conduct. 

Wu and Wen planted the Mouse of Chou, as William 
the Conqueror planted the Norman dynasty, in a soil 
volcanic and unstable, that contained within it the sure 
elements of its own disintegration. Desiring to reward 
those who had stood by him in his destruction of the 
Shang dynasty, and at the same time of binding them to 
his own House, Wu establish the baronial order, partition 
ing the Empire into fiefs, great or small, according to the 
merit or position of each baron. 

These territorial magnates, with their independent 
powers, Wu left as a heritage of woe to his descendants, 
and it was but a short time ere they reduced the imperial 
power to little more than an empty name. Under a 
powerful sovereign refractory barons could be forced into 
submission, but with a weakling swaying the sceptre, as 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. I? 

is the certain issue sooner or later of every monarchical 
succession, jealousy, hatred, strife and internecine warfare, 
with their exhausting exactions in men and means, the 
depleting of the land, and the despair of the race was the 
inevitable outcome. In but little more than three centuries 
the power of the nobles exceeded that of the Emperor, 
and with every succeeding century this power, and the 
disorder it naturally involved, reduced the Empire to 
a band of warring States with a merely nominal head, 
to whom the haughty nobles gave scarce a show of 
allegiance. 

It was now, when the nation had well nigh reached 
the nadir of its political degradation that it also attained 
to the zenith of its intellectual development, in the pro 
duction of the three great philosophers of the Far East, 
Confucius, Mencius and Laocius. The mysticism of 
Laotzii, the morals, religion and politics of K ungtzu, 
and the literary polish of Mengtzu, all which came into 
existence during this the Augustan age of China, while 
lacking the insight and brilliance of contemporary philoso 
phy in the West, record the highest point in the arc of this 
nation s genius. 

That these three have not been surpassed is no sign 
that they will not be so by their successors of the present 
age. Even the Christ taught Ht s disciples, " Greater 
things than these shall ye do," and what the Chinaman 
of to-day, oppressed with the deadweight of his ancient 
masters, needs is to realise that he too is capable of equal 
or greater things than they. Nevertheless in these three 
we behold what is the limit of China s unaided intellect, 



1 8 TIIK ANAI.KCTS : INTRODUCTION. 

and whatever advance she may make will and does 
depend on a wider touch with the wider philosophy 
of wider minds. These three philosophers, then, mark the 
maximum per se development of the mind of this race, 
and with them that development, perhaps not without 
intent so far as the Confucian School is concerned, has 
been arrested. The heterodox schools of this period, 
that of Yang Chu jf ^ the self-centred Epicurean, of 
Mo Ti g ||^ (Legge s Mih Tcih), the generous apostle 
of Universal Love, and of Hsiin Ch ing !gj j^ (Legge s 
Scucn K ing), who fitly closed this troubled dynasty 
with his treatise that man is by nature evil, these 
heterodox schools were completely obscured, as was 
natural, by the less extreme and more powerful repre 
sentatives of their conservative rivals. 

Little remains to be said of the sovereigns who 
intervened between the days of the Chou dynasty s great 
Founder and its great destroyer Ch in Shih Huang 
^ in ?.^ In brief, three centuries after the foundation 
by King \Vu, saw the Imperial sceptre a veritable 
" bauble," so that for five centuries, the eighth to the 
third, the history of the Chou dynasty is the history of 
its rival States. During tin s latter period the power of 
the Ch in State > by slow degress became dominant, 
and with the dethronement and death of Nan $jj the last 
Kmpcror, the House of Chou passed finally away. 

Thus was the way opened for the strong man of China, 
whose success in welding this continental nation into one 
great Empire rivalled the feats of Cccsar and Napoleon. 
Though the new dynasty was not founded by Ch in Shih 



I. ANCIENT HISTORY. IQ 

Huang, and lasted with its five Rulers less than fifty 
years, he is the one outstanding feature in its brief history. 
The Duke of Ch in who destroyed the House of Chou 
was named Chao Hsiang ftg jl^ He reigned but five 
years, and his son Hsiao Wen ^ j who followed him 
reigned but three days. It is chronicled of Chuang 
Hsiang $ H> the son of the latter, who also succeeded 
him, that before his grandfather had claimed the royal 
prerogatives, he, Chuang Hsiang, fell in love with the 
beautiful wife of a crafty merchant whom he met, and 
who subsequently became his prime minister. This 
woman, already pregnant, he persuaded the husband, 
Lu Pu Wei /p ~^\ to part with ; she became his 
wife and in due course gave birth to a son, who, the 
offspring of this wily merchant ambitious of mind and low 
of morals, was destined to unite the rival States of China 
into one great Empire, While still a youth the evidence 
of his mother s immoralities, and his real father s con 
nivance therein, compelled him to banish her, and 
ultimately to quell a revolt raised by his father, the end 
of which was the suicide of the latter. Gradually over 
coming all baronial opposition he became absolute in 
the enpire, altered the laws, changed the system of 
government, destroyed or sought to destroy all books 
that upheld the glories of the past, and generally brought 
a force to bear on a paralysed nation that none dared to 
withstand. 

Inflated with his success he styled himself Shih Huang 
Ti #n al *rff^ The First Emperor, his son was to take 
the title of Erh Huang Ti, or Erh Shih Huang Ti 



THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

Hi 3 rf?> the Second Kmpcror, and so on for " ten 

thousand generations." Alas ! for human ambition, his 
own reign lasted but twelve short years, his elder son 
was murdered by the younger, for the sake of a throne 
which he held for three years only, and after Shih 
Huang Ti s grandson had sat on the throne for a few 
brief weeks this " dynasty of ten thousand generations" 
came to a bitter end. 

As to the literature oi China, while what we possess 
of it dates only from the dynasty of Choti, and especially 
from the three centuries of its decline, it must ever be 
remembered that its foundation was laid in the two 
preceding dynasties, and that Confucius and Mencius 
were the topstone rather than the foundation ot their 
country s genius. To change the metaphor they are the 
bright particular stars that shone in a sombre night, and 
the very sombreness of the background, both then and 
since, lias lent an exaggeration to their brilliancy which 
a brighter sky would have toned to normal hue, and 
which after the long and dreary night must, at this late 
hour, pale before the roseate flush of advancing Day. 



II. The Life and Times of Confucius.* 

As shewn in our last chapter when China s great 
Philosopher was born, the third historic dynasty, that of 
Chou, was wearing to its close, the blood which had 
coursed so vigorously in the veins of the martial Wu 
was running thin in the arteries of his degenerate descen 
dants, nd the feudal system, founded to strengthen the 
Empire, had reduced it to a congeries of warring States, 
awaiting the advent of Ch in Shih Huang, who was to 
break the power of the barons, and unite their mutually 
antagonistic territories into one great empire, an empire 
which, under different dynasties has continued and in 
creased to our own age. 

Confucius, then, was born into a troubled period. The 
barons more powerful than their nominal sovereign, 
encroached and made war upon eath other, at the instiga 
tion of ministers more crafty and ambitious even than 
themselves. The suffering people were ground under 
the iron heel of the impost gatherer, dragged from their 
fields and set to forced labour at and for the pleasure of 
their rulers, and driven to battles and raids in which 
they had no interest and from which they derived no 
benefit. That this statement is not exaggerated is borne 
witness to by incidents in the life of the Sage. Once, 

* Confucius is the Latinised form of K ung Fu-tzu ?L 5fc "?> 
as Mencius is of ~jjfc -j" > Micius of 4|| -f* ^ etc. 



22 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

for instance, when he was passing by Mt T ai he heard 
the mournful wailing of a woman on the hillside. Send 
ing a disciple (T/ii Lu) to enquire why she sat wailing 
in so lonely a spot he was answered, " My husband s 
father was killed here by a tiger, my husband also, and 
now my son has met the same fate." Then why, asked 
Confucius, did she dwell in so dreadful a place. 
" Because " answered she, "here there is no oppressive 
ruler." " Scholars," said he to his disciples, " remember 
this : Oppressive rule is more cruel than a tiger." 

Power amongst these barons bred luxury, luxury lust, 
and lust unrelenting destruction. Princes there were who 
.set all morality at defiance and lived lives of open shame, 
as witness the acceptance of the present of eighty geishas 
by the Duke of Lu, an act which drove our Sage to 
shake the dust of his native State off his feet, and depart to 
the life of an exile. Men of virtuous character, despairing 
of reformation, left their portfolios and withdrew from 
the world, becoming recluses amongst the mountains, or 
far from the busy haunts of men, tilling a hard living 
from an earth kinder and sweeter than the hearts of 
princes. Some of these, embittered by their sorrows, 
even poured scorn on Confucius, for his futile attempts 
to stay the " disorder which like a swelling flood " rolled 
in resistless torrent through the land. 

It must be remembered that the China of that period 
did not cover anything like half the territory included in 
the China of to-day. On the north it was bounded by 
a line running through the northern half of Chihli, Shansi 
and Shensi ; on the cast by the Yellow Sea ; on the south 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 23 

it barely crossed the banks of the Yangtse, and on the 
west it probably nowhere touched the borders of Kansuh. 
The capital was at Lo % near to the modern Honan Fu. 
This territory which had formerly consisted of 1 24 States 
of varying size, had now by the absorption of the weaker 
been reduced to a nominal 72, of which the five most 
powerful were Ch i ^ Ch u ^ Chin g > Ch in ^ 
and Yen $16 ^ and the seven next in importance, Lu @^ 
Cheng ft}, Sung 5fc, Wei $J, Ch en gjC, Ts ai ^ and 
Ts ao igf\ The remainder of our present China, as 
already shewn, was thinly peopled with tribes of aborigines, 
who in later ages were gradually driven across the present 
borders, or survive in the mountains of the south and 
west to our own day. 

Such then was the China into which our Sage was 
born. His ancestry is by some traced back to the great 
Huang Ti in the 2/th century B.C., and at least there 
seems reason to believe that he was a descendant of the 
Duke of Sung ^fc^ a brother of and successor to Ch i, 
the Viscount of Wei, referred to in An xviii I, who was 
half brother to the tyrant Chou jj?j\ One of his ancestors, 
Cheng K ao Fu j ^ ]}j\ was a man of learning and 
research, whose son K ung Chia Q J an officer of talent 
and honour, was murdered by a powerful minister, 
who coveted and carried off his beautiful wife, only to 
obtain her as a corpse, for during her abduction she 
strangled herself. 

In consequence of the undying hatred which resulted 
fiom this outrage, the K ung family three generations 
later were led to remove themselves from Sung to Lu 



24 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

^> and here K ung Cilia s great grandson Fang Shu 
\>Jj ^ obtained the governorship of the town of fjj from 
which he derived his name, and where the grandfather 
of Confucius, Po Hsia fg J was born. Po Hsia s son, 
our Sage s father, Shu Liang I lo ^ 6 %^ was noted for 
his strength and courage. Once when attacking a city 
the enemy, by a ruse, enticed his men within the open 
gate, and were already lowering the portcullis to entrap 
them just as Shu Liang Ho reached it. Such was his 
prowess that, laying hold of the portcullis with both 
hands, he succeeded in supporting it till the last of his 
men had escaped. 

This brave officer had passed the age of three score 
years and ten ere his illustrious son saw the light. 
Already nine daughters had been born to him by his 
first wife, . also by a concubine a cripple son, Meng P i, 
(St. $L a h as ffl JS) ^ ^ ut novv > though advanced in 
years, he again found a wife, so youthful a maiden that the 
ancient historian Ssu-ma Ch ien, B. C. 163-85, speaks of 
the marriage as p & an irregular union, which by some 
Chinese scholars has been unnecessarily interpreted as an 
indication that Confucius was a natural child, but which 
is generally believed to refer to the disparity in age 
between husband and wife. It would be gratifying to 
have no legendary phenomena to record connected with 
the Sage s birth, but as they exist, and throw light on 
the exaggerated value at which later ages have assessed 
him, it seems necessary to briefly introduce them here. 

A spirit is said to have appeared to his mother f$j; $: 
saying to her : " You shall have a son, a sage, and yuu 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 25 

must bring him forth in a hollow mulberry tree." During 
her pregnancy five old men, the spirits of the five planets, 
led before her an animal, in appearance like a small cow, 
covered with dragon-like scales, and with only one horn, 
to which the mother attached a piece of embroidered 
ribbon. This was the supernatural lin jj%^ which only 
appears on the advent of a Sage. A creature, similar 
or the same, with a piece of ribbon on its horn, is said 
to have been caught two years before the Sage s death, 
and on his going to see it he burst into tears, recognising 
it as the //;/ that had appeared to his mother, and whose 
capture he now imagined to portend his own death. 

On his mother informing the father of her vision, and 
asking if there were such a thing as a hollow mulberry 
in the neighbourhood, he informed her that a cave of 
that name existed not far away, and there she is said to 
have brought forth her son, a spring bubbling forth for 
his bath and dying away immediately afterwards. " The 
child was of an extraordinary appearance ; with a mouth 
like the sea, ox lips, a dragon s back," and the top of 
his head either unusually prominent, or affected with 
some abnormal protuberance from which he derived his 
name of Ch iu JJ^ a character which when* referring to 
the Confucius the Chinese pronounce mou J " a certain 
person," and from which they generally omit the shorter 
down-stroke. 

Such are some of the phenomena associated with the 
birth of this remarkable man. The last item of his 
personal appearance may be considered reasonably 
authentic, for the ancient Chinese seem to have had 



26 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

f.he habit of naming their children from their most out 
standing feature, as for instance Laotzii and his ears, Li 
Krh ^ If and Lao Tan -J Jjfl^ The remainder of these 
legendary fancies we may put aside as unnecessary 
demands upon our credulity, contenting ourselves with 
the knowledge that Confucius was born to a young 
woman by an old father, that he grew up of more than 
average height, was of unusually dark complexion, in 
some places his images are black, and was of features 
far from prepossessing, indeed the absence of his image 
from Confucian temples has been accounted for on the 
somewhat unlikely score of his ugliness. Whatever may 
have been his personal appeal ance one thing is certain, 
that he grew up with a mental and moral energy surpass 
ing the generality of men in his day and generation. 

During childhood he gave indications of his future 
tastes in a love for playing at sacrifices, and while yet 
a young man he became a centre of influence as a 
Teacher. At nineteen he married, and a year afterwards 
obtained a subsidiary appointment in charge of a ducal 
granary, and later of the ducal lands. While filling 
these offices he found time to improve his own education 
and to aid others in a like advancement. Gradually his 
fame spread and his disciples increased in number. They 
were of varied ages, some boys, others grown men. 
Hence, though he may have called them all, both young 
and old, his /J> ^f- little children, the term must always 
be understood in its widest sense, the sons of his intellect. 

His later career, hampered by conscience, was scarcely 
even moderately successful, death being necessary to 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 2? 

appreciation. Though he lived to a ripe old age, travelled 
in many States, maintained his course in all honour, and 
won the reverence and love of his disciples, the princes 
of his day saw in him little but a pedantic philosopher 
with Arcadian notions impossible of realisation. Only 
after his decease did any of them recognise that the 
mountain had indeed fallen, a mountain that the princes of 
the land from that day to this have been, with more or less 
failure, endeavouring with much acclamation to rebuild. 

The habits of the Sage may be learned from the tenth 
chapter of this book, where he is described by his 
disciples in all formality, his and theirs. From it we 
learn much about him. He was careful about his dress 
both for day and night wear, and particular about its 
quality, style, and congruity of colour and season. He 
was most scrupulous about his food, both as to quality, 
mode of preparation and service : he would eat nothing 
in the least tainted or badly cut. In wine he allowed 
himself liberty but not licence. His public bearing was 
punctilious to a degree, and in private he permitted 
himself no undue freedom, not even in bed. He was 
gracious and kindly, but never fully relaxed himself even 
to his son, to whom it is incredible to imagine him as 
ever amusing. He was a true sportsman, giving his bird 
its chance and only shooting it on the wing. He was 
also we may judge, able to ride and drive, and not 
merely to sit in a carriage, and it seems evident that he 
was well acquainted with archery. His habits and 
perhaps his character may be summed up in one sentence 
from Cap X. 9 : " If his mat were not straight he would 



28 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

not sit on it." He was a punctilious gentleman of the 
old school, to whom our modern laxity, not to say 
flippancy of manner, would have amounted to immorality. 

As to his mental and moral attitude we find him, as 
may be surmised from his habits just referred to, first 
and foremost a formalist. This word indeed sublimates 
his character. His power of self-control was admirable, 
and duty was ever his lodestone. Of religious instincts 
from his childhood religious he remained throughout his 
days. With too evenly balanced a mind to sympathise 
with the fantasies of the superstitious, he maintained a 
mental attitude towards the unseen world which was 
respectful but never familiar, reverent but never fervent. 
Knowing God only as a Majesty and never as a Father, 
the spring of his affections could not bubble joyously 
forth, indeed such joy would have seemed to him frivolity, 
and while he was not without true affection, as witness 
his poignant distress on more than one occasion, yet 
expression of affection he deemed it the pait of a philo 
sopher to rigorously repress. 

To a rigid and estimable code of honour he united 
an urbanity and courtesy, which made a profound im 
pression upon his followers, and which failed not to 
influence men in more exalted station; I. 10; but his 
honour ever prevented his courtesy from degenerating 
into sycophancy, for the sake of advancing his public 
principles, much less his private welfare. His moral life 
remained untainted in the midst of a corrupt generation, 
in which vice flaunted itself in the open, and virtue shrank 
away abashed and in despair. 



II. 1HE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 2Q 

That there are occasional adumbrations of that honour 
which is associated with Christian ideals is only to be 
expected, but he dwelt in an earlier and darker age and 
deserves the greater consideration. Perhaps his most 
serious offence against higher morals was the breaking 
of an oath taken under compulsion. When travelling 
towards Wei, caught by an officer in rebellion against 
that State, he took a solemn oath not to proceed further, 
but regaining his freedom he did not hesitate to pursue 
his journey to Wei. Being asked by a disciple whether 
it was right to break such an oath he replied," It was 
a forced oath. The spirits do not hear such." 

There are two other recorded instances, one of ap 
proval for a brave man, who covered his gallantry in 
bringing up the rear in a sauve qni pent by saying his 
horse refused to move ; and another when he declined, 
on the score of sickness to see a visitor, probably an 
old scholar who had misbehaved, and yet played his 
harpsichord as the visitor departed to let him know he 
was not really sick. That such laxity on the part of 
China s noblest Exemplar has fostered that disregard for 
truth for which this nation is so notorious, can hardly be 
denied, and we may justifiably condemn and deplore it, but 
there are spots even in the sun, and Confucius, malgre the 
exaggerated notions of the Chinese, was only a man with 
human frailties. 

Nevertheless, the student who through the following 
pages spends a few months in his company, will find that 
he is associating with a man whose general moral inte 
grity, conscientious probity, methodical carefulness, con- 



3O THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

servative decorum and love of culture, will not be without 
refining influence on his own character, and which more 
over will enable him to clothe whatever noble thoughts 
he may have in garb better suited to the climate. 

As to his doctrines though they chiefly relate to the 
relationships between man and man, they are far from 
destitute of an element higher than mere humanity. The 
powers of the unseen world have their acknowledged part 
in controlling the spirit of man in his duty to his fellows. 
God, the Supreme Ruler, is recognised as a Being to be 
revered and worshipped. He it is who has produced the 
order of the Universe, and decreed the various classes of 
mankind. Associated with Him are a multitude of spirits* 
who have their distinctive spheres in the direction of affairs 
celestial and terrestrial, and by these the good are guided 
and protected. The spirits of a man s forefathers are also 
and especially to be worshipped, as if they were present, a 
worship upon which the well-being of society is dependent. 
There is room in such a system for unlimited multiplication 
of gods and spirits, with the natural consequence that the 
national, and therefore in a sense Confucian deities of 
China, altogether apart from the Taoist and Buddhist 
cults, have become legion. 

Sacrifices, propitiatory rather than expiatory, are or 
dained for approaching the object of worship, for with 
empty hands it were unseemly to come. Virile sentiments 
are given utterance to in connection with such offerings, 
see XX. i. et alia, and it is recognised that the spirit in 
which the worshipper presents them is of higher value 
than the gifts themselves. That Jesus Christ the Universal 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 31 

Sacrifice will ultimately abrogate the rivers of animal 
blood annually shed in sacrifice throughout this empire, 
and therewith the idolatry and superstition of China, is 
merely a question of time and faithful service, but may we 
not gratefully admit that the sacrifices retained and handed 
down by Confucius have kept open the way of approach to 
the abode of the Divine until the great Day of Atonement ? 
Sin and its punishment are acknowledged, the punish 
ment being looked for in the present rather than in a 
future existence. Reformation from wrong doing is re 
quired, rather than penitence and appeal for remission. 
Prayer is recognised as a duty, and as acceptable and 
efficacious ; but it is not daily prayer or a sanctifying 
communion with the Divine. It is rather the formal 
petition accompanying a sacrifice, and should be preceded 
by fasting and bathing. No priesthood or mediator is 
required, the worshipper being his own priest and the 
sacrifice his medium of acceptance ; yet, in a sense, the 
Emperor is the high priest for his people, the officer for 
his district, and the father for his household. Moreover 
the regulations for ceremonial sacrifices are many, and on 
great occasions a director, or master of ceremonies, is a 
necessity to order. Only the Emperor may offer the 
State sacrifices to Shang Ti, the Over King, but the ear 
of Heaven is open to the cry of all, even of the repentant 
evil doer. A future life is not denied, though Confucius 
avoided the discussion of it ; he did indeed in a measure 
confirm it by his insistent demand for sacrificial remem 
brance of the ancestor, and his command to worship the 
ancestral spirit as really present. 



32 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

As to liis ethical code it is excellent and practical, but 
by no means heroic. Prosaic and not poetic it commands 
respect rather than admiration, indeed, both in its 
religious and its moral aspect, the whole code of Confucius 
resembles the wintry silver of the moon, rather than the 
golden glow and warmth of the sun. Nothing is left to 
the imagination, nothing stirs it, for to him the romantic 
would have been repugnant, and to turn the other cheek 
pusillanimity. He did not even rise to the height of 
Laotzii in advocating beneficence to enemies, for if he 
returned good for evil what had he left to return for good ? 
On the contrary he proclaimed the sacred duty of the 
vendetta, that a man ought not to live under the same 
heaven with the murderer of his father, ever need to seek 
a sword for the murderer of his brother, or live in the 
same State with the murderer of his friend. 

The word to lie does not occur, but he advocated 
earnestly the value of sincerity. His five cardinal virtues 
were human kindness, rectitude, decorum, wisdom and 
sincerity, fn , jg^ jjjf^ ^> fg> and the Prince was to 
be the Exemplar of these virtues to his people. Indeed, 
in his teaching, the Prince was the viituoso for whom the 
song was written, and to which the people were the chorus, 
for it must always be remembered that Confucius was a 
courtier, hence in his system, the gracious influences of 
Virtue were to stream down from the lofty height of the 
Court to the lower level of the people. Morality and 
religious ceremonies were his panacea for all the many 
ills of his age. Alas ! that the Princes should have 
despised the panacea. 



IF. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 33 

The highest point in his moral teaching was the golden 
rule negatively stated : " What you do not want yourself 
do not extend to others." Asked to sum up his code in 
one word he chose the term $ 1 ,^ shu, which Dr. Legge 
translates Reciprocity, but which seems to mean more 
than this, for reciprocity means, Do as you are done by, 
whereas jgjj^ suggests the idea of following one s better 
nature, that is, Be generous, a nobler sentiment, though 
lacking the life-blood of the crowning word of Christianity. 
Mark XII. 30, 31. 

Duty to parents, continued after death to a degree that 
is an unjust tax on the life of the living, a tax impossible 
of redemption save to the very few, takes the leading place 
in the ethics of the Sage. Respect for elders follows in 
its train. Adultery is described somewhere as the chief 
of sins. Loyalty both to prince and friend is inculcated, 
as also conscientiousness in all one s doings. Respect and 
reverence have already been referred to. Rectitude and 
self-control, courtesy and moderation find also a notable 
place. Neither riches nor culture compare with moral 
character, which takes precedence in value of all mundane 
honours, and what constitutes the excellence of a neigh 
bourhood is not its wealth but its Virtue. Virtue and 
Religion jjjfl^ are a greater renovating power than punish 
ments. Character will out ; it cannot be concealed. 
Prejudice is to be avoided, and an unbiassed judgment to be 
cultivated. Only the truly virtuous can be trusted to love 
and to hate. The ready of tongue are unreliable. 
In conclusion neither pleasure, nor honours, nor wealth 
are the summum bonum, but Virtue, for it is the founda- 



34 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

tion of true happiness, and this Virtue is to be attained 
through the energy of the individual will. 

But the aim of Confucius was not so much the renova 
tion of the individual as the renovation of the State, his 
mind and object was ethico-political, his desire the renais 
sance of the golden age of antiquity through a return to 
the virtue of those Arcadian days. Hence, as already 
remarked, the Prince as Father of his people, must take 
the lead, and as the rivers that make fruitful the land take 
their rise on the mountain tops, so moral renovation must 
begin at the summit of the State. Alas! the mountain 
fops were waterless, and what our Sage was able to pour 
upon them rapidly distilled in so rare a moral atmosphere, 
for if the rich shall hardly enter into the realm of moral 
nobility, how much less shall Princes, degenerating genera 
tion by generation through the allurements of luxury and 
lust, be able to filter the vitalising waters of moral chastity 
to the shrivelled souls of their people? On these arid 
heights Confucius failed, for even in his own State, when 
the indications were most hopeful of success, the eighty 
singing girls of Wei gj^ proved more potent than the 
virtue of the Sage, and in the end it was in the hearts of 
his poorer disciples that his doctrines found their early and 
more hardy growth, rather than in the Courts of the great. 
Though failure dogged his wandering footsteps while 
with men, his philosophy was not allowed to die, and 
notwithstanding that it has never satisfied the people at 
large, as witness the success of Taoism and Buddhism, it 
appeals to the conservative and educated element, *and 
has become both the base and summit of Chinese religion 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 35 

and morals. A man who has lived so long in the affec 
tions and esteem of a huge nation cannot but be classed 
amongst the mightiest forces of the past, but his inferiority 
to Moses, who lived a thousand years before him, either 
as legislator, administrator, moral philosopher, or religious 
Seer, is manifest to those who are willing to study the 
Pentateuch, and his own writings as well as those of his 
disciples lack that throbbing pulse of divinity which has 
made the history, poetry and soul-inspiring prophesy of the 
Old Testament live with perennial vitality. Confucius 
nobly did his best, despite a limited vision and an inelastic 
nature, to benefit humanity with what inferior material in 
history, poetry and ritual he had to his hand, and the 
archaeological student may well be profoundly grateful to 
him, for rescuing so much matter of varied interest and 
value from the rapacious maw of destructive Time, and 
the more barbarous hands of ignorant men. 

Proceeding next from the general to the particular, the 
following is a more detailed sketch of the Sage s life, the 
salient features of which are to be found in Chutzu s 
Introduction to his Commentary, and in Legge s more 
exhaustive Introduction to his version of the Analects. 

The philosopher K ung -JL^ whose name was Ch iu 
f, and whose cognomen was Chung Ni ffi /g > was by 
family origin of the State of Sung ^* His father was 
Shu Liang Ho $( j& $> and his mother, of the Yen 
jfK family, gave birth to him in the city of Tsou |Ug ^ in 

* -JL means Hole; j> a mound; ft > the middle of three, i.e. 
secundus; /jj ^ is said to be the name of a mountain the j j hill 
to which his mother prayed for his birth. 



36 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

the district of Ch/ang P ing f\ ^^ and State of Lu $} N 
on the 21 st day of the nth month in the 22nd year of 
Duke Hsiang Jg^ which was the 2ist year of the 
Emperor Ling Jg^ or in other words in B. C. 551.* 

As a child, in his games, he amused himself by arrang 
ing sacrificial vessels and performing the ritual accom 
panying the sacrifices. His father died when he was 
three years old, and according to Dr. Giles his mother 
married again, a statement I have not been able to verify. 
At fifteen he devoted himself to study, II. 4, but being in 
humble circumstances he was evidently for the most part 
his own teacher, IX. 6. At nineteen he married, the lady 
being from the Sung State, of the family Ping Kuan 
ff H\ His son, born the year following, was named 
Li $}f!^ the Carp, as is supposed in consequence of a 
present of that fish by the Duke of Lu. Li s cognomen 
became Po Yii fg $j , or Fish Primus. The present 
from the Duke also indicates that Confucius had already 
received his first official appointment, which was in the 
ducal granary, and soon afterwards he was put in charge 
of the ducal pasture lands. In his 22nd year his know 
ledge of antiquity attracted to his side a number of 
disciples, and he entered upon his career as the founder of 
a school destined to perennial fame. 

About this time, in B. C. 529, his mother died, and he 
removed his father s body from its place of temporary 

* This is the date in general acceptation, but T.egge adopts that of the 
Ch un Ch iu commentary, the 2ist of Ilsiang, which however he also 
makes B.C. 551. His system of computing dates varies from the usual 
method by a year, through his commencing our era with a O thus: 
H. C. I ; A. D. ; A. D. I. See his Shoo King Intro, p. 167. 



IL THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 37 

interment, burying it with his mother s. The mound raised 
by him over their tomb, four feet high, being about 
finished, he left the final details to his disciples and set off 
homewards. In the meantime a violent storm came on, 
and his disciples on arriving had to explain that their 
delay was due to the rain having broken down the mound. 
Thrice they repeated their answer to his incredulous ears, 
when he suddenly burst into tears, crying that "they did 
not build such mounds in olden times." As his reason 
for building the mound he remarked that he was " a man 
of the north, the south, the east, and the west," one who 
knew not whither Destiny might lead him ; for already 
he seems to have had premonitions that his life would be 
spent far from the resting place of his parents, which 
without its tumulus might be lost beyond recovery. 

During the three years of mourning he no doubt 
remained in Lu, probably, as the custom was, out of 
official employment, but pursuing his teaching and his 
" researches into the history, literature and institutions of 
the empire." It is said that he learnt music from the 
noted musician Hsiang pjjj J| in B. C. 523, and he tells 
us that somewhat later, in his thirtieth year, his convictions 
and objective in life had become defined. II. 4. In B. C. 
518, a powerful minister of Lu, Meng I ^ fjg^ conscious 
of his own deficient religious (i. e. ritual jjj) knowledge, 
gave orders on his deathbed that his son Ho Chi fij g 
was to be sent to Confucius, of whom he had acquaintance. 
The advent of this youth with another young noble, 
Nan-kung Ching-shu $f ^ $ ^ related to him, gave 
immediate prestige to the school of Confucius. 



3 y THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

It was probably in this year that his famous visit to 
Laotzti, the unwitting founder of Taoism, occurred. 
Acquainting Ching-shu with his earnest desire to visit the 
Imperial Capital to see the Imperial Temple services, and 
to make enquiries of Laotzu and other authorities con 
cerning the ancient ritual and music, Ching-shu named the 
aiatter to the Duke, Chao Rg^ who put a carriage and 
horses at his disposal for the journey. The capital was at 
Lo fft now Honanfu in Honan, and Laotzu was at that 
time Keeper of the Imperial Archives there. He was 
apparently recognised as an authority on questions affect 
ing ritual, and one may surmise that he was already well- 
known as a moral philosopher. The following is Dr. 
Legge s account of the interview : 

" They met and freely interchanged their views, but no 
reliable account of their conversations has been preserved. 
In the 5th Book of the Le Ke, which is headed, " The 
philosopher Tsang asked," Confucius refers four times to 
the views of Laou-tsze on certain points of funeral 
ceremonies, and in the Family Sayings, Book XXIV., he 
tells Ke K ang what he had heard from him about The 
Five Tes, but we may hope their conversation turned 
also on more important subjects. Sze ma Ts een, favour 
able to Laou-tsze, makes him lecture his visitor in the 
following style : Those whom you talk about are dead, 
and their bones are mouldered to dust ; only their words 
remain. When the superior man gets his time, he mounts 
aloft ; but when the time is against him, he moves as if his 
feet were entangled. I have heard that a good merchant, 
though he has rich treasures deeply stored, appears as if 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 3Q 

he were poor, and that the superior man whose virtue is 
complete, is yet to outward seeming stupid. Put away 
your proud air and many desires, your insinuating habit 
and wild will. These are of no advantage to you. This 
is all which I have to tell you. On the other hand, 
Confucius is made to say to his disciples, I know how 
birds can fly, how fishes can swim, and how animals can 
run. But the runner may be snared, the swimmer may 
be hooked, and the flyer may be shot by the arrow. But 
there is the dragon. I cannot tell how he mounts on the 
wind through the clouds, and rises to heaven. To-day I 
have seen Laoutsze, and can only compare him to the 
dragon ! " 

Confucius was profoundly impressed with his visit to 
the Capital, especially with his visits to the Temples and 
grounds of Heaven and Earth, and the Imperial Ancestral 
Temple. In the last he saw a " metal statue of a man 
with three clasps on his mouth, and his back covered with 
an enjoyable homily on the duty of keeping a watch upon 
the lips." Nor was his interest any less in the Audience 
Hall of the Barons, called the Hall of Light, where the 
walls were adorned with representations of the various 
sovereigns of the dynasty, including that of the faithful 
Duke Wen of Chou, with the young Emperor Ch eng, 
son of his great brother Wu, seated on his knee. " Here 
you see how Chou became so great," said Confucius to 
his followers. " As we use a glass to examine the forms 
of things, so must we study antiquity in order to under 
stand the present." He pressed his enquiries in regard to 
music with the Court musician Ch ang Huang, who is said 



40 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

to have observed in him many marks of the sage, river 
eyes, dragon forehead, long arms, tortoise back, ex 
ceptional stature, manner, memory and information. 

On his return to Lu his following greatly increased, 
with which conservative statement Chutzu contents him 
self, but other recorders possessed of a more vivid 
imagination have fixed the number at three thousand. 
That he may have, had so many from first to last is 
possible, especially as many would count themselves his 
disciples who never had permanent residence with him, or 
attended regularly in his school, but who came for special 
information. 

The year after our Philosopher s return to Lu, 13. C. 
517 and in his 35th year, Duke Chao of Lu in the 25th 
year of his rule, asserted himself against the three powerful 
chieftains Chi ^ % Shu $, and Meng 5^ who had 
kept him in tutelage throughout his reign, had usurped 
his prerogatives, taxed his revenues and maintained him as 
a mere figurehead. Failure attended his effort to throw 
off the intolerable yoke, and worsted in his resistance he 
fled to the State of Ch i ffi^ which adjoined Lu on the 
north. Seven years later lie died a fugitive in the State 
of Chin ff Ch i s western neighbour. 

Lu being in a condition of rebellion Confucius also 
withdrew to Ch i, then ruled over by Duke Ching jp; 
XVI. 12; XII. n ; XVIII. 3 Here he heard for the 
first time the ancient music of the Emperor Shun, which 
so affected him that he lost interest even in his food. 
VII. 13 ; III. 25. The Duke offered him the control of 
a township, but he elected to decline the offer. Later the 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 4! 

Duke, pleased with his reply to a question, that "the 
art of government lay in an economic use of the 
revenues," again proposed to offer him the district of 
I Ni J^Jt jg but was dissuaded, according to the Family 
Sayings % f^\ by his chief minister Yen Yung 
Jc "B> wno looked upon Confucius as a visionary and 
impracticable. 

Confucius apparently remained eight years in Ch i, but 
after the death of Duke Chao returned to his native State. 
B. C. 509. In the meantime the heir to the dukedom had 
been deprived of his birthright, and another representative 
of the ducal house, named Ting ^g made Duke. It was 
in the first year of this prince that Confucius then in his 
43rd year returned to Lu. At that time Lu was indeed 
in low water, for the nominal ruler was a mere puppet, 
and the very chieftains who had expelled his predecessors 
were themselves in the hands of their own underlings. 
Two of the more powerful of these subordinates were 
Yang Huo [^ g XVII. I, and Kung-shan Fu-jao & ^ 
$5 S XVII. 5, the former of whom once actually im 
prisoned his master Chi Huan *jt ^g^ then the most 
influential of the chieftains, who had to make terms with 
his own servant Yang Huo for his release. 

During this period, in all about fifteen years, Confucius 
was out of office, though often tempted thereto by the 
recalcitrant servants of their equally recalcitrant masters, 
and without doubt he put his time to better use in research, 
in recording, and in teaching. To this period also is 
ascribed the only instance that has been handed down to 
us of his conversing with his son, whom he apparently 



42 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

treated exactly as he did his other disciples, XVI. 13. If 
also it be really true that he divorced his wife, of which 
there is lack of satisfactory evidence, it is here that it 
should be placed. In face of the manner in which Li, her 
son, bewailed her death, such a divorce seems incredible. 
Li Chi II, I. I. 27. 

In B. C. 501, being the ninth year of Duke Ting, and 
the 5 1st of the Sage s own life, after he had refused to 
follow the fortunes of Xung shan Fu-jao, the Duke also 
having expelled Yang Huo, and obtained control of his 
State, Confucius once more accepted office, being appoint 
ed governor of Chung tu r{* $JK In a year he had 
produced a transformation which in the pages of the ^ 
|g approaches the marvellous. His regulations assigned 
" different food for the old and young, and different 
burdens to the strong and the weak. Males and females 
kept apart from each other in the streets. A thing dropt 
on the road was not picked up " etc., etc. The Duke, 
struck with such reformation, asked if his method could 
be applied to the whole State, and was answered that 
it could be applied to the whole Empire. Thereupon 
Confucius was promoted to the Office of Works, in 
which he distinguished himself by his survey of the 
State and his advancement of agriculture. His next 
office was that of Chief Justice, whereupon all crime 
ceased to exist. 

During his tenure of this high office, the head of the 
Chi clan having carried his enmity against the late Duke 
Chao to the Duke s grave by burying him apart from his 
predecessors, Confucius dug a trench round the entire 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 43 

cemetery, frankly telling the great Chi that he did so to 
hide his, Chi s disloyalty. About the same time also he 
showed his courage and sagacity by saving his Duke 
from capture at the hands of the Duke of Ch i ^^ A 
meeting had been arranged between the two princes, at 
a place known as Chia Ku ffi %}^ for the purpose of 
entering into an alliance, but the adviser of the Duke 
of Ch i suggested the possibility of abducting Duke Ting, 
and but for the alertness of Confucius this would have 
been carried into effect. In the end not only was the 
alliance entered into, but Confucius recovered territory 
which Ch i had unjustifiably annexed. 

When Chief Justice he was in the habit of consulting 
those present at a trial as to their opinion of the case, and 
deciding according to the best opinion offered, a sugges 
tion, as Dr. Legge points out, of our jury system. Once 
when a father brought his refractory son for a punishment 
involving the death penalty, he put both in prison and 
subsequently released both. On being remonstrated with 
by his prince he j-eplied, " When superiors fail in their 
duty, and yet propose to have their inferiors put to death, 
this is not right. This father has not taught his son to be 
filial." 

About the same time his disciples Tzu Lu -jf- jj$ and 
Tzu Yu 3f- Jjjf entered the service of the Chief of the 
Chi g| clan, and assisted Confucius in bringing about 
the dismantling of the cities of Pi J^ and Hou JQ^ the 
former the stronghold of the Chi, the latter of the Shu 
clan, but he failed to reduce Ch eng $ ^ the stronghold 
of tfo? Meng clan. The dismantling of these strongholds 



44 



THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 



was necessary to the firm establishment of the ducal 
power. " He strengthened the ducal House and weakened 
the private Families. He exalted the sovereign and 
depressed the ministers. A transforming government 
went abroad. Dishonesty and dissoluteness were ashamed 
and hid their heads. Loyalty and good faith became the 
characteristics of the men, and chastity and docility that 
of the women. Strangers came in crowds from other 
States,"* whereupon "Confucius became the idol of the 
people, and flew in songs through their mouths." 

In his fifty-sixth year, B. C. 496 he is said to have been 
Pi hue Minister of his State, and everything gave promise 
of a brilliant and successful future, but disillusionment 
was at hand. His wonderful achievements filled the rival 
prince of Ch i $f with envy, not unmixed with fear that 
IAI would soon become a dangerous neighbour. Hence, 
having failed to abduct Duke Ting, a strategem was 
invented for debasing his mind and alluring him from 
the further development of his State. As already stated 
eighty attractive singing girls, and a hundred and twenty 
thoroughbred horses, were sent as a present from the 
Duke of Ch i to Ting, and with their arrival the influence 
of Confucius instantly waned. At first they were lodged 
outside the city, while their acceptance or rejection was 
considered, but the head of the Chi clan, having had a 
private view, easily persuaded Duke Ting to accept them, 
to his ruin. The great sacrifice soon afterwards failed to 
impress the Duke, who curtailed its rites and neglected 

* Legge s Intro, p. 75, from ^ pp > 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 45 

to send the usual sacrificial flesh to his ministers. Feeling 
that he was no longer able to influence his prince for 
good, Confucius with resisting footsteps (Menc. V. II. i. 4.) 
tardily withdrew from a Court that had sold its integrity 
for a mess of pottage. 

With many a backward look, and many a longing for 
recall, he slowly departed to thirteen years of weary 
exile. A later writer makes him put his melancholy 
into verse, of which the following is Dr. Legge s trans 
lation : 

" Through the valley howls the blast, 

Drizzling rain falls thick and fast. 

Homeward goes the youthful bride, 

O er the wilds, crowds by her side. 

How is it, O azure Heaven, 

From my home I thus am driven, 

Through the land my way to trace, 

With no certain dwelling-place? 

Dark, dark the minds of men ! 

Worth in vain comes to their ken. 

Hastens on my term of years ; 

Old age desolate appears."* 

It may have been on this occasion that the incident 
recorded in III. 24 occurred, when the Warden of the 
Pass sought to cheer the disciples by assuring them that 
Heaven was going to use their Master as a bell to arouse 
the age. Legge in his Introduction says this was so, but 

* Legge s Intro, p. 77, from j ^ A. D. 1761, in his & ^ Q| 



46 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

in his note to III. 24, he says " Conf. was retiring from 
\Yei, the prince of which could not employ him." The 
commentators are uncertain about the site of I Feng fH 
J^ but generally ascribe it to modern Lanyang hsien 
$t IiJ JK> in K aifeng fu |$ | /ft, Honan. If they 
are correct in their surmise then the incident here icferred 
to cannot have taken place, on this journey. 

Arriving at the capital of Wei, the brother-in-law of his 
disciple Tzii Lu became his host.* Duke Ling fH^ a 
man whose moral character seems to have been even 
more dissipated than that of Duke Ting whom Confucius 
had just left, hearing of the arrival of his illustrious guest, 
assigned him an annual income of sixty thousand measures 
of grain. 

After ten months stay he left for Ch en |$ a State 
which was considerably to the Southward of Wei. His 
road lay through a place called K uang g , where his 
resemblance to Yang Huo (the %% #g or ffi f already 
named), at whose hands the people of K uang had 
formerly suffered, placed him in serious jeopardy. Mis 
disciples were greatly alarmed, but their Master bore 
himself with true philosophic calm. IX. 5 ; XI. 22. 
Escaping from his assailants he returned to safety in Wei. 
In passing he called at a house where he had formerly 
lodged, and there found that his host had lately died. 
The grief of the family aroused his compassion, and he 
ordered Tzu Kung to unyoke one of the horses from his 

* gj $] ffi) according to Chulzu, j|fj fljP lh according to Menciiii 
V. I. 8 i-- 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 47 

carriage, and present it to the bereaved family as his 
contribution towards the funeral expenses. Replying to 
Tzu Kung s remonstrance he said : " When I went in, 
my presence brought a burst of grief from the chief 
mourner, and I dislike the thought of my tears not being 
followed by anything." A very manly sentiment ! I i 
Chi II. Pt I. 2. 1 6. 

On arriving at his destination his host was a certain 
Chu Po Yii, whom Confucius came to hold in high 
esteem. XIV. 26 ; XV. 6. While in Wei, Nan-tzu, the 
beautiful and wanton wife of the Duke, had an interview 
with him, to the scandalisation of his disciple Tzu Lu. 
VI. 26. The Sage was also on one occasion humiliated 
by having to drive out in a carriage behind that of the 
Duke and his notorious wife. " Lust in front, virtue 
behind," derisively remarked the people. Confucius was 
ashamed of his position, and the remark in IX. 17 is 
attributed to this occasion. 

He soon after left Wei for the State of Sung 5f; passing 
through the minor State of Ts ao ^f on the way. Resting 
en route under a large tree, where he took the opportunity 
of giving his disciples a lesson in deportment, he was 
violently attacked, at the instigation of an officer named 
Huan T ui ;f]f J^>, brother of the disciple Ssu-ma Niu, by 
a band of men who had orders to pull down the tree and 
kill him, VII. 22. It seems evident that something like a 
panic resulted and that all his company fled, standing not 
on the order of their going, for he was found later all 
alone at the east gate or pass of the State of Cheng gft by 
Tzu Kung, who was directed to him by a native of the 



48 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

place. The native s description, repeated by Tzu Kung 
to his Master, amused the latter greatly, " a forehead 
like Yao, a neck like Kao Yao, shoulders like those of 
Tzu Ch an, but from the waist downward not equal to Yii 
by three inches, and disconsolate as the dog of a broken 
clown family." Confucius laughed and said: "The ap 
pearance is out, but to say I was like the dog of a broken 
down family, how like ! how like ! " Ssu-ma Ch ien 

& ffi ?L -T 1H- iu 

From Cheng he proceeded to the State of Ch en |5j{ N 
where he abode during three years, his host being the 
Warden of the Wall, a man named Chen {^ Menc. V. I. 
8. 3. On the State of Wu i^ modern Kiangsu, com 
mencing hostilities against Ch en, Confucius once more 
set out, B. C. 492, bending his steps again towards Wei- 
Reaching the frontier he was seized at a place called P u 
vlff by an officer in rebellion against the Duke of Wei. 
and only liberated on his taking O n oath that he would 
not proceed there. This oath, as already mentioned, he 
broke, excusing himself on the ground that it was forced. 
Reaching Wei he was well received by Duke Ling, who 
however failed to make use of his talents. XIII. 10 

About this time an officer of the State of Chin ff named 
Pi Hsi fjlfc }j /r f\ who was holding the town of Chung Mou 
t%* / against his Chief, sent an invitation to Confucius, 
and he seems to have been inclined to accept it, but Tzu 
Lu, the bold, who it must always be remembered was only 
nine years junior to his master, protested against his 
associating with a rebel, and, with apparent reluctance, 
Confucius gave up the idea. XVII. 7. To this period 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 49 

XIV. 42 is also referred. Sometime later, at an interview 
with Duke Ling, the Duke questioned him concerning 
tactics in war. Declining to answer such enquiries, the 
very next day he shook the dust of Wei from his feet, 
and returned to Ch en, XV. i. where he spent the year. 
B. C. 492. 

About this time the way seemed to be opening for our 
voluntary exile to return to end his days in his own native 
State. The self-indulgence of Duke Ting of Lu had not 
made for length of days, and he had now been dead three 
years. Neither did the chieftain, Chi Huan gf /fjf^ who 
had tempted the Duke to his destruction, come to his 
deathbed with a mind conscious of its own rectitude. 
Remorseful of his conduct he charged his successor, Chi 
K ang 3| Jjfc^ to recall Confucius. Had Chi K ang acted 
as desired the Sage would now have returned home, but 
yielding to his advisers, Chi K ang sent instead for one of 
the sage s disciples, by name Jan Ch iu -ft} ^ ^ It is to this 
period that the expression of longing to return in V. 21 is 
attributed. 

The year following, 491, along with a number of his 
disciples, he left Ch en and went into Ts ai ^ > a small 
barony controlled by the dukedom of Ch u *g^ modern 
Hupehand Hunan. The " Family Sayings "(<jfc $g V. 20), 
which book is the most ancient life of Confucius, says that 
certain officers of Given and Ts ai, fearing that Confucius 
would proceed to Ch u, increase its already dominant 
power, and endanger the safety of Ch en and Ts ai, 
succeeded in bringing the Sage and his companions in this 
journey to a condition of starvation. The disciples were 



5<D THE ANALECTS I INTRODUCTION. 

ill and depressed,* educing a querulous remark from Tzii 
Lu, XV. i, but the Master maintained a cheerful courage 
throughout, even playing on his lute and singing. It is 
probably this time of peril he recalls, in the lament of his 
old age that none of his companions of that period were 
now left to him. XI. 2. 

After remaining in Ts ai a year or so, he proceeded to 
another barony overshadowed by Ch u named Sheijj^ 
whose ruler had unlawfully assumed the title of duke. In 
an interview with Tzu Lu the " duke " asked what sort of 
a man his Master was, to which question Tzu Lu either 
found no reply, or disdained an answer. VII. 18. When 
this same duke enquired of Confucius the art of govern 
ment he replied, that it was so to ameliorate the lot of 
one s own people that others would be attracted from afar. 
XIII. 1 6, see also 18. 

The two episodes of the recluses recorded in XVIII, 6, 
7, are said to have occurred while on his return to Ts ai. 
In one of these Confucius gives utterance to the wise 
sentiment, that man is not meant to herd with birds and 
beasts but with mankind, and that it is only in times of 
decadence that a Reformer is needed and finds his work. 

The ruler of the great State of Ch u, whose name was 
Chao Bg^ and who styled himself King, 3E^ interested in 
the presence of so distinguished a Philosopher within his 
domain, sent an invitation to him to visit his Court, which 
was at the modern I Ch eng hsien ^g[ $ j$ in Hsiang 



* Chutzil observes that this must have occurred, between Wei and 
Ch en, and not in (he domain of Ch u. 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 5 I 

Yang f u j| |y| Jfl% Hupeh. On the way an eccentric 
individual met his carriage crying that the virtue of the 
phoenix, meaning Confucius, had departed, and urging 
him to give up his futile idea of reforming the age. XVIII. 
5. King Chao was apparently impressed with the wisdom 
of our Sage and proposed to appoint him to the extensive 
territory of Shu She Hr Mis but his Prime Minister 
reminded the King that formerly Wen and VVu from a 
dominion of a hundred li had risen to the sovereignty of 
the Empire, and suggested that with followers like Tzu 
Kung, Yen Hui and Tzu Lu, a man of such ability 
as Confucius might advance his own interests to the 
detriment of Ch u. The king died before the end of the 
year, and Confucius returned to Wei. 

Duke Ling, who four years previously had gone to 
his grave, had disowned and expelled his son K uai Wai 
M J Sit fr Qrn tne State in consequence of a plot in which 
he was concerned to kill his notorious mother, or step 
mother, Nantzii. K uai Wai s son Ch u ([{ alias $f(), 
had been appointed successor by his grandfather and 
was now holding out against his own father, who was 
seeking to regain his inheritance, in which attempt he 
was ultimately successful. On the arrival of Confucius 
Tzu Lu, who apparently had preceded him, met his 
Master .with the remark that Duke Ch u was waiting to em 
ploy him. Confucius, however, felt that he could no more 
support the son against his father, than he could approve 
the action of the father against his mother Nantzu, and 
in consequence declined the honor. Chutzii assigns XIII. 
3, 7 to this period, and VIII. 14 also appears to be con- 



5 2 THE ANAI.KCTS: INTRODUCTION. 

nectcd with it. The death of the Sage s wife is placed 
in the year 485, while he was still in Wei, but no reliable 
information has been handed down. 

At last, after his thirteen years of wandering, our exile 
was to be recalled, too late alas! for him to serve his 
State as he might have done earlier. Me was now sixty- 
eight years of age, an old man who had lived too long 
in the shade to feel cheerful under the wintry sunshine 
of a Court that loved him little. Duke Ting had been 
succeeded by Duke Ai J|, who was now in the eleventh 
year of his rule. Chi K ang, the chief noble had now 
had the disciple Jan Ch iu ft. $. in his employ for eight 
years, and Jan Ch iu had recently achieved a notable 
success in a military engagement between Lu and Ch i 
$K Chi K ang, struck with his skill, asked whether 
it were a natural gift, or whether he had studied under 
any one. So eloquent became Jan Ch iu in praise of his 
Master that Chi K ang decided to recall him. "If you 
do so," said the disciple, " see that you do not let mean 
men come between you and him." 

Messengers were sent with appropriate presents to the 
old philosopher, and arriving opportunely they found 
him preparing to leave Wei, through disgust at being 
consulted by one of its ministers, K ung Wen Tzu, V. 14, 
as to " how he should conduct a feud with .another 
officer." Gladly was the invitation accepted, and B. C. 
484 delightedly did he turn his footsteps homewards, but 
as Chutzu puts it, " to the end Lu failed to make use of 
him, nor did he any longer seek to enter office." That 
Chi K ang frequently consulted him is evident from II. 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 53 

20, VI. 6, XL 6, XII. 17, 18, 19, and XIV. 20; and that 
Duke Ai did likewise is witnessed by II. 19 and VI. 2. 

The next four or five years of his life he devoted to 
editing and writing an Introduction to the Book of History 
^ |^ ; to arranging the Book of Rites and Ceremonies, 
$5t "! > the Chinese Leviticus ; to classifying the Odes 
n M ; and to rectifying the Music both in Court and 
Temple. It is probable, too, that he at the same time 
supplied his disciple Tseng Tzii Q L Jr with the material 
for the Classic of Filial Piety, i Jg^ He also applied 
himself diligently to the study of the Yi Ching j| $, 
so diligently indeed that he is said to have three times 
worn out the leather thongs of his copy. Such a hold 
did this cabalistic book obtain over him that he declared, 
if his life could only be prolonged, he would devote 
himself entirely to the study thereof VII. 16. That he 
would have made it any clearer, or of greater utility to 
his fellow men, is hardly worth discussing. 

Soon after his return from Wei, Jan Ch iu, who had 
been the means of his recall, caused him much vexation 
of spirit by assisting Chi K ang to add a further impost 
upon the already burdened people. It was then that 
Confucius bade his disciples beat the drum and openly 
accuse him. XL 1.6. A number of other sayings are 
referable to this period : III. i, 6, 21, and possibly 2, 10, 
1 1, 23 ; X. 1 1 ; XL 2 ; XIV. 26 ; XVI. I. 

In the year after his return to Lu, i.e. in 483, his son 
Li died, leaving a son named Chi \fc^ Chi s son Tzu 
Ssu ^ /fi became a pupil of the philosopher Tseng Tzu, 
and it was from a pupil of Tzu Ssu that Mencius obtained 



54 THE ANALECTS I INTRODUCTION. 

his education. Three of these are responsible, Tseng 
for the Great Learning -J$ <^ Tzu Ssii for the Doctrine 
of the Mean rf Jjfj\ and Mencius for the contents of 
the Classic bearing his name, which three treatises along 
with the Analects form the " Four Books." 

In the year following the death of Li, though there 
is a conflict of evidence as to the date,* the favourite 
disciple of Confucius Yen Hui fg [fij^ is said to have deid, 
and his death, if we m.iy judge from the records, was a 
more grievous loss to the Sage than that of his own son, 
for upon Yen Hui his mantle was to have fallen. Many 
are the references he made to him, and poignant was the 
sorrow he evinced at his death. VI. 5, 9, IX. 19, 20. XI. 
;-io. 

Two years later he was called upon to suffer the loss of 
another disciple, Tzu Lu, who reminds us somewhat of 
Peter the impetuous, as Yen Hui does of John the beloved. 
But a few years younger than his Master he was permitted 
to take liberties with him, as also to have the privilege 
of receiving many a rebuff. Confucius had early predicted 
that TzCi Lu would die a violent death, XI. 12, and 
such was verified in 480 when this courageous man 
chose death rather than forsake in peril his Chief, K ung 
K uei ?L 11, the Minister of Duke Ch u ffi of Wei. 

In the previous year, 481, an unknown animal with only 
one horn was caught by " hunters in the west," who in 

* Legge in his note to XI. 7. says: Ilwuy according to the Family 
Sayings and the Historical Records must have died several years before 
Confucius Son Le. Either the dates in them arc false, orthisch:i" 
spurious. 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 55 

catching it broke its left foreleg. The animal was brought 
to Chi K ang, who unable to classify it, and deeming it of 
bad omen had it thrown outside the city, but sent word to 
Confucius to see if he could recognise it. Confucius as 
previously noted, immediately perceived that the strange 
animal was a Lin (jj$^ indeed as some would have us 
believe the self-same Lin that had appeared to his mother, 
and with the identical piece of embroidered ribbon still 
adhering to its horn that she had attached there over 
seventy years before ! Turning over his sleeve to wipe 
away the tears that fell copiously on to his coat, he cried 
" For what have you come ? For what have you come ? " 
When asked by Tzu Kung later why he wept he replied, 
" The Lin should only appear at the advent of an illustrious 
sovereign. I was distressed to see it at the wrong time 
and so injured/ ^ fg 16. 

It is with a reference to this event that he brings to a 
conclusion his work on the Spring and Autumn Annals, 
his last words there being, " In the four and tenth year (of 
Duke Ai), in Spring, hunters in the west caught a unicorn." 
Those Annals are ascribed to this year, and at least it is 
evident that he closed them then. Mencius records that 
Confucius based his claim to fame or condemnation on 
these records, and speaks in the highest terms of their 
moral and political influence. Menc. III. Pt II, ix, 8, i r. 

Later in the year Duke Chien ^ of Ch i was murdered 
by one of his ministers, Ch en Heng |S$J [ by name, a 
crime which shocked the monarchical ideas of the Sage. 
After ceremonially bathing himself he formally visited 
Duke Ai, to urge him to sound the tocsin and avenge the 



56 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

deceased ruler. Referred by the Duke to his ministers, 
who it is suggested were in sympathy with Ch en Heng, 
he met with no encouragement, and retired feeling that, 
though he had failed, he had done what duty demanded 
of him. XIV. 22. 

Two years later, in B. C. 4/9, in the fourth month and 
on its eleventh day, when he was seventy-three years of 
age the call came for him to join his fathers. " Early one 
morning, we are told, he got up, and with his hands behind 
his back, dragging his staff, he moved about the door, 
crooning over, 

The reat mountain must crumble ; 

o 

The strong beam must break ; 

And the wise man wither away like a plant 
After a little, he entered the house and sat down opposite 
the door. Tszekung had heard his words, and said to 
himself, If the great mountain crumble, to what shall I 
look up? If the strong beam break, and the wise man 
wither away, on whom shall I lean ? The Master, I fear, 
is going to be ill. With this he hastened into the house. 
Confucius said to him, Ts ze, wfrit makes you so late? 
According to the statutes of Hea, the corpse was dressed 
and coffined at the top of the eastern steps, treating the 
dead as if he were still the host. Under the Yin, the 
ceremony was performed between the two pillars, as if the 
dead were both host and ^uest. The rule of Chow is to 
perform it at the top of the western steps, treating the dead 
as if he were a guest. I am a man of Yin, and last night I 
dreamt that I was sitting with offerings before me between 
the two pillars. No intelligent monarch arises ; there is not 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 57 

one in the empire that will make me his master. My time 
has come to die. So it was. He went to his couch, and 
after seven days expired."* 

Thus passed away China s greatest moral philosopher. 
Living a life of honour in his own age, he transmitted to 
future generations a practical philosophy they could ap 
preciate and in a measure follow. Conservative in mind, 
character and conduct he saw no visions and dreamt no 
dreams. The life that now is was his principal text, im 
mortality he left undiscussed. The great questions of God 
and the soul, that have stirred the noblest thinkers, Greek, 
Jew and Christian evoked no enthusiasm in him ; the 
higher morals which found vague expression in Laotzii, 
and majestic pourtrayal in Jesus Christ were foreign to his 
rigid mind, which lacking the entrancing ravishment of 
the Infinite demanded rules fixed and inelastic. 

In avoiding the marvellous, with which Nature and 
Eternity abounds, he escaped the perils of gross supersti 
tion, and left behind him a mould for this nation to run 
itself into, which involved as a necessary consequence an 
arrested development. Man requires the bounds of the 
Infinite and Eternal for his complete evolution, and had 
Confucius bent his mind to this soul filling principle he 
might have prevented millions of his countrymen of suc 
ceeding generations, whom his narrow mould refused to 
contain, from overflowing into the excessive and debasing 
superstitions of later Taoism and Buddhism. 

To the light he found he was faithful, for the light he 

* Leg^e s Antro. p. 87-8. 



^8 TIU-: ,\N.\T.r.::T.s : INTRODUCTION. 

failed to see he is to be pitied not blamed, but to say that 
his " Viituc matches that of Heaven and Earth " is adula 
tion to which only the purblind could give utterance. For 
his literary gifts to his nation, prosaic though they are, we 
may be grateful. For a life well lived we may hold him 
in high honour. For the impress of man s duty to man 
on the mind of his race we gladly praise him, and that he 
has not taken from them man s inherent belief in things 
eternal may give us " a lively hope " for the future of the 
black haired race. 

Confucius was buried at his birth place in modern 
Shantung, in Yen-chou fu, ^ >)]] /fl\ Ch ii-fou hsien \[\\ 
fji J8JU where his tomb remains to this day. His disciples 
bemoaned his loss, wearing mourning and many of them 
livin^ in huts by his grave side for three years, Tzii Kung 
even guarding it for the long period of six years. Duke Ai, 
grieved by his death, exclaimed, " Heaven has not left to me 
the aged man. There is none now to assist me on the throne. 
Woe is me! Alas! O venerable Ni ! " sentiments 
hardly consistent, as Tzii Kung complained, with the Duke s 
neglect of him during life. Ai however builta temple to his 
memory and ordered sacrifices four times a year. 

From that day to this, save for the period of the great 
opponent of the Confucian School, Ch in Shih Huang, 
Confucius has been honoured and worshipped. The 
Founder of the I Ian dynasty, #. C. 195, offered an ox at 
his tomb, and in modern times the great Fmpjror K ang 
Hsi of the present dynasty knelt thrice and bowed his 
forehead nine times in the dust at his shrine. At first the 
worship was confined to I.u, but in A D. 57 it was extended 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 59 

to the principal colleges of the Empire, where he was wor 
shipped along with his ideal the great Duke Wen of Chou. 
" In A. D. 609 separate temples were assigned to then), and 
in 628 our Sage displaced the older worthy altogether." 

The temples to Confucius usually consist of two long 
cloisters containing the tablets of his disciples, leading to a 
lofty hall at the end devoted to the Sage and his more 
famous followers. Behind this is another hall containing 
the tablets of his ancestors. Offerings of fruit and vege 
tables are supposed to be made at the new, and incense at 
the full moon. Two great sacrifices are presented every 
year, in Spring and Autumn, at which all the literati are 
theoretically expected to be present, In some places the 
ancient musical instruments are brought out and performed 
upon, the wand bearers making postures representing each 
character of the famous hymn to the Sage, of which a 
version is appended below. As almost every phrase of 
this hymn is an abbreviated quotation from some ancient 
writer, often containing allusions of an elusive nature, it has 
been no easy task it to translate it line by line into English 
metre, so for the sake of those who wish to read it in the 
original it is also given in character. 

In the Imperial Confucian Temple the Emperor himself 
kotows six times before the Sage s shrine, whereupon, the 
spirit being now present, the following invocation is read 
by the appointed officer : " On this ... month of this ... 
year, I, A. B., the Emperor, offer a sacrifice to the philoso 
pher K ung, the ancient Teacher, the perfect Sage, and 
say, O Teacher, in virtue equal to Heaven and Earth, 
whose doctrines embrace the past time and the present, 



60 THE ANUF.CTS: INTKOnrCTION. 

thou didst digest and transmit the six Classics, and didst 
hand down lessons for all generations. Now in this second 
month of spring (or autumn), in reverent observance of the 
old statutes, with victims, silks, spirits and fruits, I care 
fully offer sacrifice to thee. With thec are associated the 
philosopher Yen, continuator of thce ; the philosopher 
Tsang, exhibitor of thy fundamental principles ; the phi 
losopher Tszesze, transmitter of thee ; and the philosopher 
Mang, second to thee. Alay st thou enjoy the offerings." 
This as Dr. Legge says, is worship and not mere 
homage. " He was unreasonably neglected when alive. 
He is now unreasonably venerated when dead." Kven as 
this is being typed off for the printer the following decree 
which would have outraged the feelings of the Sage him 
self, has been issued by the Empress Dowager, in response 
to the petition of a reactionary officer : " In view of the 
supreme excellence of the great Sage Confucius, who- .- 
virtues equal Heaven and Earth, and make him worth} oi 
the adoration of a myriad ages, it is the desire of Her 
Imperial Majesty, the Empress Dowager Tzu I Isi etc., 
that the great Sage shall in future be accorded the same 
sacrificial ceremonies of worship as are accorded to Heaven 
and Karth when sacrifice is paid by the Kmpe-ror. Let 
the Vamen concerned take note." It is refreshing to find 
tint this last attack of benighted national vanity ha^ not 
been allowed to pass unchallenged, for a vigorous piotest 
has been offered by a well-known Censor, who declares that 
" to raise Confucius to be the equal of Heaven and Karth 
is rank blasphemy, and is handing over the great Sage to 
contumely, since Confucius in his writings always denied 



II. THE LIFE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 6l 

himself to be anything great, and constantly refused the ado 
ration his disciples were only too desirous of giving him." 4 
In conclusion, Confucius, despite his best endeavours, 
failed to fill the office of a great Religious Leader, for he 
failed to guide his people out of a polytheism doomed to 
end in limitless superstition, up to the One True Infinite 
God, the Creator, the Adorner, the Father. The day is 
already dawning when the soul of this race will demand its 
rightful share in the Nobler Truth which the mind of 
Confucius but dimly apprehended, and which will relegate 
him to the honourable position no Christian will gainsay, 
of chief Classical Master and great Moral Philosopher of 
this potentially noble nation. 

HYMN TO CONFUCIUS. 

1. Welcoming the Spirit. 

Great is K ungtzti, philosopher, 
The primal Seer, the primal Sage ! 
With Heaven and Earth he equal ranks, 
Immortal Guide for every age. iLL _ 

Once hailed by wreathed unicorn, f 
Respond we now with harps and bells ; 
Celestial light he has revealed, 
Above, below, order prevails. 

2. The first Offering. 

We cherish still his virtue b light 
With quivering chime and sonant bell, 



* N. C. Daily News Jan. 21,07. 

I The fabulous creature to whose horn Confucius mother bo md the 
ribbon. 



62 THE ANALKCTS: INTRODUCTION. 

Since birth of man none equals him, 
Who caused perfection to excel. 
The patens of a thous.in 1 years 
We spread for his great sacrifice, 
With purest wine the cups are filled, 
Its fragrance now to him doth rise. 

o 

3, 1 he second Offering. 

Our rites their flawless forms sin!! take. 
We spread our second offering ; 
United sound our drums and bells 
While flagons now sincere we bring. 
In reverence and harmony 
We, raised by his accomplishments, 
Perfect by rites, by music pure, 
With mutual gaze learn excellence. 

A. The last offering. 

Of old and in the former times, 
Among the ancients there arose 
One who fur-capped did sacrifice, 
Thinking of him our bosom glows. 
I leaven only can enlighten men, 
Our Saint Its equal let us tell ; 
The natural order he proclaimed, 
Till now he is the " rousing bell." 

?. The offerings are removed. 

Our pristine Master has declared 

That blessing from such offerings stream. 

In the temples of our four great sens 

Of aught but reverence who would dream ? 

Our rites are o er, our victims go ; 



II. THE IJhE AND TIMES OF CONFUCIUS. 63 

Careful and circumspect they re borne. 
Delight we in the beauteous growth, 
Lo ! the bare plain a plant doth adorn. 
6. Escorting away the Spirit. 

Majestic towers his native Hill, 

Wide roll their floods his native streams,* 

Far fades their vista from the sight, 

Boundless with good their bosom teems. 

Again our sacrifice is o er, 

Its splendour passes from our gaze ; 

Tis he who has transformed our race, 

And nurtures still our Colleges. 



Jftffi tt 1819 S 



mm 

^- B5^j MB 

%m rm 



mm 



ffii 



The -M II hi" in Shantung. The Kivers ^ and ffj which 
.irise from if Tne hill lypifies Confucius, and tlie rivers his doclrine. 



III. The Analects. 

Their History and Authenticity. 

The Confucian Classics arc general ly p spoken of as the 
Four Books and Five Canons. [iy ^ Ji g, The Four 
Books, as already stated, are the Fun Yii |f jjy^ or 
Discourses, commonly called the Analects ; the T,i I Isu eh, 
^ ^ or Great Learning; the Chung Yung, r|i tfj ^ or 
Doctrine of the Mean ; and the Book of Mcncius, -^ -f ^ 
The Five Canons are the Yi Ching jj |{ A or Book of 
Changes; the Shu Ching ft $g^ or Book of History; 
the Ssii Ching ,|jf $$.^ or Book of Poetry, otherwise the 
Odes; the Li Chi jjg jj^ or Record of Rites; and the 
Ch un Ch iu ^ ffl^ or Spring and Autumn Annals, a 
history of the State of Lu. 

Of the Four Books the Analects, in their present form, 
are probably the work of disciples of the Sage s disciples. 
The Gieat Learning, so far as its text is concerned, is 
acci edited to the stylus of Confucius, and its commentary 
to that of his ablest surviving disciple Tseng T/u fj* -"/- 
It forms chapter 42 of the Record of Rites, but is also 
treated as a separate work. The Doctrine of the Mean, 
which we might for short call the Golden Mean, is attri 
buted to Tsu Ssii -f* $, i. e. JL fg^ a grandson of the 
Sage. Like the Great Learning it forms pait of the 
Record of Rites, cap. 43, but is also treated as a separate- 
work. The Book of Mencius is accredited to Mencius 
himself, or at least to one ol his most intimate disciples. 
These then form the Four Buok,s. In the seventh, century 



III. THE ANALECTS. t>5 

A. D; the Four Books and Five Canons were classified as 
Thirteen, viz., Yi JJ,, Ssu Jjf^ Shu flj\ Three Ch un 
Ch ius #$:;, Three Lis, Rig fg, ffl jjgK $ jjgK 
Analects jj& fg^ A lexicon called the Krh Ya $} ?ft* the 
Hsiao Ching, or Canon of Filial Piety ^ $?g % and Mencius 
rt -f- ; the Analects, Great Learning, Mean, Filial Piety 
and Mencius being described as the " Smaller Canon." 

It must always be borne in mind that when the Classics 
were indited, writing was a much more laborious process 
than it is to-day. The period of knotted cords (quipos) had 
long passed away, but still neither pen, ink, nor paper had 
been invented, and all records had to be engraved on 
bamboo tablets with a sharp style, a most tedious 
process, or laboriously painted with a kind of varnish.* 
The difficulty involved in such a. method may easily 
account for the terseness of China s literary style. More 
over these bamboo tablets were cumbersome, and therefore 
difficult to transport, to preserve, or to conceal. Hence 
when Ch in Shih Huang arose, and, yielding to the 
advice of a rascally minister, in B. C. 213 ordered 
that all books be destroyed, save those on medicine, 
divination and husbandry, (thus excepting the Yi Ching,) 
subsequently also burying alive 460 scholars for violating 
his commands, few of the monuments of antiquity were 
preserved intact. Nevertheless, as only three years 
elapsed from the promulgation of that decree to the death 
of its promulgator, and only eleven to the foundation of 

* Since the above went to press the following statement by Prof. E. 
II. Parker has come to hand, "Chinese records were at first written with a 
bamboo style on slips of bamboo prepared with varnish." 



66 THE ANALKCTS I INrRODUCTION. 

the Han dynasty, though the injury done to literature, and 
especially to historical literature was great, a considerable 
amount was still recoverable. 

Whatever monuments we possess of ancient China we 
owe to Confucius and his followers, and though the records 
from which he compiled his books were all destroyed, and 
though what he left behind suffered loss, enough was 
recovered to gratify if not to satisfy the student of antiquity. 
What books we now have were recovered, after a lapse of 
years, in some cases from memory, but more generally 
fiom places where the bamboo tablets had been hidden, 
these having in the meantime suffered more or less injury 
from the circumstances of their concealment. 

Immediately before the dawn of the Christian era, in 
the famous catalogue of Liu ILsin ;gij ffc^ who in obedi 
ence to Imperial orders completed the work of his father 
Liu Hsiang |?lj [jtj and others, in cataloguing all known 
literary monuments, we iind that an immense mass of 
literary matter hid been collected. "There were 294 
collections of the Yih-king, from 13 diffjrent individuals or 
editors 1412 collections of the Shoo-king, from 9 individu 
als ; 416 volumes of the She-king, from 6 different indi 
viduals ; of the books of Rites, 555 collections, from 13 
different individuals ; of the Books on Music, 165 collec 
tions, from 6 different editors ; 948 collections of History, 
under the heading of the Ch un Ts ew, from 23 different 
individuals ; 229 collections of the Lun Yu, including the 
Analects and kindred fragments, from 12 different indi 
viduals ; of the Ileaou-king, embracing also the Urh Ya, 
anel some other portions of the ancient literature, 59 collec- 



III. THE ANALECTS. 6/ 

tions, from II different individuals; and finally of the 
Lesser Learning, being works on the form of the charac 
ters, 45 collections, from 1 1 different individuals. The 
Works of Mencius were included in the second division, 
among the writings of what were deemed orthodox 
scholars, of which there were 836 collections, from 53 
different individuals." Legge s Analects, Intro, p. 4. 

Considering that through his disciple Tseng Tzii and 
his grandson Tzu Ssii we have almost direct connection 
between Confucius and Mencius, we are brought to within 
about half a century of the destruction of the books, and 
seeing their recovery was set about without delay, and that 
the Han dynasty placed such value on them as is made 
evident by this important catalogue, there seems little 
doubt that the remains we possess to-day are reasonably 
authentic and reliable. 

As to the Analects in particular, when the Han dynasty 
first began to recover the ancient books, two copies of the 
Analects competed for acceptance, one from Lu $f ^ the 
iritive State of Confucius, and another from the neighbour 
ing State of Ch i ^ The Lu copy contained twenty 
books, while that of Ch i contained twenty two, and had 
moreover, as noted in Chu s Introduction, more chapters 
and phrases than its rival. 

A third copy, however, was discovered about the year 
1 50. B. C. which is known as the ancient copy &, 
and which confirmed the Lu text already recovered. 
This " ancient copy " was discovered in the wall of the 
house inhabited by the Confucian family, the one in which 
Confucius himself had resided. This house abutted upon 



68 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

the old ducal palace, and the newly appointed King of Lu, 
desiring to enlarge his premises, ordered its demolition. 
In its wall were discovered copies of the Shu, the Ch tm 
Ch iu, the Hsiao Ching, and the Lun Yii. All thes- 
books were indited in the ancient frc.rn of writing known 
a.- the tadpole ^ $|^ script, a form of writing already 
displaced by that of I Ian, the square letters which with 
modifications have continued to the present day. Hence 
this older script, even to the ordinary reader of those 
times, was already undecipherable. 

The King, who was interested in the discovery, immedi 
ately ordered the head of the K ung family, K ung An 
Kuo JL ~j< HSU to decipher them. This he did, and more 
over wrote a treatise thereon, part of which is still extant. 
The version of the Lun Yu then found set finally at rest all 
controversy between the two copies, and became the textus 
receptus. The principal difference between the Lu text 
and that recovered from the Confucian wall was, that the 
closing chapter of the Lu formed two in the wall copy which 
thus had 21 chapters in all. In the first century 15. C. the 
rival copies were again carefully compared by Prince 
Chang of Anch ang ^ / \ ( /;- i]|| 3?, > and again in the 
second century A. D. by Cheng Hsiian Jj|J ~ the famous 
commentator named in Section IV. The difference between 
the hitter s version and the accepted version of Chutzu are 
few and unimportant, and will be found at the end of this 
chapter. 

The question now arises how did the Lun Yu originate, 
who wrote it ? Certainly its author was not Confucius 
himself, as a mere surface glance m.ikv..-; plain ; nor is th :re 



II F. THE ANALECTS. 69 

any indication that it was written in his lifetime, indeed the 
internal evidence easily confutes any such theory. The 
" History of Literature of the Western Han dynasty " says 
that "the Analects were compiled by the disciples of Con 
fucius, coming together after his death, and digesting the 
memorials of his discourses and conversations which they 
had severally preserved." That during the years of 
mourning for their Master they may have been led to note 
down and compare their respective recollections of his 
sayings is reasonable, but even this theory does not account 
for the book in its present form, for surely at such a period 
some last words would have been preserved, or some 
reference made to his death and burial, which events are 
utterly ignored in the Analects. The internal evidence 
indeed seems to inhibit the idea that the book was compiled, 
as we now have it, immediately after the Master s death ; 
for instance, Chapter XIX refers chiefly to the conduct of 
his disciples, in some cases when they themselves were 
professors with schools of their own. Not that such 
evidence need be final, for the earlier scholars of the Sage 
were themselves in the meridian of life when he reached 
old age. 

The chief argument in favour of a delayed authorship is 
that, with one exception XII. 9, where respect for the 
personage addressed prohibits the use, the two disciples 
Tseng Tzu ^ ^ and Yu Tzii /ft -J- are throughout 
recorded with the suffix Tzu, philosopher, a term the dis 
ciples would hardly apply to each other, unless equally 
applied to more than these two. It is chiefly in consequence 
of this that the Analects are generally ascribed not to the 



7O Till-: ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

disciples of the Sage, but to the disciples of Tseng and Yu. 
To the disciples of these men Ch eng Tzii JfQ L f- ^ Chutzu s 
Master, whom Chutzii approvingly quotes, ascribes the 
book, or at least its final compilation. " The Book of the 
Conversations," says he, " was completed by the disciples 
of Yu Tzii and Tseng Tzii, hence these are the only two 
styled philosophers in its pages."* In this statement 
however there is an apparent error, for Jan-tzii is twice so 
styled ; VI. 3 and XIII. 14 ; but not as uttering any maxim. 

Even Ch eng-tzii s wise inference is not entirely satis 
factory, for, without some recorded foundation for their 
work, these disciples of disciples could never have pro 
duced the book with which we are dealing. The theory 
the present writer would propound, a theory he considers 
sufficiently attested by the internal as well as the historical 
evidence, is that the disciples of Tseng Tzii and Yu Tzfi 
merely edited records already existing in the hands of 
their masters, the sayings attributed to those masters being 
their own addition. In other words that there was a 
compilation already in existence, possibly unarranged and 
formless, which they edited and brought into its present 
order. The variety of matter contained in the book, and 
the explicitness of its detail, indicate that the editors of our 
present version had material, and probably written material, 
for their self-imposed task. 

As to the date of such editorship it seems likely that it 
took place after the death of Tseng Tzii, if as the text 

* -3/s ~iIL -> ;|f- r.\)- fcA. /,- :f. *& qp. -> fill J/f ||- 

\i\i\i mi <<_, i f /DC //; 1 J J u J x_. I J /vow* Jv 



III. THE ANALECTS. /I 

suggests, the sickness recorded in VIII. 3 and 4, was fatal, 
but we have no evidence as to the date of his demise. Dr. 
Legge thinks " we shall not be far wrong if we determine 
its date about the end of the fourth, or begining of the 
fifth century before Christ," a date that seems unnecessarily 
late. For if, as Dr. Legge thinks, the book " was compiled 
by the disciples of the disciples of the Sage, "- and, if such 
disciples were indeed the followers of Tseng Tzu and Yu 
Tzu, a conclusion which Dr. Legge somewhat summarily 
declares " does not stand investigation," then such disciples, 
whoever they were, must have been far advanced in years. 
It seems more reasonable to place the compilation of the 
Analects nearer the middle than the beginning of the fifth 
century, B. C. 

Whoever the editors were their attempts at arrangement 
shew little knowledge either of historical or philosophic 
order, for while the first eight or ten chapters seem, in a 
haphazard sort of way, to be classified subjectively, the 
rest are thrown together without any consideration either 
of subject or period. This and the repetition of clauses 
has led some writers to ascribe various books to various 
disciples or their followers, but it seems more accordant 
with reason to believe that the material generally is from 
different hands, and that the actual editors, possessing 
neither historic sense nor philosophic insight, collected 
their material into its present shape to the best of their 
meagre ability. They at any rate regarded all the 
material in their possession as too precious to allow 
of any excision, as witness the numerous repetitions 
that occur. 



72 TIIT-: ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

That many of the sayings were well known in the days 
of Mencius is evidenced by his book, but he never 
refers to the Lun Yii as an existing work. Also that 
many sayings of Confucius were known, but not included 
in the Lun Yii, in ly also be seen from the Doctrine of the 
Mean and from Mencius, from which one may at least 
surmise that the latter books were not in the hands of our 
editors when the Lun Yii was compiled. Cf Mencius II 
Ft I. ii. 1 8 with Analects XI. 2 ; and 19 with Analects VI I. 
2 and 33 ; ivl. II. I. vii. 2 with A. IV. i ; M. II. II. XIII. 
i with A. XI Y. 37 ; M. III. i. ii. 2 with A. II. 5 ; and iv. i i 
with A. VIII. 1 8, 19 ; M. III. II. vii. 3 with A. xvii. i ; 
M. IV. I, xiv. i with A. XI. 16; and XV. 2, with A. II. 
10 ; M. IV. II. xxix. 2 with A. YI. 9 ; M. V. II. vii. 9 
with A. X. 13 ; M. YII. II. xxxvii. i. 2. 8 with A. V. 21, 
XIII. 21 and XVII. 13. Cf also the Great Learning, 
Commentary, cap. IV with A. XII. 13, and X. 15 with 
A. IV. 3. Also the Mean, cap. iii with A. VI. 27 ; and 
cap. xxviii. 5 with A. III. 2.]. 

In conclusion, then, we may say that the Lun Yii con 
tains many valuable sayings of Confucius, as also of his 
disciples, that they were probably left on record by some 
of his immediate disciples, and edited in their present form 
by disciples of Tseng Tzii and Yu T/ii near the middle ol 
the fifth century B. C., that it contains the most authentic 
account of the Sage s character that is in existence, 
and that it throws invaluable light on his own life and 
teaching, on the character of his disciples, and on the 
generation in which lie lived, which he also faithfully 
sought to renovate. 



III. THE ANALECTS. 73 

VARIOUS READINGS NOTED BY CH ENG HSUAN, g|> &^ 

II. i. SI for fc ; 8, || for flf ; 19 Jff for f ; ^3, Omit 

4SL in + ft nj U -til* HI- 7- a ful1 st P after tiL 5 2I 
for |t> IV. 10, RK for g, and J for ^ V. 21, 
full stop after /J> : f > VI. 7, omit fllj g.^ VII. 4, -^ for 
$6 ; 34. omit ^ IX. 9, ^ for f, XI. 25, ^ for , 
and ffij for i, XIII. 3, "f tt for 3: 18, ^ for J? , 
XIV. 31, W for #; 34, omit fi after M, XV. I, *g 
for S^ XVI, I, f for the last ^5, XVII. I, for 
l; 24, ^ for m. XVIII. 4 , <% for |f ; 8, ft for 



74 

IV. Works on the Analects. 



There have been three great schools of commentators 
on the Classics. The first was that of the Han Jj dynasty, 
the second that of the Sung 5^^ and the third that of the 
present Ch ing jg dynasty. The earliest commentator of 
all was K ung An Kuo ^ ] fg > B. C. 140-150, the 
head of the Confucian family when certain of the Classics 
were recovered from the wall of the K ung house. 
Though his work on the Analects was lost, traces of it arc 
found in the works of the commentators who followed 
him. The more noted of An Kuo s successors was Pao 
Hsien. Q & A. D. 25, Ma Yung J.IJ gJU A. D. 130. 
and his contemporary Cheng Hsiian $J|J ^ (- l\ J&}^ 
But the principal work of this, the Han dynasty, in the 
time of the " Three Kingdoms," was that of the five 
scholars and ministers of the Kingdom of Wei $g the 
chief of whom was Ho Yen fnj ^ by whose name the 
publication is generally known. This work, the Lun Yii 
Chi Chieh, f& Jft 4fc ffi, embodied the labours of all 
predecessors, and is in existence and regular use to the 
present day. This then is the highly valuable bequest 
made by the Han school to posterity. 

In the dynasties that followed other commentators arose, 
the result of whose efforts was embodied in the works of 
Huang K an .?. f/jj^ published in the sixth century, under 
the title of Lun Yii Su ,1^ ff,7 Kc\ A\\ preceding works 
however were overshadowed by the scholarship of the 



IV. WORKS ON THE ANALECTS. 75 

Sung dynasty. This appeared first in the Imperial edition, 
published soon after A. D. 1000, edited by Hsing 
P ing ffl> Sr> tnat P art f Jt relating to the Analects being 
known as the Lun Yii Cheng I f& in IE U But very 
soon afterwards the prince of Chinese commentators arose 
in the person of Chu Hsi ^ ; ^ > whose voluminous 
writings and commentaries, composed during the twelfth 
century, are the crown of China s scholarship. His inter 
pretation of the Analects, despite the many attacks that 
have since been made thereon, has been accepted as 
orthodoxy from his day to our own. Mis three works on 
the Analects are the Lun Yii Chi I, f& gg ^ fjj^ the 
Lun Yii Chi Chu, fa f& ^ |, and the Lun Yii Huo 
Wen fa m & W, 

As an instance, however, of the zeal with which the 
various interpretations of Chutzii have been debated the 
following amusing incident is recorded. Li Cho Wu dfr 
j^i -g-^ an erratic scholar of the sixteenth century, who 
afterwards turned Buddhist, is said to have been so annoyed 
with Chu-tzii s views, that he had a wooden image made 
of the great commentator, with hand outstretched palm 
upwards. This he placed in his study and many times a 
day did he relieve his ire, when angered by Chu s inter 
pretations, by beating with a ruler the h md of the un 
conscious image, demanding how he, Chu, had dared to 
put such mistaken ideas before the world ! 

The third school of interpreters belongs to the present 
dynasty, and reached its climax in the works of Mao Ch i 
Ling "Eg tsy i(i\ whose nomine de plume was Hsi Ho ]Jlj 
i^J^ His works, the Hsi Ho Ch iian Chi J|} ^nj ^ ffc\ 



76 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

were published in the seventeenth century in So volumes, 
half of which treat on the Glassies, and haif on other 
subjects. His views on the Classics often traverse those 
of Chutzu, to wh )in he is vigorously antagonistic. 

Thus then we have four great exponents for the three 
principal periods, Ho Yen for the Han, Cheng ! Isiian and 
Chu Hsi for the Sung, and Mao Hsi Ho for the present 
dynasty. 

The following are the titles of the principal Chinese 
commentaries now in use : 

I. -p 2:1 $? fit ifcfc containing the expositions of Ho 
Yen and Client! I Isiian. This is "the cfreat repertory of 

t> ?-> L * 

ancient lore upon the Classics." 

2 - & P M IE> The expositions of Chutzu, published 
in the twelfth century. It is the standard of orthodox 
interpretation. 

3- ^ ffi M ft & & S> The Complete Works of 
Mao Hsi Ho, referred to in the preceding sections. 

4- 13 fl i!i t & ~ilffi> commonly known as the & 
ji Jfj^ This, which was published in 1730 by $% $[^ gives 
Chutzu s Commentary, contains much useful information, 
is in general vogue, and considered superior to the next 
which resembles it. It is the volume most used in the 
present translation. 

5- $T * 13 : ;!J M ,1M i ; fl ^ tiff it. known in brief 
as the ffjjj ff ^ It was published in 17/0 by $$ \%^ and 
is in regular use. 

6. TO VV * T- * 5 M ^> known for short as the 
1 ifi ^> anc ^ n s rcllcra ^ usc iimtMigst students. As the 
title shews it gives the commentary of Chutzu and compares 



IV. WORKS ON THE ANALECTS. 77 

it with the work of other commentators. It was published 
in 1745 by. -$t t?f, 

7- Py ^ Ufe tR $U usually known as the g fi^ Tt 
was published in 1852 by ^ y$( a Cantonese, surveys the 
whole field of previous interpretation, especially that of the 
present dynasty, and like the two last is much thought of 
and widely read. 

8. M fpf $g ft?^ l82 9- A work in M 00 sections, 
containing inter alia most of Mao Hsi Ho s publications on 
the Classics. 

9- E9 * S SE 16 IL 1793, by ^ g |i "The 
research in all matters of Geography, History, Biography, 
Natural History is immense." 

10. \\ [ff$ J?3 If SI J$^ 1677, prepared by members 
of the Hanlin College for daily teaching. 

U. H * ffi 1 SB:. 1795, by flf ^ ?| % contains 
an introduction to each of the Four Books, and a discussion 
of difficult passages. 

12. ra is is n s, 1718, by 45 ffi n, 

13- ra 31 ffi X, reign of Chien Lung, & |t, 

by 5i m m^ 
14. it n * ai a us i *> 1905. An 

illustrated version of the Four Books in Mandarin, for use 
in Primary Schools. An interesting work, follows the 
accepted interpretation. If revised would be useful to the 
Kuropean Student. 

!5- $015 ^ [M! ^7, 1761. An illustrated examination 
of the tenth book of the Analects by ft ^C > containing 
also his life of Confucius. 

1 6. m p s ; m m w m m ; m etc. x 



78 THE ANALKCTS I INTRODUCTION. 

Ift ; M ft etc. = &K 1698 and later, by |>$| #- fl^ 
arc treatises on the topography of the Four Books. 

17- 4L ~f ^ inK The "Family Sayings" of Con 
fucius, or more correctly, the sayings of the School of 
Confucius. 1 he original copy is s.tid to have been ton nil 
in tiie wall of Confucius house, along with other works, 
K C. 150 or thereabouts, a statement manifestly untrue. 

1 8 - 16 I frJ )flu jSj: ES ^\ 1828, gives particulars of all 
the individuals sacrificed to in the Confucian Temple, etc. 

1 9- %. Jftj 1" ^ M!> l868 - TJlc Hymn, music and 
posturings etc. used at the Spring and Autumn sacrifices. 

20 - it Kfio by frj l\!j j^^ Gives an account of Con 
fucius and his disciples in chapters 47, 67, and 121. 

TRANSLATIONS OF THK ANALKCTS. 

Confucius Sinarum Philosophus ; by Intorcctti and others 

1687. 

The Works of Confucius ; Vol I ; by j. M irshman. 1809. 
The 1 our Books, by David Collie, L.M.S. 1828. 
The CIIINKSK CLASSICS,!)}- Dr. Legge, L.M.S. iSoi. 
CURSUS LITTKRATURAIC SIXICAK. by Pere 

Angelo Zottoii. S. J. 1879. 
Les Quatres Livres, in French and Latin, by Pere S. 

Couvreur. S. J. 1895. 
The Discourses and Sayings oi Confucius, by Ku Hung 

Ming, ALA. 1898. 



79 
V. Disciples Mentioned in the Analects. 

Alphabetically arranged. 

1. CH fiN K ANG, style Tzu K ang, or TZLI Ch in. 

PJK /c> *? ? 7^ r ^ $^ A native of Ch ^ n ER^ 

It is recorded that when his brother died, his brother s wife 
and steward proposed to immolate some living persons to 
serve him in the shades. On Tzu K ang suggesting that 
none were better fitted for that office than the wife and 
steward themselves nothing more was heard of the matter. 
He is referred to in I. 10 ; XVI. 13 ; XIX. 25. 

2. CH I-TIAO K AI, style Tzu K ai, Tzu Jo, or Tzu 

Hsiu. * Hi BB, ^ * BK ^ ^> or ^ ^ A native 

of Ts ai ^, or Lu #K V. 5. 

3. CII IN CHANG, or Lao. ^ Jg or ^ style Tzu 
Chang ^ 55 or Tzu K ai =f- gH^ A native of Wei ffi^ 
All else that is known of him is found in IX. 6. 

4 CHUNG YU, style TZU LU. ft tf| , ^ ^f K or 
^ ^^ A native of Pien "fv in Lu ^^ and nine years 
younger than Confucius. He was a man of bold and 
intrepid character, sometimes rebuking, sometimes rebuked 
by his Master, with whom his age permitted greater 
intimacy than the other disciples. Sometime in successful 
command of P u Jjg in Wei $J^ At their first interview 
Confucius asked him of what he was most fond " My 
long sword," he promptly replied. " If," said Confucius, 
you were to add culture to your present ability, would 
you not be a much superior man ? " " Of what advantage 



O THE ANALECTS : INTROIH. CTION. 

would learning be to me?" sceptically asked Tzu Lu. 
" On the southern hill is a bamboo, straight by nature and 
that needs no bending. If you cut it clown and use it, it 
will pierce the hide of a rhinoceros, -what need is there of 
learning?" " Yes," said the Master, "but if you notch 
and feather it, barb and sharpen it, will it not penetrate 
much deeper?" Tzu Lu bowed twice paying reverence 
and submitting himself to the Master s teaching. Confucius 
was wont to say, " From the time that I obtained Yu, ill 
words no longer reached my ears." As foretold by the 
Sage he did not die a natural death. When K uai Wai jjjjij 
JJiJ^ father of Duke Ch u [} asserted himself against his 
son to obtain his ducal rights, Tzu Lu was in the service of 
Chu s minister K ung K uei -j L fil > K uai Wai succeeded 
in entering the city during Tzu Lu s absence. Ch u 
escaped, but K ung Kuei was still within the city, where 
K uai Wai, under pretext of gaining him over., was seeking 
his death. Tzu Lu hastening back to the city met Tzu 
Kao -^ rY; % who informed him of Chu s escape, and 
urged him to follow suit along with himself. Learning 
that his Master was still in danger he remarked, -^ :](: Q 
<$ f* 5*S 31- $$U " U w ^ ea ^ s a riian s food may not 
go back on him in his hour of peril," and forthwith 
advanced to his Master s defence. Successful in obtaining 
an entrance to the city he sought to save him, but was 
attacked and mortally wounded. His cap string having 
been severed by the blow, he calmly re-tied it saying, " A 
man of honour does not doff his helmet to die." ^J -f $ 
IJIJ ;c * &> II. 17; V. 6, 7. ,3,25; VI. 6,26; VII. 10, 
jS, 34 ; IX. i i , 2 : > ; X. 17 ; XI. 2, i i , 12, 14, 17, 21, 23, 



V. DISCIPLES MENTIONED IN THE ANALECTS. 8 1 

24, 2S ; XII. 12 ; XIII. i, 3, 28 ; XIV. 13, 17. 2 3> 38. 4L 

45 ; XV. i, 3 ; XVI. i ; XVII. 5> 7> 8, 23 ; XVIII. 6, 7. 

5. CIIU YtfAN, style Po Yu. Jg J, ^ f , An 
officer in Wei with whom Confucius had lodged, and in 
whom he found a friend and a disciple. XIV. 26. XV. 6. 

6. FAN HSU, i. c. Fan Ch ih, style Tzu Ch ih. g| ^ 
or $| 5U *? "T S> A native of Ch i ^ or Lu, 36 or 

46 years junior to Confucius. " When young he dis 
tinguished himself in a military comrmnd under the Chi 
$ family." II. 5. VI. 20 ; XII. 21, 22 ; XIII. 4, 19. 

7. FU PU CH I, style Tzu Chien. ft (1^ & or &*) 
;p ^ ^ ^p (g^ A native of Lu, and 30, 40, or 49 
years junior to Confucius. Had command of Tan Fu *jjji 
3 A where he succeeded without effort though his prede 
cessor /g ^f- |$] had only succeeded with great labour. 
Asked by the latter his secret he replied, " I employ the 
men ; you employ their strength." V. 2. 

8. JAN CH IU, style Tzu Yu, & %l, ? %\ & 
native of Lu, related to the two next, and of same age as 
Chung Kung (No. 10), i. e. 29 years junior to Confucius. 
Noted for his versatility and varied acquirements, but not 
always approved by his Master. He was the means of his 
Master s recall from exile. III. 6 ; V. 7 ; VI. 3, 6, 10 ; VII. 
14 ; XL 2, 12, 16, 21, 23, 25 ; XIII. 9, 13, 14; XVI. i. 

9. JAN KKNG, style Po Niu, or Pai Niu. -ft UK ^ 
fa ^ or Q f^ Also of Lu. Seven years junior to 
Confucius, and appointed by his influence to Chung tu tf* 
g|$^ formerly held by Conf. himself. VI. 6; XI. 2. 

10. JAN YUNG, style Chung Kung. -ft ^ ^ fa 
P}^ Also of Lu. Twenty nine years junior to Confucius. 



2 THK ANAI.l.CTS I INTKODUC TIOX. 

Ills father was a mm of mean character. Related to the 
two last. V. 4 ; VJ. I, 4 ; XI. 2 ; XII. 2. 

n. JU PKI, {g jg;, A native of Lu, said to have 
studied deportment under the Sa^e ; also to have ^ivui 
such offence to him that he tcfus-jd to receive him, or, 
was it a lesson in jpg ? XVII. 20. 

12. IvAO CILAI, style Tz i Kao. jgf ^ if -f :H^ 
or ^ -j (1JL or |g) ^ a native of Ch i f or Wei $j, 
and thirty (or forty) years junior to Confucius, "dwarfish 
and 1114-1 y, but of ^reat worth and ability." When criminal 
juds^e in \Vei duly compelled him to cut off a man s feet, 
who nevertheless afterwards saved his life when fleeing 
from the State. Confucius praised him as beiii.r able to 
administer justice without inspiring le.y-Mitment. XL 2.}. 

13. KUNG-MSI CM III, style T/ti Hua, ^ jTy i/j; , 
-- f* "^ : > A nitive of I.u y forty two years junior to Con 
fucius, and noted specially for his knowledge of riivs ai:d 

* J ~> 

ceremonies. V. 7 ; VI. 3 ; VII 33 ; XI. 21, 25. 

14. KU\(i YK1I Cli AXG, or Chili, style T/.ii 
Ch ang or Chili. & <& or , - { if ]J , or -f ^ 
A native of Lu or Ch i j^^ and son-in-law to Confucius. 
V. i. 

15. KUNG PO UAO,stylcTzu Chou, & j{\ %{^ -? 
f~ ) ]> Known only for his slandering T/.-i Lu. XIV. 

38. 

16. K LJXG LI, style Po Vu, ^ ijjijj ^ ^ ffj fft ^ Son 
of Confucius. Little is known of him except tint he re 
ceived his name in consequence of the present of a Carp, 
Li, gg to his father by Duke Ch 10 on his birth, and the 
incidents recorded in XI. 7 XVI. I } ; and XVII. 10. 



V. DISCIPLES MENTIONED IN ?HE ANALliCTS. 83 

17. LIN FANG, style Tzu Ch iu. ft /#, * fl>\ 
A native of Lu. All tint is known of him is found in III 
4.6. 

18. MIN SUM, style Tzl Ch ien, H3 ffl> 3 s ^ $J, 
A native of Lu. By one account he is made fifteen, by 
another fifty years younger than the Sage. Noted for 
purity and filial affection. VI. 7 ; XI. 2, 4, 12, 13. 

19. NAN-KUNG KUA, or NAN YUNG, style Tzu 
Vun r - g 45 (jg or gj), ^ ^f , Nan-kung Kua 
and N m Yung are supposed to be the same parson, and if 
so it was he to whom Confucius gave his elder brother s 
daughter in imrri-ige. Once when the palace of Duke Ai 
^ WAS on fire, while others thought only of saving the 
pelf, he bent his energies to saving the library, thus pre 
serving the Chou Li, and other ancient monuments. V. 

i ; XL 5 ; XIV. 6. 

20. PUSlIANG,styleTZUHSIA. |> jgf^ ^ T H> 
The " Family Sayings " says he was a mtive of Wei ^J N 
Forty lour years junior to Confucius. When his son died 
he wept himself blind, but lived to a great age, presenting 
copies of the classics to Prince Wen of Wei in B. C. 406. 
An exact scholar and widely read, but not of wide calibre. 
I. 7; II. 8; III. 8. VI. 1 1 ; XI. 2, 15 ; XII. 5, 22; XIII. 
16; XIX. 1-13. 

21. SHftNCH fcNG, style Chou. $ jg (^\ $^ or 
^K ^ IS] (or $j|K 1-cft no certain trace behind him, it 
even being doubtful whether the names here given are all 
his or not. What can be really known must be gathered 
from V. 10. 

22. SSU-MA KENG, style Tzu Niu, ^\ ig fK t 



84 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

: f- ^K A native of Sung , and brother of Huan T ui, 
\TI. 22, the officer who sent his men to pull down the 
tree by the roadside, where Confucius was giving his dis 
ciples a lesson. XII. 3, t j, 5. 

23. TAN-T AI MILH-MING, or Tzu Yu, ig ^ -^ 
$K - r f ^> Like Tseng Tz a he was a nitive of \Vu 
Ch eng -jj j-j,^ He was so ugly that Confucius was nut 
;.Uracted t> hrn, and is recorded as having said afterwards, 
" In judging by appearances I erred in regard to Tzu 
Yu." Followed by about three hundred disciples he 
travelled in what is m >dern Kiangsu, where his memory 
stiil remiins. This seems to hive hippened dining the 
Sage s lifetime. He was 39 or 49 years younger than the 
Sage. VI. 12. 

24. TSAI YO, style TZU YVO, $- ^ ^ -f ^ A 
native of Lu ; for a time in command of Lin Tzu |5Jj ^ in 
the State of Cli i. There he took p:irt in a rising which 
caused Confucius to be ashimed of him. Confucius re 
marked of him " In judging by mere speech I erred in 
regard t > Ts li Yu." See last cntr\ . V. o ; XVII. 21. 

25. TSKXG S1IKX, i. e.TSKXG TZL , style Tzu Yu. 
It & i-c. It -f > -f ~t ^ or f- liil.^ A native of \Yu 
Ch eng ^ j^ in Lu. Sent by his father in his 1 6th year 
into the State of Ch u j to Confucius, to whom he was 
46 years the junior. 1 le is one of the most famous of the 
Master s disciples. According to Tzu Kung he was of 
wide learning, of prepossessing appearance, of dignified 
bearing before cvui the noblest, of so! id virtue and im 
pressive sp. cch. llis love for his parents was noted from 
childhood. Once when he was on the hills ^, itheiiiv/ fuel 



V. DISCIPLES MENTIONED IN THE ANALECTS. 85 

his mother greatly needed him, and in default of any other 
way of summoning him had recourse to biting her finger. 
So sensitive was he to parental influence that feeling pain, 
he hurried home to sec what was the matter. Such was 
his filhl love that every time he read the mourning rites he 
was moved to tears. lie composed the Classic of Filial 
Piety ^ fj^ probably under the direction of his Master. 
He also edited and commented on the Great Learning, and 
is said to have composed ten books of the Li Chi. I. 4, 
9; IV. 15; VIII. 3, 4, 5, 6, /: XI. 17; XII. 24; XIV. 28. 

26. TSKNG TIKN, style Hsi. ^ jgj (or gj) > *? 
"fj\ father of the last named. XI. 25. 

27. TSO CH IU MING, J PJK has his tablcst 
with those of the disciples in the Confucian temple, but he 
is generally considered to be a predecessor rather than a 
follower of the Sage. V. 24. 

28. TUAN-MU T ZIj, style TZU KUNG $g -fc j!|, 
? ~JF it or -f fl> A native of Wei $ft^ 31 years 
younger than Confucius. Said to have risen from poverty 
to affluence through success in business. An able man, 
possessed of such diplomatic ability that he is credited 
with saving Lu from the more powerful State of Ch i. He 
was devoted to his Master, by whose grave side he re 
mained for three years with the other disciples, and another 
three years after they had returned to their affairs. He 
was in comrmnd of Hsin Yang for a time, and in later life 
in office in Lu, Wei and Ch i. I. 10, 15 ; II. 13 ; III. 17; 
V. 3, 8, ii, 12, 13; VI. 6, 28; VII. 14; IX 6, 12; XI. 2, 
12, 15, 18; XII. 7, 8; XIII. 20, 24; XIV. 18, 31, 37; 
XV. 2, 9, 23 ; XVII. 19, 24; XIX. 2025. 



86 THE ANAT.F.CTS : INTRODUCTION. 

29. TUAN-SUN SHIM, style TZU CHANG, jjjj ft 
fllji, -f -f- rj, A Titivc of Ch en $(, 48 junior to Con 
fucius. Well spoken of by T/u Rung for his humility and 
diligence. II. 18, 23; V. 18; XI. 15, 17, 19; XII. 6, 10, 
14- 20; XIV. 43; XV. 5,41; XVJI. 6; XIX. i, 2, 3, 15, 
16; XX. 2. 

30. TZU-FLJ CHING-PO. -^ jjg # f, an officer of 
Lu, and counted a disciple of the S.ige. Nothing is known 
of him save what is recorded in XIV. 38 and XIX. 23. 

31. WU-M A SHIFT, style TzuCh i. M JJ /^\ ^ - 
^ A n.itive of Ch rn fjjl or Lu, and 30 years junior to 
Confucius. See No. 7 Fu P u Ch i. VII. 30. 

32. VKN IIUI, or YEN YC AN, style T/u Yuan, ffj 
PI ()I " SH SK -i : } SUK He was the favorite disciple of 
Confucius, and son of the next, who himself had been one 
of the Sage s pupils. lie was a native of Lu, 30 years 
junior to his Master, and apparently an unostentatious 
student, whose virtue lay not so much in speech as in putting 
into practise his Master s teaching. At 29 he is said to 
have been white haired through hard >tudy ; at 32 he died, 
and Confucius mourned him as much, or more than his 
own son. II. 9 ; V. 8 ; 25 ; VI. 2, 5, 9 ; VII. 10; IX. 10, 
19, 20; XI. 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, i 8, 22 ; XII. i ; XV. 10. 

33- YKX \YU YAO, style Lu, ffj M ^ ^ j!f^ 
f..ther of the above. XI. 7. 

3 |. VKN YKX, style TZU YU, H IK, - f : f J8JU A 
native of Wu J/l % 45 years younger thin Confucius, and 
distinguished lor his literary acquirements. When in 
command of \Yu GhVng ^ ^ he reformed the people 
by the use of jjif, 1 *g ^ the arts of civilisation, receiving the 



V. DISCIPLES MENTIONED IN THE ANALEDTS 8/ 

commendations of his Master. When asked by the noble, 
Chi K ang ^ Jf^ why the death of Confucius had not 
caused a sensation in Lu like that of Tzu Cli an in 
Cheng |$ V. 15, when everybody laid aside his orna 
ments, and weeping was heard for three months, he said, 
" The influences of Tzu Ch an and my Master might be 
compared to those of an overflow of water and the fatten 
ing rain. Wherever the water in its overflow reaches, 
men take note of it, while the fattening rain falls un 
observed." II. 7 ; IV. 26 ; VI. 12 ; XI. 2 ; XVII. 4 ; XIX. 
12, 14, 15. 

35- YU JO, style TZU YU, or Tzu Jo, alias YU TZLJ, 
W $?> ^ ^ ?3f> A native of Lu, and 43 years junior 
to the Sage. Noted for his good memory and love of 
antiquity. In voice and appearance he so resembled Con 
fucius that after the death of the latter the disciples 
proposed to put him in the Master s place. Known also 
asYuTzu, ft 7, the Philosopher Yu already referred 
to in the Introduction, whose disciples along with those" 
of Tseng Tzu are credited with the compilation of the 
Analects. I. 2, 12, 13. XII. 9. 

35. YIJAN I-ISIEN, style Yuan Ssii, or Tzu Ssu, J 
M or J$ rn, A i -J- i^ A native of Sung, fe or Lu, 
and junior to Confucius by 36 years. Noted for puiity 
and modesty, and for happiness in the observance of his 
Master s principles despite deep poverty. VI. 3 ; XIV, I. 

LIST OF ABOVE AS NAMED IN ANALECTS. 

Ch ai No. (see above) 12. Chang .... 29. 



88 THE 


ANALECTS : 


INTRODUCTION. 




Ch en Kang 


I. 


Shang 


20. 


Ch en Tzu Ch in 


I. 


Shen 


o- 


Ch eng 


... 21. 


Shen Ch eng 


21. 


Chi Lu 


j. 


Sliih 




Ch i-tiao K ai ... 


1, 


Ssii-Ma Niu 


2- 


Ch ih 


... 13- 


Tien 


26. 


Ch iu 


Q 


Tsai Wo 










-4- 


Chung Kung 


... 10. 


Tsai Yu 


24. 


Chung Yu 


4. 


Tseng Tzu 


.., ... 25 


Fan Ch ih 


... 6. 


Tseng Hsi 


... ... 26. 


Fan Hsu 


... 6. 


Tzu Chang 


29 


Hsicn 


... 36. 


Tzu Chien... 


7 


Ilui 


. 3? 


Tzu Ch in... 




Jan Ch iu 


g 


1y i i | I ci n 


. 


Jan Po Niu 


... 9. 


Z* LI 1 1 ^U I ... 

Tzu I lua ... 


13- 


Jan Tzu 


... 8. 


Tzu Kao ... 


12. 


Jan Yu 


8. 


Tzu Kung... 


28. 


Ju Pci 


... n. 


Tzu Lu 


... ... 4. 


Kung-hsi I lua ... 


... 13. 


Tzu Yu 


. 34- 


Kung Yell Ch ;-; > 


... 14. 


Tz u 


28. 


Lao ... 


,, 


\Yu-AIa Cli i 


O I 


Li 


... 1 6. 


Yen .. 


... ... -N 1 

? I 


Lin Fang 


... 17. 


Yen Ilui ... 




Min Tzu 


... 18. 


Yen Lu ... 


:> :> 


A I in Tzu Ch icn 


... 1 8. 


Yen Yu 


34- 


Nan-Kung Km 


... K). 


Yen Yuan... 


... ... 32. 


X;m Yung 


... i ,. 


Yu 


4- 


Po Niu 


... 9. 


Yu Jo 


35 


Po Yu 


... 1 6. 


Yu Tzfi 


35 



V. DISCIPLES MEN HONED IN THE ANALECTS. 89 

Yung 19. Yuan Ssu 36. 

Yii ... 24. 



PLACES OF PRINCIPAL DISCIPLES IN TEMPLE. 
VV. E. 

# IS Si : F 






B 

^ ^ 



25 32 



* 



8 41 



go 



VI. -Chronological Tables.* 

K C. 

2852. Fu Hsi |K H K> oi" P ao Hsi /g IS J> 

Dynastic title, T ai Ilao, -fa 

2737. Shell Nung jflji J^ ],, or Lieh Shan JJJ ^ J 

Dynastic title, Yen Ti, j 

2697. Hsien Yuan jjlf fj| J A or Yu Hsiung /fj" t 
Dynastic title, Huang Ti, 5? 
2597. Chin T ien ^ ^ ]^ > 

Dynastic title, Shao Ilao, ^ 
2513. Kao Yang i p^ K> 

Dynastic title, Chuan Hsu, jg[i 
2435. Kao Hsin r^ ^ R> 

Dynastic title, Ti K u, ftf 

2365. Dynastic title, Ti Chih, ftf 

2356. YAO. ^-, TaoT ang ^ $f ^^ 

Dynastic title, T ang Ti Yao, Jjf ^ 
2255. SHUN ft\ Yu Yu ^ /jt J> 

Dynastic title, Vu Ti Shun, J.JJ flj* 

THE HSIA DYNASTY. JJ a, 

2205. r Hie Great YU, ^ p? J> or Hsia IIou JJ y g > 
2197. Ch i >,%\ 2188. T ai K ang ^ $ 

2159. Chung K ang. 2146. Ilsiang ^ : [U 



1 am indebted to Mayer s Chinese Reader s Manual and to 
Sim Ching and Ch un Ch iu for much in tliese Tables. 



IV. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 9 1 

21 18. Interregnum of 40 2079. Shao K ang ^7 Jj, 

years. 

2057. Chu. JK 2 4- Iluai. $[U 

2014. Mang. \ 1996. Hsieb. $!; 

1980. Pu Chiang. /f< (3K 1921. Chiung. J^ } ( 
1900. Chin, fjf^ 1879. K ung Chia. -fl R 1 . 

1848. Kao. /, 1837. Fa. ^ 

1818. Chieh Kuei, $fe 2$^ the Tyrant overthrown by 

T ang, Founder of Shang Dyn. 

THE SHANG. ^, or YIN ;g^ DYNASTY. 

1766. CIPKNG TANG. r& 8I> 

1753. T ai Chia. ^fc F{1 ^ 1720. Wu Ting, ft T^ 

1691. T ai Kcng. ^ J^ > 1666. Hsiao Chia. /^ EJ3 > 

1649- Yung Chi. jgg E 1 ,^ 1637. T ai Mou. ^fc [, 

1562. Chung Ting. fi|i ~J\ ^549- Wai Jen. ^j. ff^ 

1534- Ho Tan Chia. M EJ Ip ^ 1525. Tsui, jjjfl Zi-. 

1506. Tsu ILsin. 1 ^^ 1490. Wu Chia. {^ t|l , 

1465. Tsu Ting, il 1\ 1433- Nan Keng. ffi ^ 

1408. Yang Chia. ^ l|J^ 

1401. P an Keng, ^ ^[^ (changed dynastic title from 

Shang , to Yin jg J 

1373. Hsiao Hsin. /]> ^. : ^ 1352. Hsiao I. /J\ 2j, 
1324. WuTing. ^ T, 1265. Tsu Keng. JJU gf, 

1258. Tsu Chia. ffl Jp ^ 1225. Lin Hsin. ^ -$, 

1219 Keng Ting. $ 1\ 1198. Wu I. ^ 21, 
1194. T ai Ting. ^ T. H9 1 - Til. ff? ^ 

1154. Cliou Hsin, |;>f ^ > the T) ; rant overthrown by 

Wu, Founder of Chou j%]^ Dyn. 



THE ANAI.KCTS : INTRODUCTION. 



TI-TK CIIOIT DYNASTY. 

m su 



BARONS of LU. 



I 122. 


WU. ift> Personal 


I !22. 


Duke Choi 




name Fa $&^ 




jq 5^^ ^ 


III5. 


Ch eng. J$c : E * 


III5. 


Po Ch in. - 


1078. 


K ang. ^ 


IO62. 


K ao. ^ 


1052. 


Chao. R3 IE, 


IO58. 


Yang. ^ 


IOOI. 


MU. n BE, 


1052. 


Yu. (i^j^ 


946. 


Kung. dt ^ 




\\ ei. |^^ 


934- 


I- t 3E> 




Li. J/SU 


909. 


Hsiao. -#: 5^ 




Hsien fi(E, 


894. 


I- ^ 3E, 




Chen. JfJL ^ 


878. 


I-i- M 3:> 




Wu. it^ 


827. 


Hsuan. Vf : ^ 




I. g^ 


781. 


Vu. |ij ^ 775, 




Po Yu. ffl 




Solar eclipse, aut 








henticated. 






770. 


P ing. ^ EE^ 




Hsiao. d$: ^ 


719. 


Huan. ^ : u" 3:^ 




Hui. Ig, 


696. 


Cluiang. jjj: -T^ 


722. 


Vin. 1 


68 1 


Hs . { % 


711. 


Huan. >j ; [j\ 


676. 


Hui. 3g j{^ 


693- 


Chuang. ^ 


651 


Ilsiang. ^ p_, 


661. 


Min. |jg s 


6 1 8. 


Ch ing. tfl 3E > 


6 59- 


I-Isi. f3, 


612. 


K uang. [H j , 


626. 


\YC-n. 3t> 


606. 


Ting. > ;f ; ^ 


608. 


Hsu a n. ^^ 


585. 


Chien. f)|] i ^ 


59- 


Ch eng. f^J . 


5/i- 


^ing- IJ :f^ 


572. 


Hsiang. J^ 


544- 


Ching. ^ ^E> 


541- 


Chao. BS^ 



IV. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 93 

510. Ching. Jgfc , 509. Ting. ^ 

475- Yuan. =jt 3:^ 494- Ai. ^ 

468. Chen Ting. 3E , 467. Tao. ^ 
440- K ao. ^ 3E> 430. Yuan. TC> 

425- Wei Lieh. J& gj , 409. Mu. @, Lu lost in 
dependence. 

401. An. % 3E> 376. Kung. ^ 

-375- Lieh. J 3E> K ang. $> 

368. Hsien. gg HE, 343- Ching. ^ 

320. Shen Ching. P ing. ^{S ^ 

88 > 

314. Nan, fg i^ surrend- Wen. 5:, 

ered dominions to 

Ch in. ^^ 

255. Tung Chou Chun, ^ Ch ing, ^, deprived 

]i] ^^ nominally of title by King of 

reigned till 249. Ch u, Jg % 249. 

THE CH IN DYNASTY. ^ , 

255. Chao Hsiang Wang, [g || ^\ 

250. Hsiao Wen Wang. ^ ^r : % 

249. Chuang Hsiang Wang. $ J| 3:^ 

246. Wang Cheng. 3 $^ 

221. SHIH HUANG TI. jfi ^ ^ Title assumed by 
Prince Cheng 3E &, on declaring himself " The 
first Emperor " in 26th year of his reign. 

209, Erh shih Huang Ti. Zl ift ^ ^, 

206. The HAN DYNASTY, gg g, Kao Ti, g ^ % 
orKaoTsu. g jjifl, 



94 THE ANALECTS I INTRODUCTION. 

CHRONOLOGY OF KVKNTS IN LIFK OF 

CONFUCIUS, AND LATFR. 
H. C. 

800-729. Cheng K ao Fu j 3% ~j|j\ ancestor of Con f. 
710. Murder of son of list, K ung Fu Cliia, JL 3 /}?; ^ 

with whom name of K ung ^L> began. 
Mu Chin Fu, fe $* 3* Son of K ung Fu Chia 
Yi I, if? ^^ Grandson of K tmg Fu Chia. 
Fang- Shu, fjj ^^ son of last. He removed from 

Sung, 5^> to Lu % 
Po Hsia, ffj J^ son ol l r ang Shu. 
625-549. cil c - Shu Liang Ho ^ %gi fc^ son of lust 

and Father of Conf. 
551. WRTH OF CONFUCIUS. 
549. IJeath of Ins Father. 
532. Married. Obtained office. 
5 30. Commenced teaching. 
529. Death of Mother. 
523. Studied Music. 
518. Heir ol Meng family became his pupil. Probably 

same year went to Imperial Capital, and intcr 

viewed L-io tzu, if that interview really occurred. 
517. Followed his Duke {}^ % to exile in Ch i. y$^ 
516. Returned to Lu. Fifteen years out oi office. 
509. Duke Hft* died in exile. Duke y] > succeeded 

him. 

501. Magistrate of Chung Tu rft ^^ 
500. Minister of Crime. ^ t(I jS^ 
498. If ever Prime Minister, which is doubtful, it would 

be about this year. 



IV. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. Q$ 

496. Piesent of Geishas from Wei j$f* to ^ u - 
Retired from Lu to 1 3 years exile. 

495. In Wei. Attacked in gU on way to 5^> In $[K 

494. In gH,, during three years. 

492. Incident at P u fc fK In ^ Vei - To Yellow River, 

and Chin ff^ 

491. To Ts ai ^^ In distress and starvation on the way. 
490. In Ts ai. 

489. In She H^ and Ch u 6^ 
488. Buck to Wei. ftj, 
483. Recalled to Lu in his 691!) year. 
482. Death of son, L? Jjf , 
481. Death of Yen Hui fjj KU 
480. Capture of ch i ling ]gt |^ Death of Tzu Lu 

^ j, 
479. DEATH OF CONFUCIUS, on nth day of 4th 

month. 

420. circ. Death at ? 82 years of age of ^L 4$* K ung 
Chi, i. c. -f & ^^ Tzu Ssu Tzu, son of 
Li |J^ and grandson of Confucius. The 
rfi /ff^ is attributed to him. By some the 
^; ^^ is also ascribed to him, by others 
to ^ -jF\ who was born 506. The date 
420 is uncertain. Mencius mentions ^fL ^^ 
as in favour with Duke Mu of Lu in 408, 
in which case he must have been over 90 
years of age. 

372-289. MKNCIUS. In A. D. 1083 he was made 
Duke of Tsou $}[> gj S> ancl m l 33 Sub- 



96 THE ANALKCrS : INTRODUCTION. 

sidiary Sage ffii ^ s Tomb at JJ|$ |$, 
Shantung. 
212. Pnnning of the Books by $f; Q fff ^ of the JjS^ 

dynasty. 

206. ^ dynasty destroyed, and fjf % dyn. set up. 
195. Kao Ti j^ $\ Founder of 1 Ian dyn. visited tomb 

of Cunf , and sacrificed an ox 

154. Recovery of Lun Yu and other books from wall of 
Confs hous/. JL :JC tiU K ung An Kuo dccip 
hered and wrote a treatise on it. 
104. Ssii-ma Ch ien fj] J.iy ilk published his ^ fii^ 

Historical Records. 

5. Death of % /_, i>S 5fi 3?j , the Prince of An- 
ch iing, Chang Yii, who compared the various 
copies of the Lun Yii, and settled the text. 
A. D. 

I. Conf. designated by Kmp, J* ^jj\ " Duke Ni, the 

all complete and illustrious. 
25-57. Commentator Pao Hsien Q /$, 
57. Sacrifices to Confucius, (in association with the 
Duke of Chou )S] 5v>, ordered to be offered in 
all Colleges. 

126-144. Commentator Ma Yung J, 4 ffllfU 
127-200. Commentator Cheng Msiian. @|J ^^ 
175. Classics cut in stone slabs. 
240 248. Classics cut in stone slabs. 

250. circ. Commentator Ho Yen fuj j^ and his Co- 
workers. 

492. Conf. styled " The venerable Ni, the accomplished 
Sage." 



IV. CHRONOLOGICAL TABLES. 97 

Commentator Huang K an ^ {Jrj^ 

609. Confucian Temple separated from Duke of Chou s, 
after which one to Conf. was erected at every 
centre of learning. 

645. Conf. styled " K ung, the ancient Teacher, accom 
plished and illustrious, all-complete, the perfect 
Sage." 
657. The last title was shortened to " K ung, the ancient 

Teacher, the perfect Sage," at which it remains. 
836. Classics again cut in stone, the others having 

perished. 

932 1010. Commentator rising Ping ffi ^|^ 
1033-1107. ,, Ch eng Tzu g =$ EU and 

his elder brother ^f- f@^ 
11301200. Commentator Chu Tzu ^ J % 
1623 1713. Mao Chi Ling ^ ^ ft\ 

1730. The g: Jg | ^ (, published. 
1745- The raargjffi.HI ffi. 
1761. The M m il ^> published. 
1779. The KliBP*?1iBH\ published. 
1829. The JH ^ g $ published. 
1852. The * *R ^> lublished. 
1861. Dr Legge s translation of The Chinese Classics. 

Vol. I. 
1905. I he Illustrated Four Mooks published in Mandaiin. 

f&HK^aifiScirigffl^^ A sign of the 
times ! 

1907. Tl:e Highest sacrifices ordeied by the Ktnpress 
Dowager, ranking Conf. no longer with the Sun. 
but \\ith Heaven and Eaith, and therefore with 



THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

Shano- Ti. Another sign of the times! "Let 
him tliat readeth understand." 



s?-- . . 



*t 













&va./, 

lV4- 



i 

* - 




99 



VII. Geography of China in the 
times of Confucius. 

China during the Confucian period may be said to have 
been confined within the borders of a parallelogram, 
whose northern line ran somewhere near the Great Wall, 
(built circ. B. C. 214) ; whose eastern line was the sea 
coast ; whose southern was the Yangtze, and whose 
western was the borders of Kansuh and Ssuch uan. The 
coast seems to have been little known, and with the 
exception of the wilds of the Shantung Promontory, was 
probably a great stretch of unreclaimed marshy land. 

Surrounding this territory dwelt many indigenous 
tribes, to the east and north-east the 1 J| ; to the north 
the Ti Jit I to tne south the Man g ; and ,to the west 
the Jung /;, With numerous branches of these tribes 
the Chinese were in constant communication, either by 
way of peaceful barter and exchange of commodities, or 
with weapons of warfare. 

The Empire was divided into many States, which had 
varied in number in different periods from, it is said, 1800 
in the early days of the Chou Dynasty, to 124 shortly 
before our Sage s advent, and to a nominal " seventy two " 
during his lifetime. Most of them were exceedingly 
small, often little more than a town and its suburbs. The 
following list gives the names of the more powerful of 
these States, approximately in the order of their strength.* 

* See Giles Dictionary p. 1374, and the M ?9 S ft?> 



ioo THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

STATE. PROVINCE. CAPITAL. MODERN. 

ft Ch i iljjji N 



Chin lliW s Uf 

ivv i y > I* jii i ^R? 

ch u aaft wiii w 

*-* ^. ,, 

feiltt 

Yen fan M IllS^/ft m or 



wei Mm 



5^ Sung fnj]j I<: 

|^( Ch en M rK SK ? ^Jr|) PJJH H/fl 1 and ^ 

^ Ts ai M]$J s l^.ir^l i:S^f^ il^ 

and 

f|5 Cheng KH 
^ Tsao tlj^C SW 

^B ch i Mm K UK 

% Chu Ojm E if) 

^ Hsieh ^)K 1^ f;>^ 

ig Yiieh J|1fiL ? 

The Royal demesne was in modern Ilonan, and its 
Capital was Loh f^^ or Loh I y f^^ in modern 
Honanfu. 

In theory, the burons who ruled these States were all 
subject to the Kmperor. In fact, as already shewn, they 



. VII. ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. IOI 

were independent and constantly intrigued and fought to 
obtain each other s territory. For this amongst other 
reasons no map can be anything but approximate, for the 
boundaries of the States were constantly changing. 

The population was small and widely scattered, for 
instance, the three chief towns of Wei, after an incursion of 
the wild tribes in the 7th century B. C., only numbered a 
total of 5000 souls (Legge, Ch un Ch iu Intro, p. 127), 
and it is estimated that the whole Empire in the days 
of Confucius numbered but some thirteen millions of 
people. 

Barter was the medium of commerce, pieces t-f cloth 
being the principal standard of exchange. The language 
was more 01- less homogeneous, and was evidently 
stronger in the possession of final gutturals, labials, and 
dentals than is the case with modern northern Chinese, 
which has probably suffered from the dominating influence 
of its Northern invaders, possibly from the tribes that were 
absorbed, and most of all from the eroding influences of 
time. Both in dress, language and manners the early 
Chinese differed totally from their indigenous neigh 
bours. Furs, silk, linen, and perhaps woollen or felt 
formed the principal articles of clothing. In their do 
mestic arrangements, houses built of brick, or of clay 
rammed hard, and with tiled roofs were in existence, but 
chairs had not yet been invented, and the people sat low 
down on mats as do the Japanese to this day. Books 
were cumbrous, being made from slips of bamboo, and 
the art of mapping had not yet been discovered, at least 
no map has come down to our days. 



IO2 THE ANAI.KCTS ! INTRODUCTION. 

The principal river was the Yellow River, which ac 
cording to Dr. Chalmers map in Dr. Pegge s Ch un 
Ch iu, emptied itself into the Gulf of Pechili in the neigh 
bourhood of its present embouchure, north of the Shantung 
Promontory. According to the map given in the |HJ |lt 
<& fil^ it debouched into the Yellow Sea south of the 
Promontory, but this map was composed during the long 
period when the river pursued its southerly course, and 
what real evidence there is confirms Dr. Chalmers view. 
It is reasonable to believe that it was the north-western 
arm of this great river which the Chinese pioneers struck 
on their entry into China, and it is certain that along its 
banks they had their early expansion. Hence to the 
ancient Chinese it was par excellence The River, and to 
them no other distinctive name was necessary. The 
Yangtze was then but little known, as it ran through a 
country for the most part unoccupied. Indeed the 
smaller streams of northern and eastern China were of 
greater importance than the mighty River whose magni 
tude today dwarfs all others to comparative insignificance. 
Of the smaller rivers the Wei and its tributary the Ching 
in Shensi, the Loh and Wei, and the tributaries of the 
Man and Huai in Honan, the Fen and the Ch in in Shansi, 
the Chang in Chihli and the Chi in Shantung were 
among the most important. 

The unoccupied country was either a swamp, or covered 
with forests in which tigers, leopards, bears and wolves, 
probably also the rhinoceros, the elephant, various kinds 
of saurians, and many other species of wild creatures, 
some of them now extinct, found their habitation. 



VII. ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY. IO3 

For the map which accompanies this volume the Author 
is indebted to the kindness of the Rev. G. D. Wilder, 
whose gg | (if 3c P i should be in every student s 
library. 



IOJ 



VIII. Terminology. 



There are certain terms of frequent occurrence for 
which it is impossible to find an exact connotation in 
English suitable for use throughout. To save burdening 
the notes with unnecessary repetition the following explan 
ations are given, and to these the student is requested to 
refer as occasion may demand. 

tJEN 2 (cf fj&). Composed of X man and H 
two, indicating the right relationship of one 
man to his fellows ; in other words, a man of fH 
considers others as well as himself In general it may 
be translated by Virtue, the root of each being A vir, 
and both words representing man at his best. Its 
synonyms are humanity, humaneness, generosity, altruism, 
charity, kindness, etc. Confucius defines it in XII. 22 
by A l ve to nien - Chutzu defines it in I. 3 : 
t % ^ 2- 31 jfr ffi &> J^ is the law of love 
(charity), the virtue of the heart. The gq ^ & ffi in 
the same place says fc f? fjg fi3> It is the 
perfect embodiment of viitue, for it includes all the 
other virtues, equity, reverence, and wisdom, {;_! Q | 
jjjg ^ In another place IV. 3 Chutzu says fn -ft }$ 
%L >6> Tlie J^ n are f ree fr m selfishness. He also 
says t ^f A -til> It means man/ i. e. the whole 
duty of man. Again JSl 2fc ?& t &* To P ut 
yourself in another s place is jen. Again g A t ~ 
tA\ Love is the extension (exhibition) of jen, The 



VIII. TERMINOLOGY. 10$ 

following are other definitions : tl :?? ^c J fj Jffi ffij 

J? * M ; t a 2E B m T ; t M 

m* i& * rfn >fr & & -liL ; t M J & f * 

rfn A JB ffi & ; t & & & m * & 

S & ; t*A,Aff^Lt:**&t: 

* * fie K v 3t A n t ; ffll B *fr t 
ffl & ; t: * ^ flfi ^ fe >6 S * 
P^ HI 1 ] T ^f * & & ; t K * II tlL ; t 

* S 2^ A in ^ S ^ Ja & A ^ i ft 
Kit & A ft , 

, 4 Composed of sheep (possibly a contraction 
of ^) and I. May mean I must be a good 
man ; see Williams Dicty. Right, equity, justice, fair; 
In 1.13 Chutzii defines it by Ifl . S -liL> tnc rights of 
things. Elsewhere he says it is t fo $1j |j| ^ g^ the 
regulating of the heart, the rights of things. Again fg g 
-& fi^ $JJ K %f ft ^ !a\ The shaping of all things 
till they are as they should be. The fe ff| under II. 24 
says: H S A /?f ^t S, It is that which is verily 
the duty of man to do. An extension of the meaning is 
H M >fr ^ ^ KB llL, A sense of shame is the 
beginning of righteousness. The following may also be 
added ; H ft f, ,J M W III ffi Iff) <& ^ ^f 

*- % -til $ W lii ^- ii -til A m 2. B Hf ; 
S * A ,& ii fij, 

J. U From to worship, or Mo indicate, and 
sacrificial vessel. This word connotes the idea 
of the offerings and respect clue to gods and men. The 
m X says : ^ # \\)\ # & m % $$ %% & jR 



io6 TIIK ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

consists of indicate and sacrificial vessel, for Li being 
hidden (within) is not readily visible, therefore the sacr ificial 
vessels arc spread for its manifestation. It may be trans 
lated by religion, ceremony, depoilment, decorum, pro 
priety, formality, politeness, courtesy, etiquette, good form 
or behaviour or manners. It also means an offering as an 
indication of respect. Chutzii in I. 12 defines it thus: jjjjj 

*f 5 m fill A y* m M til, I-i means 
the regulations and refinements o! Divine (or Natuial) 
law, and the usages and rules thereof in human affairs. 
In another place he says: fjjjj jgj .{ji^ Li is t i, i. e. the 
embodiment (of respect). Again it is {ji~lj JJ im -, n]1( - 
and order. And again jf R - fl )K It is 
merely the observance of order (or rank). Yutzii in 

I. 12 says that its exhibition is to be natural ;f[] (not 
forced yft.K ^ n a comment on III. 4 Li is taken as the 
outward adornment y^ of an inward respect %fy^ which 
latter is considered as the essence of L 1 , and the commen 
tator remarks |jl It ^ }Z jjyj jf^ ^j ffi iji, ^ ,f/ 
S8 -f JS ffij S >fj f^ llL^ It is better to have an 
excess of esteem and a deficiency in ceremony than 
an excess of ceremony and a deficiency in its essential. 

II. K. Ku defines jji^ by Art, but to attempt to connote 
Li throughout by Art produces results foreign to the text. 
For jpQ gj! see next. The following are fuither defini- 
tions of Li: 19 &, K m ffi ii fi * fin if 3fc 

12 m H ; c rfri 3? W 3 fii JW K 89 ; i]l 

ft K }-f- ill 1 ! jf.3 ; g9 M Hi Jtf IIIJ * A IW M 

ff ; iffi # >j< 4i K Hi ^^ *n )i Ki S3 m tt 

* ^ W JW ii ji Hi, 



VIII. TERMINOLOGY. IO? 

Composed of drums on a frame. Read Yo, 4 * it is. 
Music ; read Yao, 4 it is To enjoy ; read Lo 4 * it is 
Joy ; and this seems to be the correct etymological order. 
The Shuo Wen jf says :-/h f] HI S * If 

a as w B s -& tr z BI m m $M $ m 
m m jjb & %. & $ ^ /n >e si we & 11 m 

A 1$ * m Hi /h a ffi ^ JK * 8 51 

iflJ Iff l!l> Jn its milder form it is | pleasure, in its 
stronger form it is |j(| joy. When spoken of individually 
it means pleasure -y:^ when spoken of in numbers it 
means ^ joy. Extended it finds instrumental expres 
sion. The original character is composed of a big drum 
with two small drums on each side, etc. The whole is 
hung on a frame ;/j^ C. says : The foundation of all 
music is fjj Harmony, in the absence of which all the 
instruments ^ & jg jj^ chimes, strings, bells and 
drums produce mere noise. Hence jg and |J| have a 
close connection, they are brothers so to speak, both 
dependent on the same source jfjj Harmony; see jjg, 
The two in close combination jig ^ may be understood 
in the sense of Civilisation, or the Arts of Civilisation. 
See also Mencius IV. I. 27. where Music is described as 
the climax of the virtues when & & g- ; ^ ; ||if : 
^ the feet spontaneously express it in dancing and the 
hands in waving. 

WKN 2 is used for adornment, polish, culture, re- 
finement. VI. 12 shews the value to be placed 
upon it as compared with moral character ; gf substance, 
character, and 5C decoration, culture, are there compared. 
jt is spoken of as g$ fj ^ m Z X> The culture of 



IO8 THE ANALECTS : INTRODUCTION. 

Poetry, History, and the Six Aits. ( jf3 *J* %] $J) i 1 ! M> 
Deportment, music, archery, driving, wiiting and numbers.) 
J!S $i means culture, civilisation. Note also : j ft 1|[| 

.1 faE &f 8s 4U 3*C flf $& -til* I "TJ" ^ ife- A ffl) Wfc K 

jgEf HSUKH 2 * from #: To teach, [~] A waste and 

^F* for the phonetic (Williams). To learn, by 
which the Sage meant the study of morals. It means the 
acquisition of wisdom ll and its expression in conduct 
ff^ A comment under I. /says: H ft ^ ^- i? W 
&. BH A f&> ^ ie education of the Three Dynasties 
(Jl iS J?I ) consisted entirely in the understanding of 
human duty. Chutzii defines it by y%^ To copy an 
example ; for the learner observes and follows the 
example of his leader, ifj -^ says : ^ ^ Jtt & 01 
J& f S rf^^ Learning demands conscientiousness and 
sincerity as its first principles. The ^ ^ says: I he 
object of learning is the apprehension of illuminating virtue, 
the renovation of the people, and the (aiming at and) 
resting in perfect goodness. 

^te- TAG 4 . From ^ To go, and ft A head, go 
?Sr ahead, follow the straight ahead road. The right 
Road ; the Truth ; the way. In I. 14 Chutzii describes it 
as ?JV ^7 &* # J iU (Affairs and things ought so s 
law). The natural law pertaining to any phenomenon. In 
the *[i .f,|f the word -Jg is amplified thus : j| J.h ^ ^ 



VIII- TERMINOLOGY. 

so to speak. Did men and things all follow the inherent 
law of their nature, then, in the affairs of daily life, none 
would be found to be without its right road, and this is what 
is called Tao. In the rfi ;$ it is defined as ^ ft to 
follow the nature, i. e. the divinely implanted upright 
nature. It also means g\ to say, speak; also ffi to 
govern ; also ^ to lead. See also : (^ B jp A 

; a. m & m &> m m K % A; JB K & A 

Si BA--aiffiJtr:jt0K*H ft 
W fi IB M fr & ; - JS IB 8fr JB JB A 
&ArttSB5RJI<&; IB * 3c a 
g & ; JB # IE ffi A it g IE 
IIB^itJBAJBIS*,*^A*,5F 

a ffi f f A & 3fc & * % . f. T t 
Jk 4 -t *6 A ; ^WJB*ffi*% 

a A J5f * * * A, 

MING 4 . Composed of n mouth and -^ tocom- 
mand. A decree, order, hence ^ fa is thedecree 
or ordination of heaven, therefore also fate, lot, destiny. 
Chutzu under II. 4 says: ^ fa g[J ^ -f ; gfe ff [fn 
K SJ" % ^> By the ordination of Heaven is meant the . 
promulgation and bestowal of the laws of Heaven in 
nature; viz., that whereby all creation obtains its order. 
Another definition is ^ 0? JK IE Si , The correct 
principles (or right laws) laid down by Heaven. See 



W&JSlttK;2:JBA ifc*3tP 

Pjrif. iii yv |if 
U p| nrr -t!L> 

TE 2 . From ^ To step ; j|[ straight ; and >fj the 
heart, i.e. walking according to the heart s sense ol 



HO TIIK AN A LKCTS : INTRODUCTION. 

rectitude ; cf. mens sibi conscia recti. To walk uprightly , 
moral, morality, viitue, viituous, etc. Chutzu in his com 
ment on II. i. says: fjg ;> 1 fj ffi (iL ft SI fill 4} 
ffi K lV > ^ ma > 7 k interpreted by something acquired , 
that is, by the practice of Truth to have obtained posses 
sion of it in the luait. Hence it is something more than 
mere outward morality of conduct, it is also an inward 
grace of the soul. See also: $g } llL ffi ty It & : 

*,fr Mt - JjlJ ^ 

CHUNG 1 . 1 leart and middle. The central heart ; 
from (or in) the very heart ; sincere, conscientious, 
loyal. - C, says : f 2, Q sit 1? J5& or ^ S ^ nl i 
/ T P ut oneself forth to the utmost, i.e. do one s best 
is Chung. See also IV. 15, and: & ff :fc y& - 5V ^ 

5p] *n Si?. ^ 1$ n ffi /ifc ^ [* I L IS *fc ^^ : ^5 
fS S ! 5li &; ^ ^ "K j^ *& SB S ffl SS- >t> 

^ ^f3 & Jf !H> 

tEi* I1S1N . l\Ian and word. A man and his word. 
~^. > 

tt Veracity, credibility, faith, faithfulness. The 

comment on I. 4. says : J^JI [ : jf ^ ffi } f }^ To be true, 
reliable, is to be hsin. Sec also : \}{\ t\fy) f;[f- frS 5 

*t 3K fsii ^ *n iffi All; S ?r. ills I? * f ^ PS 
W rfii ^ fg ^i^ IS A iMifc K v ; A IV ^S fS, 

HSIAO . >g Age over -f A son, or, The young 
^supporting the old. The comment on I. 2 is 

ifc IJj. J f>J- 15 >? : % To serve well one sparents ish.^ia-). 

See also: - #: i? (ll, g> ^f & jjj: ill JJ? Ift Af -ill ^ 



VIII. TERMINOLOGY. Ill 



k -r- * * in, 

CHING 4 from #j careful, (= g urgent), and 
x to tap (= ft W- Attend to). Attention, 
respect, reverence. The comment on I. 5. is $fc ^f r 
$H SS ^ MS* Ching means bending the undeviating 
attention to one thing. Again, $& i}K 
In kung the stress is on the form, in ching on the 
fact. Also 3$ & ft ft - *K Kung is the 
external manifestation, Ching is the internal sense. See 
also:- % ffr Hi: tiL tH Q l * & ; ifc 
* t$ * ffi 4. a g: 5R & 4t * -&, 

SHIH 4 from -|" anc ^ anc ^ tne explanation 
given is ^ ^ -f- which seems to imply 
ability to count up to ten ! In effect it means, an educated 
man; hence also, a student, a scholar, and therefore one 
who has obtained government recognition and employment. 
It is also defined: % $ & fl 2p Z fi5 I Shih is 
the same as affairs, and is a term implying, one who 
undertakes (government) business See also : -j^ Ip. $l 

*6 =f - + tt "I* *-* + 

; * * til * ffi -Hi Sfc 1* am* 

^ m m &m z > 

CHUN 1 , fj is from ^ To hold in the 
hand, i.e. to direct, command, and P 
mouth ; it means a prince. ^ -f therefore, is Son of a 
prince, and might be translated, princely man. It has 
much the same meaning as gentleman in the best sense 
of that term. The comment on I. I. is ;fj ^ J$; fj& H 
^3^ A term connoting a man of perfected virtue ; i e,. 



H2 THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. 

one who has raised himself to that standard. Another 
interpretation is Jf f-g \[\ jffe & ^, A man of out 
standing talents and virtue. It is the opposite of 
A^ A* a petty or narrow minded man, a common 
fellow. See also :g * ft ft ft {- ; ft ^ ft fa 

A -lli; 

IISIKN 2 . Minister and Right hand over Pre 
cious; or j^U A faithful minister over goods. 
IS ft $fe 4* -tiL H ft U IJL> One who controls the 
exchequer. A simpler definition is /f| f* ^ A mm of 
virtue. Such a man is talented as well as virtuous. He 
takes rank higher than a ft ^ and lower than a g? A 
q.v. 

SHKNG 4 . From 3f ear and jg to inform. He 
who hears and explains all things, a seer, a sage. 
The description of a 6 A ^ & flB ^1J , ^ JIB ff 
^^ His knowledge is innate, and he pursues the right 
course without effort. I. 4. knocks any such definition to 
pieces so far as Confucius is concerned, but this difficulty is 
overcome by interpreting that p issage as only the Sage s 
fa$on de parlcr, his object being to shew that the pro 
gramme laid down in that chapter should be the student s 
desideratum. Other definitions are $J Jjg, ilJ,^ Ap 
prehending clearly ; fj[E JJf ^ }fe^ There is nothing he 
fails to apprehend. See also : 3ft! \% I{]J "a H J *S Ji : 

^ M -tfL fiC ,K V 3t fl ; ,! : ^ Jft! Jft! KIJ ;]g ^ -ft g 



VIII. TERMINOLOGY. 113 



m m m m ^ *r *n 2, z m *> 

1 TZU 2 . Williams says ^ is from 
one and great, or, a man with a pin 
in his hair to shew he is of age. 5^ alone means a man ; 
R5 ^c a fellow, common person, XIV. 18. f j a 
husband and wife. ^ A Title of a prince s wife, XVI. 
14. .^C ^ a Minister, or Court Officer. ^ ^f Master, 
rabbi, philosopher. 

~"|^ A child, a son. It is interesting to find that this 
J diminutive term ^ should have become one 
of the greatest in the language, just as Son of Man and 
Son of God have become the noblest titles of Our Lord. 
Possibly ^f- is an abbreviation of 5^ ^jp^ It is used 
alone in the Classics principally in the three following 
senses, I. THE Master, Confucius, a term of the highest 
esteem and warmest regard ; in this sense it may be used 
preceding a name, e.g. in the Intro, to the Great Learning 
T- S ? * " My Master Ch eng-tzu." 2. As a term of 
respect in the sense of Sir, gentlemen ; or of kindly 
regard, my pupils, my friends, H H -jp HI. 24 ; VII. 
23. 3. As a title of nobility, Viscount, XVIII. i. or 
leadership, Chieftain, XIV. 22. See also ^ ^ and 

a ? 



THE 

ANALECTS 



OF 



CONFUCIUS. 



Abbreviations. 



Conf. Confucius. 

C. Commentary of Chutzu. 

Comm. Some other commentator. 

L. Legge s Translation. 

Z. Zottoli s 

K. Ku s 

Couv. Couvreur s ,, 

Kuan. The Mandarin version. 

Wins. William s Dictionary. 

Intro. Introduction. 

aux. auxiliary. 

govt. government. 

wh. which. 



1. 1. 

The Analects of Confucius. 



VOLUME I. 
BOOK I. 

ffn * W Z ?= iSr 

^ SK 

"TT ^Etft l^l "7C t^l HP 



> o 



* 2r ffe BB 



CHAPTER I. i. The Master said; "Is 
it not indeed a pleasure to acquire know 
ledge and constantly to exercise oneself 
therein ? 2. And is it not delightful to have 
men of kindred spirit come to one from 
afar ? 3. But is not he a true philosopher 
who, though he be unrecognised of men, 
cherishes no resentment ? " 



117 



I. I. 



The Analects of Confucius. 
VOLUME I. 



BOOK I. 



NAL PRINCIPLES. 

TITLK OF THE WORK. & Lun is from g words 
and ^ (,A -j^ collect, and [{[j- archives. Wins.) ar 
range, collect, i.e. discourses, discussions, f/j- Yii is from 
words and I, i.e. to tell, inform. The [^] ^]- fjjfj fj 
(Intro, p. 76) says: fc . ^ ffc f/j & ^ $, Lun 
is to deliberate upon and discuss. Yi i is to narrate by 
\vay of reply. It goes on to say : This Book records the 
dialogues (ftj p r lj ^ . ft SS) which took place be 
tween Conf. and his disciples concerning- Education (J^l) 
and Government ( #}). " The Dialogues of Confucius " 
suggests itself as a more suitable title than Analects, but 
through Dr. Legge s influence the latter term has become 
technical, and is therefore adopted as the title of the pre 
sent version. The whole work is usually divided into two 
parts, the J^ fj^ and the ~~f ffa^ Viirt I consisting of 
Chapters I-X, and Tart II of Chapters XI-XX. 

TJTLK ( )F JU)OK I. The two opening characters, 
( ] [-1 exce[)ted,) give the title to each Book, a custom, 
as J )r. Legge points out, similar to that 01 the Jews, who 
name many books of the Bible from the first word in them. 

118 



THE ANALECTS. I. I. 

Some attempt, more or less successful, was made by the 
compilers to arrange the books subjectively, that of the 
first being J# ^ Attention to fundamentals. C. jjfc ^ 

f * fflN 0? E * * 2 :t, 75 A it 



being the opening section of the book, it chiefly records 
the importance of enquiry into what is fundamental, in 
other words the entrance gate of Truth, the groundwork 
of virtue, the primary study of the student." Hence the 
opening word Learn " rightly occupies the forefront " 
(L) in this valuable record of the great Master s dis 
courses. 

CHAPTER L LEARNING IS PLEASANT, re 
cognition pleasanter, but the true Philosopher loves learn 
ing for its own sake. i . -f EU For ^f- see Intro. Sec. 
VIII. Construction: IJi Learning, may be taken as a 
verbal noun; [fij and, a conjunction, simple or adversative, 
(Kuan, ffjj _gj ; ft$ the hourly, an adjective ; ^ practice, 
exercise, a verbal noun, (Kuan. Jn^ Jj|) ; ; thereof, a 
pronoun, with Jfl as antecedent, /p (is it) not, adverb oi 
negation, ~$$ also, indeed, an adverb ; f yue tf used for 
1^ pleasing, an adjective, (Kuan, ||f 3S); ^ interroga 
tive particle, (Kuan D^). For ^ see Intro. Sec. VIII. 
C. ^> B ft <&> * ^ 1i> i-e. Learning 
without cessation, like the oft repeated motion of a bird s 
wings in flight. L. Is it not pleasant to learn with a con 
stant perseverance and application. Z. Studere sapientiae 
et jugiter exercere hoc, nonne quidem jucundum? K. It 
is indeed a pleasure to acquire knowledge and, as you go 
on acquiring, to put into practice what you have acquired. 

119 



I- I. " TIIK AXALF.CTS: INTRODUCTION. 

Couv. Celui qui cultivc la sagessc, ct nc cessc dc la cultivcr. 
satisfaction? 

2. ft To have, verb; JJfl friends, noun; f] from, 
prep; Jj distant, adj. qualifying ~Jj n . regions; ^ come, 
verb. To have men-of-like-mind from distant regions 
come (because of one s wisdom), is it not delightful ? C. 
/UK IP] ITl -&> Of the same class (i. c. tastes) as oneself. 
J3 # 2 A, Iffi fB $? # ^, If a man extend his 
goodness to others, those who trust and follow him will be 
many. |j is internal pleasure, ^ its outward manifesta 
tion. Knan *fe fo M % |i] ^ E *> L- 
Is it not pleasant to have friends coming f rom distant 
quarters? Z. Et si erunt sodales etc. K. A greater 
pleasure still it is when friends of congenial minds come 
from afar to seek you because of your attainments. 
Couv. Si des amis cle la sagesse vicnnent de loin rccevoir 
scs lemons, joie ? 

3. (Whom) men ignore yet unperturbed etc. fj ^f 
See Intro. VIII. C. ^ fe fa : ^ Conveys the idea 
of feeling angry. Kuan. $ jg^ L. Is he not a man of 
complete virtue, who feels no discomposure though men 
may take no note of him ? Z. Si non, ab aliis nesciri 
et non indignari, nonne etiam sapientis cst ? K. Ikit he is 
truly a wise and good man who feels no discomposure, 
even when he is not noticed of men. Couv. et n en rcsscnt 
aucunc pcine, un vrai sage? 

CHAPTER II. CHARITY BEGINS AT HOME, 
i. /fj ^f Yu the philosopher, sec Intro. V. J(: % \ ,\\i^ 
He doing the man. (^ here is an untranslatable particle), 
^ tfc filial and respectful to his elders, jfyj and yet, 



120 



THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. I. u. 

a %r* IE i. 4i *r- 

4 * ^ 4 f 

& * z m m % B 



^ ^ ifff --- RL ^a A 

CHAPTER II. i. The philosopher Yu 
said : " He who lives a filial and respectful 
life, yet who is disposed to give offence to 
those above him is rare ; and there has 
never been any one indisposed to offend 
those above him who yet has been fond of 
creating disorder. 2. The true philosopher 
devotes himself to the fundamental, for 
when that has been established right courses 
naturally evolve ; and are not filial devotion 
and respect for elders the very foundation of 
an unselfish life ? " 



121 



I. II. THE ANALECTS. 

(Kuan gf), -ft one who, ff likes, 3E to offend, (Kuan 
ft PI )- -h superiors, (A ;/, ft ^ _h tfj A). 1$ 
(is) rare, (A)/*?;* ^7 ;fj ), ^- indeed, a particle of finality. 
>R ftf not vet h" 11 nave l iac ^ never been such a owe ; 
or ; may be taken in a general sense. C. 3 Ip- 3 ^J 
IS S; U yi- ft fi 3$ 16, To serve well one s father 
and mother is ^ ; to serve well one s elder brothers and 
seniors is j, fp ^ RlJ ^ [$ Jt ^ 13 $ , 
Raising disorder, is acting rebelliously and quarrelsomely. 
The ^ ^ are f[) ||g, pacific and obedient. L. There 
are few who, being filial and fraternal, are fond of offend 
ing against their superiors. There have been none etc., 
stirring up confusion. Z. at qui non ament repugnare 
superioribus, et tamen ament facere seditionem, nondum ii 
extitcrunt. K. A man who is a good son and a good 
citizen will seldom be found . . disposed to quarrel with 
those in authority over him ; and . . never . . disturb 
the peace and order of the State. Cotiv. Parmi les hom- 
mes naturellemcnt cnclins a respecter leurs parents, a 
honorcr ceux qui sont au-dessus d cux (par le rang ou par 
1 age), etc. 

2. The true philosopher % (C. $f. j] ; Kuan. $. ffi 
}}] -Jj) bends his strength to fa the radical ; the radix 
being jt sct U P> ffi ^ 1C ^ a > > 0" & nt ^ nc ^ thought or 
action), /^ is produced ; ^: $, $1 ft filialness and 
fraternity ! Jfl they $j are (cf French, faire, but C. 
says it resembles fj, i.e. fH in action,) {H ^ fa the 
root of human kindness, |frl are they not? Kuan 1$^ 
Williams treats ^Jj, ft- as a disjunctive particle ; T^ says 
" they resume the discourse." For fil see Intro. VIII. L. 

122 



THE ANALECTS. I. II, III, IV. 

The superior man bends his attention to what is radical. 
That being established, all practical courses naturally grow 
up. Filial piety and fraternal submission! are not they 
the root of all benevolent actions ? Z. Sapiens intendit 
rei fundamento ; fundamento constitute, rei ratio nascitur : 
ilia observantia . . annon ipsa est exercenda? pietatis 
fundamentum ? K. A wise man devotes his attention 
to what is essential in the foundation of life. When . . 
laid, wisdom will come. Now, to be a good son and a 
good citizen, do not these form the foundation of a 
moral life ? Couv. La racine une fois affermie, donne 
naissance au tronc et aux branches. L affection etc. 

CHAPTER III. FINE FEATHERS DO NOT 
MAKE FINE BIRDS. TJ clever, artful. fa com 
mand, an " ordered " countenance. ^ The effluence 
from the countenance." Williams. C. $f J(: Jf\ |J 
: > gC tfe K K ffi &. 1ft A> They who make 
their speech pleasant and their appearance attractive, thus 
adorning the external with a view to attract men, arouse 
the passions and destroy virtue. L. Fine words and an 
insinuating appearance are seldom associated with true 
virtue. Z. Comptis verbis et ementita facie homines, 
raro sunt pietate praediti. K. W 7 ith plausible speech and 
fine manners will seldom be found moral character. 
Couv. Celui qui par des discours etudies et un exterieur 
compose, . . mine (6]f = O ses vertus naturelles. 

CHAPTER IV. INTROSPECTION AND SIN 
CERITY. For Tseng Tzu see Intro. V. Kuan !g , *g 
: 1*> *T ; ^ % m, S * My body, 
personality, self. For others planning, and yet not con* 

123 



I. IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

scicntious? with friends inte re cursing, yet not faithful? 
taught, yet not having practised? ^ to transmit, 
" preached and not practised " seems the natural interpreta 
tion, but C. renders it 51" ^ K W received from the 
Master. Kuan, ft & ft g ^ tfj ^ 1ft, For & 
and m see Intro. Mil. C. fK Bl l S ** B, 
Brought it to ripeness in oneself. L. whether in transact 
ing business for others, I may have been not faithful ; 

intercourse with friends not sincere ; not mastered 

and practised the instructions of my teacher. Z. an pro 

aliis tractaverim, et non fuerim fidelis ; sincerus ; an 

traditam disciplinam hand factitavcrim. K. in carrying 
out the duties entrusted to me by others, I have failed in 

conscientiousness ; sincerity and trustworthiness ; 

failed to practise what I profess in my teaching. Couv. 
si, traitant une affaire pour un autre, je nc 1 ai pas traitee 
avec moins de soin que si ellc cut etc- ma propre affaire. 

CHAPTER V. RADICAL RULES E( )R RULERS. 
J|| for i|J To lead, interpreted by C. as ffi to control, 
rule. Kuan, fc JM, C. ^ ^, |}} & BU ^ Ali 
pj jj .fe ]|i =p ^ -jft ,fti^ A dukedom, or barony en 
the highest order, capable oi putting into the field a thou 
sand war chariots. $fc ft ^ rfe "" M M ^ f i l > ^ ct 
on one thing and not purposeless. \f t //J- j^^ Having 
the confidence of the people is C s idea. Kuan, fjf J J 

f*yi*t;ffi, M; fls IS fsli^ c. , Hi 1 , 1 

JK K( s~ HS> ^ nc pcoi>lc should be employed on State 
affairs only in the " cracks," inactive intervals oi farming. 
Kuan, fi El 4 WJ T> C - These five points are 
the %fr ^ ^ -jj? fundamental principles of government. 

124 



THE ANALECTS: INTRODUCTION. I. in, iv, v. 

2i E9 .E 

. * 



PI 



A 



CHAPTER III. The Master said ; " Art 
ful speech and an ingratiating demeanour 
rarely accompany Virtue." 

CHAPTER IV. The philosopher Tseng 
said : " I daily examine myself on three 
points, In planning for others have I failed 
in conscientiousness ? In intercourse with 
friends have I been insincere ? And have I 
failed to practise what I have been taught ? " 

CHAPTER V. The Master said ; " To 
conduct the government of .a State of a 
thousand chariots there must be religious 

125 



I- V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

L. reverent attention to business and sincerity ; economy 

etc., and love for men, etc. Z. accurat negotia amat 

alios. K. serious in attention to business and faithful and 

punctual in his engagements love the welfare of the 

People proper times of the year. Couv. doit etre 

attentif aux affaires et tenir sa parole, modercr les depcnses, 
et aimer les homines, n employer les pouplcs aux travaux 
publics etc. 

CHAPTER VI. CHARACTER BEFORE CUL 
TURE. *fc -f A youth or youths. The second % is 
f ()r Isfc^ A \i\ Coming in or going out; i.e. at home 
and abroad, jjlj , Thereupon; Kuan > ^ Circum 
spect, Kuan 0: fg^ but C. interprets by ft Z # &\ 
constancy in action, persevering. C. fg ^ ^ ^ ~<\\ 
U -IJL, Truthful in speech. -^ Kuan fi| |gj , C. /$, 
\\~ide, of broad s)-mpathies. ,} Kuan |g ^T^ ^ See 
Intro. VIII. j) ^ Surplus ability. Kuan ffi (ft -)] 
$& > C. ^ g Eg fj ^ Leisure time, so to speak. Jl^ ^ 
Jfl iiL> Use. X See Intro. VHI. S t?> >fc -fit ; X 
l!v, 3fe -tiL> Moral character is the root, literature and 
the arts are the foliage. E. A youth when at home 

should be filial ete earnest and truthful overflow 

in love to all, and cultivate the friendship of the good. 
\\hen he has time and opportunity, after the performance 
of these things, he should employ them in polite studies. 

^ s it sedulus ct ye rax, universal! amore prosequatur 

omnes, at aretius jungatur probis, et si actione funetus 
habeat superstites vires, tune utetur ad studia liberalia. 

K lie should be in sympathy with all men, but 

intimate with men of moral character time and op- 

126 



THE ANALECTS. I. V, VI. 

?\> 

&. iL m ^ f a- w a 

^ ff en , l i Hf M % 

x *r ^ f i J %> % * 

o 

tfe * ^ ^ \ m 

~)\ tfff il A ffi 18 

Ii] fl rM RiJ K 15 

attention to business and good faith, econo 
my in expenditure and love of the people, 
and their employment on public works at 
the proper seasons." 

CHAPTER VI. - The Master said : 
" When a youth is at home let him be filial, 
when abroad respectful to his elders ; let 
him be circumspect and truthful, and while 
exhibiting a comprehensive love for all men, 
let him ally himself with the good. Having 
so acted, if he have energy to spare, let 
him employ it in polite studies." 

127 



I. VI, VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

portunity to spare literary pursuits. Couv. Cos devoirs 

remplis, s il lui reste (du temps ct) des forces, des 

lettres ct des arts liberaux. 

CHAPTER VII. CHAR ACTPIR IS CULTURE. 
For Tzu Hsia see Intro. V. JJ Jr N The first is a verb ; 
he who worths worth and turns from beauty. C. Jg, JJ: 
4? fe >fr, Transfers his beauty-loving heart. A 
#1 2s T O la > clown, as it were, The philosopher \Vu 
$$. while admitting the excellence of Txii I Isia s thought, 
finds the expression of it extreme and dangerous to learn 
ing, and points to the superiority of the saying of Conf. in 
last chapter. L. If a man withdraws his mind from the 
love of beaut} , and applies it as sincerely to the love of the 
virtuous ; if etc. he can exert his utmost strength ; if etc. he 
can devote his life ; if etc. his words are sincere : although 
men say that he has not learned, I will certainly say that 
he has. 7. proscquendo sapientes mutans voluptatum 

amorcm licet dicatur nondum studuisse sapientio?, ego 

certe dicam ilium studuisse. K. A man who can love 
worthiness in man as lie loves beauty in woman etc. 
Couv. Celui qui, au lieu d aimer les plaisirs, ainic ct 
recherche les homines sages, etc. 

CHAPTER VIII. FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES 
FOR THE SCHOLAR. Kuan. This ff :f means J$ 
iS O fi-J A; Iff, I 1 /- 1]1\ Grave, serious. C. j$ N 
^C i%^ Awe inspiring; [/,J^ (^ \h\.^ Firm, stable. 
n ft ft & * n m 3 ? ft, A man with a light 
exterior cannot be stable within, a half truth largely res 
ponsible for 2CCO years of round-shouldered, stolid, stodgy 
scholars. L. If the scholar be not grave, he will not 

128 



THE ANALECTS. I. VII, VIII. 

A -fc 






& & & m & 11 & 3L 

o 

m g W & * 5C 

^ & it J99 s ft g 

- 

-jr- r^.R4 p/A _i^. ^,l>.. ^,1* T 

^ SB ffiffe 2C Hb Hb R 

m 3^ a * 

CHAPTER VII. Tzii Hsia said : " He 
who transfers his mind from feminine allure 
ment to excelling in moral excellence ; who 
in serving his parents is ready to do so to 
the utmost of his ability ; who in the service 
of his Prince is prepared to lay do\vn his 
life ; and who in intercourse with his friends 
is sincere in what he says, though others 
may speak of him as uneducated, I should 
certainly call him educated." 

.CHAPTER VIII. i. The Master said; 
" A Scholar \vho is not grave will not inspire 

129 



I. VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

call forth any veneration, and his learning will not be solid. 
Z. Probus vir, non gravis, jam carebit auctoritate, etc. 
K. A wise man who is not serious will not inspire respect ; 

what lie learns will not remain permanent. Couv il 

ne sera pas respccte, ct n acquerra qu une eonnaissance 
superficiefle de la vertu. 

2. d His ruling principles ; Kuan ^}{ ;7j; % Re / 
fg see Intro. VIII. C. A ^ & fg, j ^ ft fe 
Jf > fi E M fi^ S ^ fl J H> If a "ian be without 
& fw ^ his affairs will all be unreliable, to clo evil will be 
easy, to do good difficult. L. Hold faithfulness and sin 
cerity as first principles. Z. caput sit fidelitas ct vcracitas. 
K. Make conscientiousness and sincerity your first prin 
ciples. Couv. au premier rang la fidelite et la sincerite. 

3. No friends not as self, i.e. not as good as oneself. 
Kuan &K +11 f?K C. ^ ^ J, *g f ^, M 
interchanges with 1% ^ and is prohibitive, ^ f)\ ]^ $|g 
\^^ Friends are for the aidance of virtue. L. I lave no 
friends not equal to yourself. Z. hand similem iibi ipsi. 
K. not as yourself. Couv. qui ne lui ressemblent pas 
(qui ne cultivent pas comme lui la sagesse). 

4. Having transgressed, then don t fear to change. $j 
implies moral rather than intellectual error. Kuan j^ 
SB IS; W> tfl K , C. ffiV, K it, Dread the 
difficulty. fy |}JJ ;> 21 tE fl|i .IJL, fa\ -JC ^f IUJ 
^ l^C W 1/1^ ^ fTlJ c c\> The course of learning has IK* 
other object whatever ( jfjj c y.) than to recognise one s 
faults and straightway i\f<>rm, in order to follow what is 
good. A very admirable sentiment! L. \Vhcn you 
have faults, do not fear to abandon them. Z. si erras, 

130 



THE ANALECTS. I. VIII, IX, X, 



=? 



li 



ii -It 



S 



la 





Ji S ^; 31 fllj ^C ^ 

respect, and his learning will therefore lack 
stability. 2. His chief principles should 
be conscientiousness and sincerity. 3. Let 
him have no friends unequal to himself. 
4. And when in the wrong let him not 
hesitate to amend." 

CHAPTER IX. The philosopher Tseng 
said ; " Solicitude on the decease of parents, 
and the pursuit of them for long after, 
would cause an abundant restoration of the 
people s morals." 

CHAPTER X. Tzu Ch in enquired of 
Tzu Kung saying : " When the Master 

131 



I- IX, X. THE ANALECTS, 

tune nc formidcs cmcndari. K. bad habits, do not he 
sitate to change them. Couv. qu il ait le courage de s en 
corriger. 

CHAPTER IX. FILIAL PIETY TO Till- DEAD 
the Root of Moral Renaissance. Tseng Tzu see Intro. V. 
The solicitude here referred to is usually interpreted as 
required of the ruler ; If a ruler be solicitous etc. Kium 

18. m 1; $K K& ^; i&^i& it ffi II #, The 

last interpretation, while in excess of the letter of the text, 
is not in excess of the accepted view. f$ Return, i.e. to 
natural goodness, man being regarded as by nature good, 

A K ft * *, C. jfc , ft $ K S8, 

Solicitude means fulfilling all the mourning rites. $\ $ 
^> ^ 3?if j{ M> Pursuing after them afar means sa 
crificing to them in all sincerity. \Yhilc the text does not 
refer to the dead in set terms no other meaning suits it. 
L. Let there be a careful attention to perform the funeral 
rites to parents, and let them be followed when long gone 
with the ceremonies of sacrifice ; then the virtue of the 
people will resume its proper excellence. Z. si observes 
oflicia extrema et commeniores remote defunctos, etc. 
K. By cultivating respect for the dead, and carrying the 
memory back to the distant past, the moral feeling of the 
people will waken and grow in depth. Couv. Si le prince 
rend les derniers devoirs a ses parents avec un vrai zele, 
et honore par des offrandes ses ancetres meme eloigncs, hi 
piete filiale fleiirira parmi le peuple. 

CIIA1TICR X. CHARACTER laJCITS COX- 
FIDENCE. i. Vor Tzu Ch in and Txu Kung see Intro. 
V. The Master arriving at any (^ this, any particular) 

132 



THE ANALT.CT5. I. X, XI. 



? A z n WL m # n 

o 

Z -ft 2. & ^F m 



IS ? fit B ffli 



arrives at any State he always hears about 
its administration. Does he ask for his 
information, or, is it tendered to him ? 
2. "The Master," said Tzii Kung, " is 
benign, frank, courteous, temperate, de 
ferential and thus obtains it. The Master s 
way of asking, how different it is from that 
of others ! " 

CHAPTER XL - - The Master said : 
" While a man s father lives mark his 



X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 



country (.& euphonic aux.), certain!}- hears its policy, 
begs (he) it? or (do they) give it? ^ Policy, govern 
ment ; here probably the mode and condition thereof. 
I- ....... to any country, he does not fail etc. Z. in 

aliquod regnuni, profecto cognitionem capit ejus gubernii. 
K. he was always informed of the actual state and policy 
of its government. Couv. il recpit toujours des renseigne- 
ments sur 1 administration de 1 Etat. 

2 - & & ;> etc., and thereby he obtains it ; the 
Master s begging it, does not it indeed differ from others 
begging it? The f| strengthens the ^ C. ffl^ f[j 
J> Agreeable and artless. &^ g, ^ Suavely direct, 
not brusquely so. ^ J{1 fjjr^ Staidly respectful. $^ 
@j fij. Within bounds, temperate. ^^ It S> Retir 
ing, modest. 3t ff, f fj^ Aux. words. A ^ fill A > 
Others. Seeing him possessed of & ^ ^ ^^ "a per 
fect virtue so glorious as this, the princes of his day laid 
their policy before the Sage, and asked his advice." 
L. benign, upright, courteous, temperate and complaisant. 
Z. comitate, probitate, revcrentia, moderatione, obse- 
quentia. K. gracious, simple, earnest, modest and court 
eous. Couv. par sa douceur, son calmc, sun respect, sa 
tonne modeste ct sa deference. 

CHAPTER XL THE TEST OF FILIAL 
CHARACTER. H ^ is the period of mourning, 
during which a son should give himself up to the memory 
and service of his dead. C. While his father lives a son 
cannot follow his own devices, but his tendencies are 
already manifest, from which his character may be 
guaged. ^ Will, intention. L. While a man s father 

134 



THE ANALECTS I. XI, XII. 






ifn ^t = H * "I n i 

*D ffr f| 5fe i II ^ IB 

* * /!> 3E ^ ^ S 

Ul fir ^c ffl ^ 

tendencies ; when his father is dead mark 
his conduct. If for three years he does not 
change from his father s ways he may be 
called filial." 

CHAPTER XII. i. The philosopher 
Yu said : " In the usages of Decorum it 
is naturalness that is of value. In the regu 
lations of the ancient kings this was the 
admirable feature, both small and great 
arising therefrom. 2. But there is a natural 
ness that is not permissible ; for to know to 
be natural, and yet to be so beyond the 



! XI, MI- THE ANALECTS. 

is alive, look at the bent of his will ; dead, look at his 

conduct alter from the way of his father etc. Z. 

patre superstite, inspice illius animum ; actiones ; si 

nihil immutaverit a patris docunicntis, etc. K 

living, the son should have regard to what his father 

would have him do; dead, to what his father has 

done not change his father s principles, good 

son. Couv. Un fils doit consulter la volonte de son pere, 
tant que son pere est en vie, et ses exemples, quancl il est 
mort. 

CHAPTER XII. NATURALNESS THE FOUN- 
DATION OF GOOD MANNERS, i. For Yu Tzu see 
Intro. V. (In) Li s use naturalness is the valuable thing ; 
(in) former kings ways this was the excellent feature ; the 
small and great came from it. For jjjg see Intro. VIII. 
C - ?IK fig % ^ il& ^ Ho has the meaning of a 
natural not forced manner. Jg jjg $ {g gft Jg, $c 
H HI K @ $S SU For though Li as formulated 
is stringent, yet it entirely arises from natural principles. 
Re /J> ^ fa ;, L. sa)*s jg| or $g is the antecedent 
to ^^ but translates by an indefinite " them." ;f|j seems 
the more suitable antecedent. Kuan takes \\\ as (fc | 
accord wilh, and reads /h ^ ^ ^ ffl5 \\\ %j jpg 
ffi:> L. In practising the rules of propriety, a natural 
ease is to be prized. In the ways prescribed by the 
ancient kings, this is the excellent mialitv, and in thiivs 

1 ^ <> 

small and great we follow them. Z. riUiiim praxis facilit- 

atem habet potissimam ; et parvc et magna emanarunt 

inde. K. In the practice of art, what is valuable is natural 
spontaneity. According to the rules of art held by the 

136 



n 



THE ANALECTS. I. XII, XIII, XIV. 

+ + 

R3 = 

?;& 8c ft # f? IB 

* 

"* o 

^ ^ ^ II "I Z 

o 



restraints of Decorum, is also not permis 
sible." 

CHAPTER XIII. The philosopher Yu 
said : When you make a promise con 
sistent with what is right, you can keep your 
word. When you shew respect consistent 
with good taste, you keep shame and 
disgrace at a distance. When he in whom 
you confide is not one who fails his friends, 
you may trust him fully." 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said: 
The Scholar who in his food does not 

157 



I. XII, XIII. THK ANALECTS. 

ancient kings it was tin s quality in a work of ait which 
constituted its excellence ; in great as well as in small 
things the} were guided by this principle. Couv. Dans 
1 observation des devoirs nuituels, la concorclc est d un 
grand prix. 

2. There are occasions (when) not to be clone ; to 
know to be natural and to be natural without by Li 
restraining it, also may not be done. L. Yet it is not to 
be observed in all cases. If one, knowing how such ease 
should be prized, manifests it, without regulating it by the 
rules of propriety, this likewise is not to be clone. Z. At 
csfaliquid non agendum, etc. K. Rit in being natural 
there is something not permitted. Couv. connaitre le 
prix de la concorde, et faire tout pour la concorde, sans 
tenir compte du devoir etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. LOOK BEFORE YOU LEAP. 
(\\ hen) a promise approximates to the right, its terms can 
(or may) be responded to ; (with) respect in close touch 
with decorum, distanced are shame and disgrace ; the 
relied-upon not losing his intimates, he also may be taken 
as guide and counsellor. C. fg^ $YJ fg^ A covenant. 
5^ }* K> The rights of matters. fg, Jg f]\ 
Tread on, fulfil one s words, jg} See Intro. VI 1 1. gj ^ 
ift f ^ Resembles "rely on." g, ffi rjr .& A Re 
sembles chief, authority. Kuan. { |# ft& f$ $^ I^oth 
C. and Kmm interpret ^ ^ -JC ^> as "if he does not 
lose his proper friends. ^5B*flfclB^*JEW 
\ ^ L. \\hen agreements are made according to what is 
right, what is spoken can be made good. When respect is 
shewn according to what is proper, one keeps far from 

133 



THE ANALECTS. I. XIII, XIV. 

shame and disgrace. When the parties upon whom a 
man leans are proper persons to be intimate with, he can 
make them his guides and masters. Z. promissam accedat 
ad aequitatem etc., obsequium congruat cum ritibus etc., 
in adhacrcndo, ne omittas qui expetendi sunt, et sic potens 
diu inniti. K. If you make promises etc., you will be 
able to keep your word. If you confine earnestness 
within the bounds of judgment and good taste etc. If 
you make friends of those with whom you ought to, you 
will be able to depend upon them. Couv. Quand on 
peut accomplir sa promesse sans manquer a la justice, il 
faut tenir sa parole. Un respect et des egards conformes 
etc. nc sont ni honteux ni deshonorants. Si vous choisis- 

sez pour protectcur un homme digne de votre amitie 

vous pourrez lui rester attache a jamais. 

CHAPTER XIV. THE IDEAL STUDENT. Kuan 

a\ at; fc> tfc M; m, m a> c. /L m m 
*, m * 9s m z m, A 0f * a * , 

Every reference to Tao always means the law of the right 
and proper, the ought-so-to be in regard to man and 
things, that which is for all men to follow. L. He who 
aims to be a man of complete wisdom, in his food does 
not seek to gratify etc., nor in his dwelling-place does he 
seek the appliances of ease ; he is earnest etc. and careful 
in his speech ; he frequents the company of men of prin 
ciple that he may be rectified ; such a person etc. 

Z adit pncditos virtute ut dirigatur, etc. K. A wise 

and good man, in matters of food, should never indulge 

his appetite, He should seek the company of men of 

virtue and learning, in order to profit by their lessons and 

139 



I. XV. TIIK ANALECTS. 

example. In this way he may become a man of real 
culture. Couv ....... qui est expeditif dans les affaires et 

circonspect clans ses paroles, etc. 

CHAPTER XV. THE MODEL POOR, THE 
PATTERN RICH, and the pursuit of Perfection. I. fnj 
ill What like? TiJ Can do. ^ ft Not yet like--" the 
poor man who forgets his poverty, or the rich man who 
forgets he is rich." (C). C. =^ %\ J.jJ , Lowly and 
bending, cringing. ^ ff ^ Display, ostentation. 






C. 



#J ft f *> Bn ! ^ &J fff Kl n 0\ The com 
mon man is overwhelmed by his poverty or his wealth, 
and knows not how to maintain his self-control, -jf- JJ 

.t$ ^, SB # S, Bri fif JB * a ^ # N > 

/& PJi ft ^S |n r K Tzii Kuno- W as rich in possessions, 
for though fornicrly poor, he had become rich, yet had 
applied himself to self-control, hence this question. Conf. 
admits his excellence, but encourages him to still loftier 
attainments. L. \Yhat do you pronounce concerning the 
poor man who yet does not flatter, and the rich man who 
is not proud? ...... not equal to him who though poor is 

yet cheerful, ...... though rich, loves the rules of propriety. 

/,. esse pauper et non adulator, dives et non superbus, 
quomodo ? ...... pauper et hutus, dives et amans urbani- 

tatem. K. poor, servile ; rich, proud ; poor, cheerful ; 
rich and yet knows how to be courteous. Couv. dans la 
pauvrete vit content, ou qui au milieu des richcsse garde 
la moderation. 

2. Or, Like carving, like polishing; like cutting, like 
grinding ; that ( JL the ode) is the meaning of this ($f 

1.40 



THE ANALECTS. L XIV, XV. 

+ 

E 

*n m T-- B m B it 5}c 

o > * 

-7- a Jt "I n n t& 

EI m ti w 3^ g 



ni m it iffi m 
in M ffi ^ m ti * 

> 

* fI IS -Hi IE ;yj 

seek the gratification of his appetite, nor in 
his dwelling is solicitous of comfort, who is 
diligent in his work, and guarded in his 
speech, who associates with the high-prin 
cipled and thereby rectifies himself, such a 
one may really be said to love learning." 
CHAPTER XV. i. "What do you 

x / 

think," asked Tzu Kung, " of the man who 
is poor yet not servile, or who is rich yet 
not proud?" " He will do," replied the 
Master, " but he is not equal to the man 

141 



TIII-: AXAUXTS 
your remark) eh? The quotation is from the Odes, 

I. v. i. 2. c. F? Jft It JO ft. m iJJ [fii ffi ? 

> fe 5* ; ffiM JJ * , The Ode "praises the 
prince of Wei, \\lio had dealt with himself as an ivory- 
worker who first cuts the hone, and then files it smooth, 
or a lapidary whose hammer and chisel are followed by 
all the appliances for sir.ool.hinc;- and polishing " (I.). (* 

3. Jig Tz u Kun^ s name. Tz u ! At length I can 
with (him) discuss the Odes indeed. I have told him the 
preceding and he knows the succeeding, i.e. can draw an 
inference. L. With one like Tsze I can begin to talk- 
about the Odes. I told him one point and he knew its 
proper sequence. 7.. monui de praeccclentibus, et jam 
assequitur subsequentia. K. naw 1 can begin to speak of 
poetry to you. I see you understand how to apply the 
moral. Couv. sur ma reponse a sa question, il a aussitot 
compris la sens des \-ers (ju il a cites 

CHMTKR XVI.- Till : TROl KK STL DY OF 
;\1AXKIN1) IS MAN. Note ^ is not imperative, 
hence a nominative is required, which is usually under 
stood as the Sage himself. C. J\ f~ >fc fa ffi -ft ^ 
The philosopher seeks (satisfaction) \\ithin himself. L. I 
will not be afflicted at men s not knowing me, etc. 
/. non angor alios i:on meipsum cognoscere etc. K. ( )ne 
should r.ot l)e concerned r.ol to be understood of men, 
etc. Couv. Le sage ne s altlige pas etc. 



142 



THE ANALECTS. I. XV, XVI, 



A * =? rfri ffc KU ?Jr m H #f ^ 
-til B *n B ill Z #11 I* if R 

o 

*q * * te ii BS 5 * fl5 

S ^ KT ^ SD in -til ^ 

^ A IS & f )@ -KJ ?^s 

fii Z 1i -B S *n * ffii 

who is poor and yet happy, or rich and yet 
loves Courtesy." 2. Tzti Kung remarked: 
" The Ode says :- 

( Like cutting, then filing ; 

Like chiselling, then grinding. 
That is the meaning of your remark, is it 
not ? " 3. " Tz u ! " said the Master. " Now 
indeed I can begin to talk with him about 
the Odes, for when I tell him the premise 
he knows the conclusion." 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said. 
" I will not grieve that men do not know 
me ; I will grieve that I do not know 
men." 

H3 



II. I. -THE ANALECTS. 

VOLUME I. 
BOOK II. 

CONCERNING GOVERNMENT. 

THE TITLE of the Book, taken from the first two 
words, is " To Rule," and this is one of its principal 
subjects, but the book also treats of filial conduct, scholar 
ship, and other matters. 

CHAPTER I. THE MAGNETIC POWER OE 
ROYAL VIRTUE. $ (He who) conducts j& 
government J^ by gj (his) virtue f may be compared 
to ft Si the northern constellation, ffi (which) remains 
in 3 its $? place, jfjj and $fc all J| the stars dfc bend 
towards it. Cf. XV. 4. C. dh is to be pronounced 
and interpreted as fc = = |H]> & $ g JE ^, 0f 
J^J, JE A ^S ^ JE -liL> The meaning of "rule" is to 
rectify, viz., that whereby the incorrect is corrected. For 
{ft see Intro. VIII. ft M ft S, ^ Z $ -liL, The 
north constellation is the Pole Star, the axis of the 
heavens, like the axis of a millstone. $j jffc ] f;i 

K J T- id B5 K. ^ & m f3> M $ fln lS> When 

a Prince rules by his moral character transformation 
results without activity on his part, people believe him 
before the speaks, and without effort all succeeds well. L. 

He who exercises government by means of his virtue, 

north polar star, wh. keeps its place and all the stars turn 
towards it. Z. (ierens gubernium per virtutem, cst sicut 
polare sidus, etc. K. He who rules the people, dcpend- 

144. 



BE ANALECTS. II. Z. 

VOLUME I. 
BOOK II. 



KB &l 

^ * n 



CHAPTER I. The Master said : " He 
who governs by his. moral excellence may 
be compared to the Pole-star, which abides 
in its place, while all the stars bow towards 
it" 



II. II. THE ANALKCTS. 

ing on the moral sentiment, revolve around it. Couv. 

etoilcs so men vent autour d elle. 

CHAPTER II. VIRTUK TIIK SUM AND SUB 
STANCE OF TI II-: ( )DKS. The Odes in reality number 
311. Originally they were much more numerous, and 
Conf. is supposed to have reduced them to this number, 
against which idea this chapter militates, for he heie 
speaks of them as a compilation already recognised in his 
day. Probably he re-arranged and re -edited them. The 
phrase ,{g M Jffi is found in the ?$ IV. if. i., where 
in four stanzas the singlehearted devotion of Duke 
Hsi yjg of Lu, B. C. 659627, to his horse-breeding 
receives laudation. The ;th phrase of the first stanza 
is & *S SSK of the 2nd Si M- $N ( >f the 3 rd / fa 
ffc, and of the 4 th & $g JTO ; i.e. his thoughts for 
his horses were unlimited either by space, or In- 
time, they were unwearying, and never turned aside. 
Prom this unpromising lyric to a horsy Duke, Conf. 
selects the only strong phrase, and makes the undeviating 
attention of the Duke to his duty a lesson in morals and 
the text of all the Odes ! C. jj 1 ^ ffi :$ ill , To cover, 
embrace. Kuan. $& ;, {4 ft-, ^ -f says }& M W 
ft M -tiL> sincerity in thought. Kuan /JJ, J", Jj ^ >[; 
.lH> C. says the good odes stimulate the good in a man, 
and the ill ones restrain his wandering will. L. In the 

Book of Poetry embiaced in one sentence, Have no 

depraved thoughts. 7. mens careat obliquitate. K. The 

Book of Ballads, Songs and Psalms The UK nil 

summed up I lave no evil thoughts. Conv. Avoir des 

intentions droites. 



THE ANALECTS. II. II, III 



T WL =?~ 

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, ^Q Pf &* 

ffii 2 ti ^ 

m a 2, ^ iK 



CHAPTER II.-- The Master said: 
"Though the Odes number three hundred, 
one phrase can cover them all, namely, 
With undiverted thoughts " 

CHAPTER III. i. The Master said: 
" If you govern the people by laws, and 
keep them in order by penalties, they will 
avoid the penalties, yet lose their sense of 
shame. 2. But if you govern them by your 
moral excellence, and keep them in order 



fl- "I- THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER III. EXAMPLE BETTER THAN 
PRECEPT OR PENALTY, i C. JJL ?| ^; jlfj 
^t %L 4L> r<> lead, go before. Govern, in its original 
sense, suggests itself as the nearest equivalent, j^ ff\ } 
$1] & jh liU Ixiws and prohil)iiinns. ffo^ fij ^ jfij 
53 > Contrive to avoid the punishment. Hut tho they 
dare not transgress, their spirit remains the same. Kuan 
7 /f> If 7 #> Arrange, order. L. If the people be led by 
laws, and uniformity sought to be given to them by punish 
ment, they will try to avoid ete. Z. si clucas ilium 
componas ilium etc. K. If in govt you depend upon 
laws and maintain order by enforcing those laws by 
punishments, etc. Couv. Si le prince conduit le peuple au 
moyen des lois ct le retient dans unite au nioyen des 
chatiments, etc. 

2. Or, Guide them by moral principles, regulate them 
by Li, and they will have shame, arriving also at (good 
ness.) C. #K 3 -&; i.e. _= ^ ^ -HL, Reach to, ar 
rive at goodness. - |ft ifft IE -&> Another explana 
tion of fa is j to rectify. ^ ft ^ a$ flij g. [ft 
4] Fft ft 1$ jfij n -M ^ ^ the Prince himself so 
acts as to lead them, the p-ople have then a visible example 
to stimulate and arouse them. L. If they be led by virtue, 

and uniformity etc., by the rules of propriety, will 

become good. Z per virtutem, per ritus 

:itque adeo fiet rectus. K. If you depend upon the 

moral sentiment, and maintain order by encouraging 
education and good manners, .... emulate what is good. 
Couv. Si le prince dirige le peuple par ses bons exemples, 
etc. 



148 



THE ANALECTS. II. Ill, IV. 

eg 

+ -f- H = 31 IP M. Z 

ffn M + rfff ^ Ul 

o 

fri ^ if jfe H it 



by your decorous conduct, they will retain 
their sense of shame, and also live up to 
standard." 

CHAPTER IV. I. The Master said: 
" At fifteen I set my mind upon wisdom. 
2. At thirty I stood firm. 3. At forty I 
was free from doubts. 4. At fifty I under- 

149 



II- IV. THE ANALECTS. 

CIIAPTKR IV. Till-; SACK S PROGRESS. This 
interesting statement was made in the Sage s old age, after 
his return to Lu, and within a short time of his demise. 
Tta H H ^ f| says : As I look back in my old age 
on my progress in virtue, its various steps present them 
selves, i. Kuan # is X. C. ,r> ffi =j| 
; (The) heart s whither (we) call it chili. By ,l he 
meant the ^ ^ adult or higher education; n.b. the 3 
meanings of , The ^ |f says jj ^ & JI: jt, 
if & St -Jl : 3K In his knowledge he wanted truth, in 
his actions he wanted perfection. L. had my mind bent 
on learning. Z. animum applicavi ad magnam scientiam. 
K. made up my mind to give myself up to serious 
studies. Couv. je m appliquai a 1 etude de la sagesse. 

2. or, I found my feet. C. ft & Q Yr flj ^ 
H ffij *K fff IP i ^, Having acquired that where 
by he stood firm he had obtained thorough self-control, 
and no longer needed to serve his will (independent of a 
wavering will.) L. stood firm. Z. firmus constite. K. 
I had formed my opinions and judgment. Couv. je 
marchais d un pas ferine dans le chemin de la vertu. 

3. or, I was free from hesitancy, or delusion. C. Jfi 

** Vg 2. m ti m ft M W\ M H J *u 2. m rTri ^ 

ffi *$ }* Having no doubts about the rights of 
things hi.s knowledge was clear and he was independent of 
laborious performance. L. I hid no doubts. Z. jam 
non hn-siiabam. K. no more doubts. Couv. j avais 1 intel- 
ligence parfaitement eelaiiee. 

4- & ordinances, decrees, laws ; Intro. VIII. C. ^ 
^ SI ^ g[ fife ft ifij M *f !& ^ , By t ien ming 

150 



THE ANALECTS. II. IV, V. 



o o 



r * it m 

o 

$B ffr -f M 

o o 

m fill $ ffi ^ 



stood the laws of Heaven. 5. At sixty my 
ear was docile. 6. At seventy I could 
follow the desires of my heart without 
transgressing the right." 

CHAPTER V. i. When Meng I Tzu 
asked what filial duty meant, the Master 

answered : " It is not being disobedient." 

151 



.Ilrv, v. 



THE ANALECTS. 



is meant the operations and influence of the divine (or 
natural) law in creation. I., knew the decrees of II-aveii. 
Z. novi ctL-li providentiam. K. I understood the truth in 
religion. Couv. Je connaissais les ]<>is de la Providence. 

5. or, responsive. C. ^ } jfjj j|}. ^ Intuitively 
understood all he heard without the effort of thought. 

t> 

L. my ear was an obedient organ for the reception of 
truth. Z. amis faciles erat ad intelligendum. K. I could 
understand whatever I heard \vithuut exertion. Couv. 
Je comprenais, sans avoir besoin d y reflcchir, tout ce que 
mon oreille entendait. 

6. or, without overstepping the square. C. r /;[T^ j 
Be S $? &, 3$ ~)j ;ff, ^n instrument of measure 
ment for making ri . S (}uare ; i.e. a carpenter s square. C. 
finds it hard to reconcile this gradual development of 
Conf. with the accepted characteristics of a Sage, (Intro. 
VIII) that he is born with knowledge and puts it into 
practice with perfect ease; & jfij ftj , # ff[j \] & ^ 

I fence having to choose betwixt honesty and humility the 
latter is chosen, and this discourse is attributed to the 
humility of the Master, his aim being merely to indicate to 
others the ideal steps in life. Kvidently, as Dr. Legge 
says, " the Sages immediate disciples did not think of him 
so extravagantly as later men have done." L. I could 
follow what my heart desired etc. Z. quiii transgrederer 
regulam. K. without transgressing the law. Couv. en 
suivant les desirs de mon coeur, je ne transgressais aucune 
regie. 

CHAPTER V. FILIAL DUTY SUMMARISKD. 
i . This incident belorgs to the earl>- period of the Sage s 

152 



THE ANALECTS. II. V, VI. 

/A 

i II 2. $ isj S B3 -T 

o > 

$t &. Z 1 1 fa ^ ft 

f& 1 .-til. Sft ft-- 

o 

In) fl -? ^ = " i| 

o > 



2. Afterwards when Fan Ch ih was driving 
him the Master told him, saying : " Meng 
Sun asked me what filial piety meant, and 
I replied Not being disobedient. 3. Fan 
Ch ih thereupon asked, "What did you 
mean ? " The Master answered : " While 
parents live serve them with decorum ; 
when they are dead bury them with decorum, 
and sacrifice to them with decorum." 

CHAPTER VI. When Meng Wu Po 
asked what filial duty meant the Master 

153 



II. V. 



THE ANALECTS. 



life, while Meng I Tzu, i.e. Meng Sun, named -fnj <g< was 
his disciple, see Intro. P. 37. Conf. is supposed always to 
nave framed his answer to the need of the person 
addressed. Hence in this and in each of the three follow 
ing chapters his answer is different, though the subject is 
the same. $JL from Refractory and to go ; means in 
tractable, disobedient. C. says fa jg ffl ^ ft ft jg 
means, Not turn the back on, i.e. oppose right principles. 
Kuan, g ft or ^ jg ^ L. It is not being dis 
obedient. Z. nihil transgredi. K. Do not fail in what is 
required of you. Couv. suivre les prescriptions. 

2. For Fan Ch ih see Intro. V. C. ^ ^f jy ;g 

**mm*m w, 9 w & & m & ^ K 

fa 3$ ^ The Sage recognising that I Tzu had not 
fully apprehended his meaning, yet did not like to ask 
further, and fearing he would lose the lesson and consider 
mere obedience as filial duty, opened the meaning to 
Fan Ch ih for him to repeat. Kuan. f -g. f ^ j. /j 
S tui indicates a reply to a superior. L. Soon after etc. 
K. My Lord M asked me about what constituted the 
duty of a good son. 

3 . c. V* m %^m z-te & ^, TO 

serve them while living, to sacrifice to them when buried, 
this is the beginning and end of filial service, jftg Intro. 
VIII. ^g j says : Not to do what one ought to do, 
and to do what one ought not to do are alike 
unnlial, hence Li means to do just as one ought to 
do. C. says that at this time the three noble families 
of Lu, who it must be remembered were of ducal 
descent, had usurped rites they were not entitled to, and 

154 



THE ANALECTS. II. V, VI, VII. 

here Conf. wishes in an indirect manner to draw the atten 
tion of the youthful head of the great house, his father 
being already dead, to the usurpation. L. That parents, 

when alive, should be served when dead buried 

and sac rificed to according to propriety. Z. j uxta 

ritus. K do his duties to them, bury them 

honour their memory according to the rites prescribed by 
propriety. Couv. selon les prescriptions. 

CHAPTER VI. THE FILIAL SON AVOIDS 
CAUSING ANXIETY, jfc ft was eldest son of S f& 
hence the title fg^ His name was jU^ C. says the love 
of parents for their offspring knows no limits, and (translat 
ing P|| by <ft gjj) only fearing they will be ill are in 
constant anxiety. The moral is that the son must make 
his parents heart of anxiety his own, Jj[ ? ify ;, >jj %$ 
>jj^ and take care of himself 3 ^ C. also com 
mends the ancient interpretation A "P ffi flfi 3 isj: f* 

M ^ m W ^ m & & m m Ja K & $ , 

75 Pf BH 3* If a son can cause his parents no anxiety 
on the ground of wrong doing, but only on the ground of 
illness, he may be called filial. In this sense it may be 
interpreted : Let your parents have no other anxiety than 
that of your being sick. L. Parents are anxious lest 
their children should be sick. Z. parentes unice de illius 
infirmitate solliciti-sunt, or sint. K. Think how anxious 
your parents are when you are sick, and you will know 
your duty towards them. Couv. Les parents craignent 
par-dessus tout que leur fils ne soit malade. 

CHAPTER VIL FILIAL DUTY DEMANDS RE 
VERENCE. For Tzu Yu see Intro. V. More literally 

155 



II. VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

it reads : To day s filialncss consists in and means ability 
to nourish, but even (or down to) dogs and horses all can 
have nourishment ; without reverence how can they be dis 
criminated ? The ancient comm. interpreted by " but dogs 
and horses can offer sustenance." C. J 1 / ftg ^ iff g| 
Bff tfc ^ 3? fllj 91 ^ ^t ^ ^ fij |8, If while he 
can nourish his parents he yet falls short in reverencing 
them, where is the difference between him and the man 
who feeds his dogs and horses ? L. The filial piety of 
now-a-days means the support of one s parents. But dogs 
and horses likewise are able to do something in the way 
of support ; without reverence what is there to distinguish 
the one support given from the other ? Z. nunc tcmporis 
pietas filialis scilicet etc. ; at quoad canes et equos, ajque 
possunt habere alituram etc. K. The duty of a good son 
nowadays means only to be able to support his parents. 
But you also keep your dogs etc. alive, etc. Couv. les 

animaux recpivent aussi des hommes ce qui leur est 

necessaire. 

CHAPTER VIII. FILIAL DUTY: HOW DONE 
GREATER THAN WHAT DONE. Tzu Hsia. Intro. 
v - TEN This- ]>1 ffi take to be. fff viands, dainties. 
C. *, llfl^ Filial sons having gj $ ^ CC P J v ~ arc ?LJ 
^ good tempered, being good tempered they carry 
l fe fe cheerful countenance, having a cheerful 
countenance they maintain iqfa %$ an obliging bearing. 
An old interpretation was & \\^{ tyr fa j$ 
l!^> To fit (or submit) oneself to one s parents 
demeanour is the difficult}-. ^ ^> 3(1 5L -til * Earlier 
born seniors. |i > t^C ft ^ llL > To give them to 

156 



THE ANALECTS. II. VI, VII. 

t 

JK W /# ? #50, 

JS J | *. m * ffi Z 

* ,1 Rb IBJ -W: 



answered : " Parents should only have 
anxiety when their children are ill." 

CHAPTER VII. When Tzu Yu asked 
the meaning of filial piety the Master said : 
" The filial piety of the present day merely 
means to feed one s parents ; but even one s 
dogs and horses all get their food ; without 
reverence wherein lies the difference ? " 

157 



11. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

drink and cat. f> ffi g ^ Already. Kuan, ft 1L 

fi # Si t* ft! M tt -To m, ft-. , 

IS afio I- T nc difficulty is with the countenance. 
If when their elders hive any troublesome affairs, the 
young take the toil of them, etc. Z. oris alacritas, dif- 

ficilie ; an vero hoc reputabitur pietas filialis ? K 

The difficulty is with the expression of your look. That 
merely when anything is to be done, the young people do 
it, and when there is food and wine, the old folk are 
allowed to enjoy it, do you think that is the whole duty 
etc. Cotiv. II est difficile d^ tromper par un faux sem- 
blant de piete filiale. 

CHAPTER IX. HLT S ACTIONS SPOKE LOU 
DER THAN HIS WORDS. Hui, Intro. V. This was 
probably said after Hui s death. $ \] ^ To the end of 
the day, a whole day. C. ^ $ ^ ;g ^ ft ff ^ 
88 S RB SS K JS -tiL> He was never contran-, but 
took all in and raised no difficulties. ^ f, j 116 J/J $$ 
g| A \\lien alone, i.e. when not receiving instruction. 
. I n 9t W W\ W 31, Demonstrated and ex 
hibited the principles I had discussed. L. I have talked 
with Hwuy etc. not made any objection. He has retired, 
and I have examined his conduct when away from me, 
and found him able to illustrate my teachings. Hwuy ! 
he is not stupid. Z. non contradicit quasi esset stolidus. 

par est splendidam executionem ; Hoei porro non est 

stolidus. K. one whole day I find he has been able 

to profit by what I have said to him. No, he is not a 
man dull of understanding. Couv. Houei ecoute mcs 
explications toute une journee sans etc. 

153 



THE ANALECTS. II. VIII, IX. 

A A 

? & % ffi -* 

K * *f W 5 

ft ft ?f 1 S ^ B9 

# jto J* fi ^ sfr ^ o 

& o HI ^ * ? ^ 

a d m ^ ^ m 

<t\ M. II K & 

CHAPTER VIII. --When Tzu Hsia 
asked the meaning of filial piety the Master 
said : " The demeanour is the difficulty. 
When there is anything to be done, that the 
young should undertake the burden of it ; 
when there is wine and food that they 
should serve them to their seniors ; is this 
to be considered filial piety ? " 

CHAPTER IX. The Master said : " I 
could talk to Hui for a whole day and he 
never raised an objection, as if he were 
stupid ; but when he withdrew and I ex 
amined into his conduct when not with me, 
I nevertheless found him fully competent to 
demonstrate what I had taught him. Hui I 



159 



II. X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER X. CHARACTER WILL OUT. Note 
the double climax J, R, ? ; l^U |Jl , \ I. Jl 
composed of 2, already twice joined j^} ,, " to indicate 
the thought and action already done." Wms. It is used 
in the sense of ^f or J}]^ C. JJU %% $l. To do. 3$ 

* ^f S ?4 : K $ SI # S /h A, He who does 
good is a man of virtue, he who does ill is a petty man. 

i> C- {(pi Jt li $ g ife> H i* morc precise than 
JSl} &> t# -l!L>, Whence, motive. Tho a man do good, 
if his motive be otherwise he is still no ^J -j^ 

3- C. ^ KI] X ^ n > ^ involves increased 
precision. ^ JJf ||| ^^ That in which he delights. 
Tho both the course of action and the motive be right, if 
the man take no delight therein he is feigning, and how 
can he for long maintain it ? 

4- C. Jg^ fij &, How? g, g ^ Hide, con 
ceal. How can the man be hidden? L. Sec what a man 
does. Mark his motives. Examine in what things he rests. 
How can a man conceal his character! etc. 7.. respice 

quid talis agot, observa motivum, examina cle- 

lectetur ; homo qui unquam latebit ? etc. K. You look 

at how a man acts; find out his tastes ;... how can 

he hide himself from you ? Couv. Si Ton considere les 

actions d un homine, observe motifs, examine 

ce qui fait son bonheur, pourra-t-il cacher ce qu il est ? 

CIIAITI^:R XL "THINGS NEW AND OLD" 

Alt Nil. 52. Or, Warm up your old and learn the new, 
and you may become a teacher ol others. Kuan. ^^ 

&\ i \, c. > x m> oid. % K n m 2. ^ w 

M n K <6 !TiJ 0? fill ^ Ft1> The learning that con- 

160 



THE ANALECTS. II. X, XI, 

+ 

TT I I -P^- r/~* ~tf* I I tit 

pj 3c A B ffi 

o 



he was not stupid/* 

CHAPTER X. i. The Master said: 
"Observe what he does; 2. look into his 
motives; 3. find out in what he rests. 4. 
Can a man hide himself! Can a man hide 
himself!" 

CHAPTER XI. The Master said : 
" He who keeps on reviewing his old and 
acquiring new knowledge may become a 
teacher of others." 

161 



II. XI, XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

sists merely of memorising and questioning 
mental power, and the result is a shallow knowledge. L. 
If a man keeps cherishing his old knowledge, so as to 
be continually acquiring new, he may be a teacher of 
others. Z. recole antiqua et hinc deduc nova, et poteris 
fieri preceptor. K. If a man will constantly go over 
what he has acquired, and keep constantly adding to it, 
etc. Couv. Celui qui repasse dans son esprit ce qu il sait 
deja, et par ce moyen acquiert de nouvelles connaissances, 
pourra etc. 

CHAPTER XII. THE VERSATILITY OF THE 
WISE MAN. # originally a receptacle, later any 
utensil receptive or instrumental ; ?$ JDL; 2S =& > t9 ?S , 
C. 8S * # it * ffl ffiJ * m tt 51> Every utcn- 
sil is suited to its own particular use and not for universal 
employment. But the virtuous scholar |f. 4$ 3$ " ^ 
- || is not limited to one talent or one art. L. The 
accomplished scholar is not an utensil. Z. Sapiens non 
est imius usus vas. K. A wise man will not make him 
self into a mere machine fit only to do one kind of work. 
Couv. (il est apte a tout.) 

CHAPTER XIII. PRACTICE. BEFORE PREACH 
ING. A stronger phrase even than " He preaches what 
he practises." Tzu Kung Intro. V. He first acts his 
speech and afterwards ^ follows up . nis already 
materialised words with speech. C. ff . K %> H . 
fa FT K BE ft ^ He does it before he says 
it, and says it after he has done it. -jf- ^\ /jj ^p- 
fi H ifiJ ft 2, H, Tzu Rung s weakness lay not 
in difficulty of saying, but in difficulty of doing. L. Tsze 

162 



THE ANALECTS. II. XII, XIII, XIV. 



> * -T fc B ? ^ 
It Q l ft * 

o ^ "* * 



m z 



A ^ 






it JS s ^ 

o 

rfn rfi) ffri iF 



CHAPTER XII. The Master said: 
;< The higher type of man is not a machine." 

CHAPTER XIII. On Tzu Kung ask 
ing about the nobler type of man the Master 
said : " He first practises what he preaches 
and afterwards preaches according to his 
practice." 

CHAPTER XIV.- -The Master said: 
" The nobler type of man is broad-minded 
and not partisan. The inferior man is 
partisan and not broad-minded." 

163 



II. XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

Kung asked what constituted the superior man He 

acts before he speaks and afterwards speaks according to 
his actions. K. similar. Z. prius agit quae elicit, et 
postca vcrba rein scquuntur. Couv. Le sage commence 
par faire ee qu il vent cnseignrr ; cnsuite il enscigne. 

CHAPTER XIV. -PHILOSOPHY ANT) PRE- 
JUDICK. Or, The Philosopher is catholic, tolerant, and 
not bigoted. For f* -^ and /J> /; sec Intro. VIII. 
C - EU W ffi -ft.* To extend everywhere. J^ fg 
H $L^ Biassed and party-spirited. Also J^K & ; Im 
partial, and Jt> & prejudiced. Kuan. $K JS] l] or fc 
J J> ffi ?^> I- The sup. man is catholic and no 
partizan. The mean man etc. 7. Sapiens est univorsalis 
et non factiosus ; vulgaris homo est privati affectus, non 
universalis benevolentine homo. K. A wise man i\s 
impartial not neutral. A fool etc. Couv. Le sage aime 
tons les homines, et n a de partialite pour personne. 
L homme vulgaire etc. 

CHAPTER XV. LEARNING BY ROTE AND 
LEARNING WITH THOUGHT. Or, Education with 
out meditation is useless. Meditation without education is 
risky. C. ;p ft fg ,fr /^ fi, rfjj M fi^ He who does 
not reflect will remain ignorant and learn nothing. 
B. -7- says f|J ^i, $ RJ, B, { ^) , IS ff, S 
;jff ^: ;^ - - ^[-: S$ .^^ Wide culture, close investiga 
tion, careful excogitation, clear discrimination, unfailing 
practice, of these five features if one be discarded what 

remains is no longer learning. I perilous. Z. ad- 

discere quin reflectas, tune cvanescat : periculosum. 

K. Study etc. perilous. Couv. Entendre ou lire sans 

164 



THE ANALECTS. II. XV, XVI, 

t * ..---r S-: 

Z B Ur nil 

> 

^s* *v> H J IHJ ^4 

"* "* 

^n n -tfi, ^ s& /s ifn 

o 

* e n ffij ^ 



CHAPTER XV. - - The Mastei said : 
" Learning without thought is useless. 
Thought without learning is dangerous." 

CHAPTER XVI. - - The Master said : 
" To devote oneself to irregular speculations 
is decidedly harmful." 

CHAPTER XVII. - - The Master said : 
" Yu ! Shall I teach you the meaning of 

165 



II. XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

reflechir, est une occupation vainc ; reflechir, sans livrc ni 
maitre, est dangercux. 

CHAPTER XVI. THE STUDY OE HERESY 
HARMFUL. Or, to apply oneself to heterodoxy is 
hurtful indeed. K. ^ fl [ !I j f$ devote oneself to. 

c. #, n jg & & J$ * 5 & s x P #, 

Kung means entirely working upon, hence to work in 
wood, stone, metal or precious stones is called kung. 
One would like to credit Conf. with advising his disciples 
not to "attack" Jfc heterodoxy, but such a view would 
be heterodox indeed! ft Jg ^ flS A Jtt. *1 t% 
fi & iilo K * ^ T m m ft 3(1 ft S, " Strange 
doctrines " means, whatever is not the Sage s teachings, 
as for example those of Yang and Mei, who would lead 
the Empire to deny both father and prince (anarchy), 
jg : T adds Buddhism, and the H ( & 8k Taoism. 
But Yang and Mei were of a generation subsequent to 
Conf., Buddhism was unknown in China, and Taoism not 
yet formulated as a system. Probably the strange 
notions referred to were the spiritualistic extravagances 
already existing in China, which are referred to in VII. 
20, and wh. were at a later elate incorporated in Taoism. 
L. The study of strange doctrines is injurious indeed. 
Z. applicari ad insolitas doctrinas, id est detrimentosum. 
K. To give oneself up to the study of metaphysical 
theories etc. Couv. Etudier cles doctrines opposees (aux 
enseignemcnts cles anciens sages), c est nuisible. 

CHAPTER XVII. RECOGNITION OE IGNO 
RANCE IS GOOD EOR KNOWLEDGE. For ft 
see Intro. V. ffli ft , Tzu Lu. C. ^ ffi ^ ftj Jj 

1 66 






THE ANALECTS. II. XVII, XVIli. 

+ " 
A 



ffl 



tfe 

fir li i 



knowledge? When you know a thing to 
recognise that you know it, and when you 
do not know that you do not know, that 
is knowledge." 

CHAPTER XVIIL i. Tzu Chang was 
studying with a view to preferment. 2. The 
Master said to him : " Hear much, reserve 
whatever causes you doubt, and speak 
guardedly of the rest; you will then suffer 
little criticism. See much, reserve whatever 
seems imprudent, and act guardedly as to 
the rest; you will then have few regrets. 

167 



II. XVII, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

% {J $i ^ What lie did not know he passed off as know 
ing. L. When you know a thing to hold that you know 

it; to allow that you do not know it. Z. quod scis 

reputes id scire, etc. K. To know what it is that you 
know, and to know what it is that you do not know, that 
is understanding. Couv. Ce qu on sait, savoir qu on le 
sait ; ce qu on ne sait pas, savoir qu on ne le sait pas: c est 
savoir veritablement. 

CHAPTER XVIII. THE DISCREET PROSPER. 
I. Tzii Chang. Intro. V. C, T^ ^ -i!L> Aim at. 
fSo ft ^ ^ $L^ An officer s pay Jjs^ L. learning 
with a view to official emolument. Z. aspirabat ad 
magistrates stipendia. K. studying with a view to pre 
ferment. Couv. etudiait en vue d obtenir une charge avec 
des appointements. 

2. Kuan. Mo ^ W m I; , #fc Sf > C. jg = 
says ^ Pg g f 3? ^ ; $^ H @ ft Hi <?. Yu 
is blame coming from without. Hui is the truth coming 
from within. ^ [JH ^ ^f /}l ^ fffi ! P3 |/ #j -?f ff 
^ M; !^ tl Tf ^f -vj : ^ #tK lo hear and observe 
much is the widening of culture ; to reserve the doubtful 
and risky is the essence of selection (discretion) ; to speak 
and act warily is the restraining advantage of self control. 
??. T" says ff^ ^C HJ Un A fi? .^:> He who cultivates 
the dignities divine will acquire dignities human ; see Menc. 

VI. i. 1 6. I put aside the points of which you 

stand in doubt, while you speak cautiously etc afford 

few occasions for blame perilous few occasions for 

repentance in the way to get emolument. /. multis 

auditis sepone inccrta, et caute dicas reliqua ; tune 

1 68 



THE ANALECTS. II XVIII, XIX, XX. 



-F |i m -T ffi 

iisj s & j 9k 

fi * fl& {sj 

K jR o ^ ip S 

% it fliJ 4- 



With little for criticism in your speech, and 
little to regret in your conduct, herein you 
will find preferment." 

CHAPTER XIX. Duke Ai enquired 
saying : " What should I do to ensure the 
contentment of the people ? " " If you pro 
mote the upright and dismiss the ill-doer," 
replied Confucius, "the people will be 
contented ; but if you promote the ill-doer 
and dismiss the upright, the people will 
be dis-contented." 

CHAPTER XX. When Chi K ang Tzu 
asked how to inspire the people with respect 

169 



II. XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

modicum errabis ; en stipendium in his consisit. K. 
Read and learn everything, but suspend your judgment 
on anything of \vh. you are in doubt ; for the rest, 
be careful in what you say : in that way you will 
give few occasions for men to criticise etc. Mix with 

the world and see everything, but do not meddle 

with self-reproach ; cannot help getting preferment, 

even if you would. Couv A pros avoir beaucoup 

vu (considere les exemples des anciens et des mo- 
dernes), etc. 

CHAPTER XIX. JUSTICE MAKES A CON 
TENTED PEOPLE. Ai (name }g) was Duke of Lu 
(B. C. 494-467) when Confucius was recalled from his 
voluntary exile. See Intro. II. Hence this conversation 
must have occurred late in the Sage s life, gg originally 
written jjj#^ to manage a boat, (Wms), hence governed, 
acquiescent. Note the JL ? Sf tne Sage s name being 
given and the jjsj 1 used in deference to the rank of the 
interlocutor. The [g and ^^ straight and crooked, are 
generally interpreted in the concrete sense rather than in 
the abstract, referring to men rather than to affairs. C. f^ o 
^ ffi> T sct down, or aside. g| o ^ ^ plural. 
Kuan. fcjBJEeWAoSSWffilt^fliL ft] A, 
L. What should be done in order to secure the submis 
sion of the people Advance the upright and set aside 

the crooked, then the people will submit etc. Z. quid 

a gam etc eleva probos, abdica omnes perversos, tune 

populus acquiescet. K. Uphold the cause of the just 
and put down every cause that is unjust, and the people 
will submit. Couv. Si le prince eleve aux charges les 

170 



THE ANALECTS. TI. XX, XXI. 

homines vertueux, et ecarte tous les hommes vicieux, le 
peuple sera satisfait ; mecontent. 

CHAPTER XX. MUTUAL EMULATION BY 
PRINCE AND PEOPLE. ^ $ ? posthumous title 
f ^ n KU chief of the three great families of Lu, 
II. 5. jj " Easy and pleasant, people-soother" (L). Jg 
l;he Fat. The Jgt is generally ignored here, apparently 
without reason ; L. takes it as |(l ^ C. j ffi ^ fg gg 
Jdl -&> With grave and reverend mien. 2| o ^ jft ^ 
Kind to all. H is taken in the sense of moral goodness, 
and ffjf,, tho persuasible suggests itself, is taken in an 
active sense, R- ft Jft ft B JK ft *<> Kuan. 

UK 1& jit ftil -&> L to urge themselves to virtue. 

Let him preside over them with gravity advance 

the good and teach the incompetent ; then they will eager 
ly seek to be virtuous. Z sicque ad virtutem ex- 

citetur promove bonos et instrue debiles, tune ex- 

citabitur. K to inspire a feeling of respect and loyalty 

in the people, in order to make them exert themselves for 

the good of the country Advance those who excel in 

anything and educate the ignorant, etc. Couv. Que le 

P rince eleve aux charges les hommes de bien et forme 

ceux dont la vertu est encore faible, et il excitera le peuple 
a cultiver la vertu. 

CHAPTER XXL THE PUBLIC SERVICE NOT 
CONEINED TO OFFICE. I. This incident is at 
tributed to the first year of Duke Ting. B. C. 509. The 
use of the Sage s surname indicates that the enquirer was 
not a disciple. 

2. The quotation is from the g g N XXI. i, where 

171 



II. XXI, XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

a minister is appointed in consequence of his exhibition of 
these qualities, the extension of \vh. makes good govern 
ment, as the State is but an extension of the family. J& 
K ft 5fc> Are to be exhibited in the holder (or affairs) 
of office. ^ Jt> \Vhy should THAT $ (JJl ) be 
deemed 3$ jgfc to be exercising government. Kuan. Jg 

= (S ffl #;* = > c. }L T- * fi *f 

Jg^ It was difficult (not polite) for Conf. to announce his 

real reason for refusing office. L. What does say 

of filial piety?-- You are filial, you discharge your 
brotherly duties. These qualities are displayed in govt. 
This then also constitutes the exercise of govt. Why 
must there be THAT to make one be in the govt. Z. 
annales nonne memorant pietatem ? Scilicet pietatem et 
benevolcntiam in fratres, extencle ad habendum gubernium, 
hoc etiam est gerere gubernium ; etc. K. What does the 
Book of Records say of the duties of a good son ? Be 
dutiful to your parents ; be brotherly to your brothers ; 
discharge your duties in the govt of your family ! These 

then are also duties of govt etc. Couv pourquoi ne 

prcnez vous aucunc part au gouvt? Fairc regner la 

vertu dans sa famille par son exemple, c est aussi gouver- 
ncr. Remplir une charge, est-cc la seule maniere dc 
prcndre part au gouvt? 

CHAPTER XXII, GOOD FAITH THE LINK 
BETWEEN A MAN ANT) HIS PROGRESS, fg, 
A man standing by his word, reliable, faithful. The ft 
fft says : As $ or <j% is the link connecting ( ftj Jg ) 
the ox or horse to the carriage, so fff is the link connect 
ing man and man r_i A *H f% ^ C Thc * * 

172 



THE ANALECTS. II. XX, XXI. 

it 



n IK- wi & 2. &. 

WL IP] & Ul ift 

T != TL = ffi to 

B =- M flij 



% 
flij ^ 



and loyalty, so that they might be mutually 
emulous (for the welfare of the State), the 
Master said : " Lead them with dignity and 
they will be respectful; be filial and kind 
and they will be loyal ; promote those who 
excel and teach the incompetent, and they 
.will encourage each other." 

CHAPTER XXL i. Some one address 
ed Confucius \vith the remark : " Why, Sir, 
are you not in the public service?" 2. The 
Master answered : " Does not the Book of 
History say concerning filial duty, But 

i73 



II. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

is described as a wagon for drawing loads on level ground. 
It was drawn by an ox or oxen yoked between the shafts. 
The /J> Ip was a carriage to ride in, drawn by a pair of 
horses attached to a pole. The jg and the $[ to k the 
place, at the opposite end of the shaft, of our modern 
splinter-bar, or \vhifflc-tree, being the cross-bar to wh. the 
animals were attached ; in the former case it ( jgi ) seems to 
have been attached to the two shafts, in the latter case 
( $)[ ) to have hung from the curved end of the carriage- 
pole, tho C. implies that they were, in the one case, a 
hook or similar attachment on the cross-bar, and in the 
other case, the hooked end of the pole itself, igio $& SS 

K * *H a m * #o ee, e mi 

j;jt $g ^ ^ L truthfulness etc. How can a large 

caniage be made to go without the cross-bar for yoking 
the oxen to, or a small carriage without the arrangement 

for yoking the horses. Z. veracitate magnum 

plaustrum sine bourn jugo, ct parvus currus sine equorum 
jugo. K. good faith. A cart without a yoke and a car 
nage without horses, etc. Couv. sincerite. joug pour le 

boeuf, joug pour les chevaux. 

CHAPTER XXIII. THE PAST THE MIRROR 
OF THE FUTURE. I. For Tzu Giving see Intro. V. 
Jit while meaning a generation of 30 years is here usually 
interpreted by dynasty, viz. C. 3 -ft %j t& Q fo 
.@ -- jilr^ \Vhen a royal line of different surname from 
its predecessor receives its (Divine) appointment it forms a 
jU; dynasty. L. whether the affairs of ten ages after 
could be known. /. an decem dynastiarum detur 
praenoto. K. the state of the civilisation of the world. 

174 



THE ANALECTS. II. XXI, XXII, XXIII. 

-tt 



-HI 



pi m m A 

+ * B5 

flfc <SJ * & 



one s duty as a son and friendliness to one s 
brethren are shewn forth in the public 
service ? These then are also public service. 
Why should that idea of yours be considered 
as constituting public service ? " 

CHAPTER XXII. The Master said : " 
A man who is without good faith I do 
not know how he is to get on. A waggon 
without its yoke-bar for the ox, or a carriage 
without its collar-bar for the horses, how can 
it be made to go ? " 

CHAPTER XXIIL Tzu Chang asked 
whether the condition of things ten ages 



II. XXIII, XXIV. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

Couv. ce que feraient les cnipcrcurs dc dix dyn. suc- 
cessives. 

- H /I* ( or $5) and IS wcrc thc threc k rrcat cl > n - 

of antiquity. Conf. answers that thc main principles of 
society are inalterable. C. $? 8FJ H IB S tt\ 
\\ hat are perpetuated are the three bonds of society and 
the five cardinal virtues, i.e. the bonds between JJ and \\\^ 
and : JF> ^ and ^ ; and thc virtues f- f jpS ^ 
fg^ Non-essentials may change, e.g. >C $ and ififj 1SU 
but not the essentials Kuan, ffi^ft ^; S^jH ^> 
L. followed the regulations of the Hea ; wherein it took 

from or added to them may be known Some other 

may follow the Chow, but tlio it should be at the distance 
of a hundred ages, its affairs may be known. /,. Yin in- 
nitebatur in dynastias Ilia principles, etc. qure forte 
succedcnt dyn. Tcheou, licet centum essent dyn., possunt 
sciri. K. The present Chou d)-n. adopted the civilisation 
of the Mouse of Yin ; what modification, etc. Perhaps 
some other may hereafter etc ; but should that happen a 
hundred generations after this, etc. Couv. La dyn. cles 
Tcheou a adopte les prescriptions de la dyn. des In, etc. 

CHAPTKR XXIV. SYCOPHANCY AND PUSIL 
LANIMITY. I. jU nicans - disembodied spirit, i.e. 
the manes of one s ancestors. Kuan. A E 33 )U> C. 
2f- 3l : J5? i& % Z- &> Xot a s P irit hc ought to wor- 
-hip. ji 3-: 5R Si -lll> Currying favour, toadying. K. ^ 
!/_$, ^C>, L. I or i nian to sacrifice to a spirit \\h. does 
not belong to him is flattery. 7,. )U genius, jj$ adulatio. 
K. To \vorshi[) a spirit to whom one is not bound by a 
real feeling of duty or respect is idolatry. 



THE ANALECTS. II. XXIII, XXIV 

1t 

m 

* ?! K WL ffi =?-- 

*n Uc if ^ . 

!N m H ffr nj jR 



5a %( & iii ^ 

ifn . Sfi "RT /a S 

t W ^P E II 

tt 



hence could be foreknown. 2. The Master 
answered : " The Yin dynasty perpetuated 
the civilisation of the Hsia ; its modifications 
and accretions can be known. The Chou 
perpetuated the civilisation of the Yin, and 
its modifications and accretions can be known- 
Whatever others may succeed the Chou, their 
character, even a hundred ages hence, can 
be known." 

CHAPTER XXIV.- -i. The Master 
said : " To sacrifice to a spirit not one s own 

177 



II. XXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

2. Kuan, gg E flK ffj Duty. L.K. What is right. 
Z. esse aequum. Couv. une chose qu il sait etre do son 
devoir. IQ^ L.K. Couv. courage. Z. fortitudine- 



178 



THE ANALECTS. II. XXIV. 



-tii 



is sycophancy. 2. To see the right and not 
do it is cowardice." 



III. 1. 



The Analects. 
VOLUME II. 



BOOK III. 



THE EIGHT DANCERS. 

CONCERNING MANNERS AND Music. 

CONTENTS OF THE BOOK. As the first Book 
treats of Learning and its fundamentals, and the second of 
Right Principles of Government, the third proceeds to the 
consideration of Ceremonies and Music, those adjuncts of 
good government so dear to the heart of Confucius. 

CHAPTER I. USURPATION OE RITES LEADS 
TO USURPATION OE RIGHTS. Date circ. 515 B.C. 
The 2J % and ^ families were all descendants of Duke 
I luan /| ; if B.C. 710, upon whom permission to use Imperial 
rites had been bestowed ; but for a mere cadet . like Chi to 
employ them amounted to an assumption of ducal powers, 
just as an offering of the Imperial sacrifice to Heaven by 
any one but the Emp. would to-day be tantamount to the 
assumption of sovereignty. The C omm. say. If he could 
bear to do this he could bear to anything ; even to murder 
his parent or his prince. As to the A $ there is a 
difference of opinion in regard to the number of performers. 
C. says some assert that an Emp. had 8 bands of 8 men, a 
noble 6 of 6, a minister 4 of 4 ; and an officer 2 of 2 ; 
others that every { consisted of 8 men. The men waved 

1 80 



III. I, II. 



The Analects. 



VOLUME II. 
BOOK III. 



K . =P. E & 8 it ft 

A 

IF * * * 



* > 

T 

CHAPTER I. Confucius said of the 
head of the House of Chi, who had eight 
rows of dancers performing in his Temple : 
" If he can bear to do this, what can he not 
bear to do ? " 

CHAPTER II. The members of the 
three great houses of Lu used the Yung Ode 
at the removal of the sacrifices. The Master 
said : 

181 



Ill- I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

wands with pheasants tail feathers attached, as the f# ^ 
still do at the Conf. sacrifices. Z. makes the remark of 
Conf. begin with ^ J^ but the Comm. are against such 
an interpretation. J formerly meant $J^ but is now 
used for a married woman s paternal surname. Another 
interpretation of & pj & etc. is. If this can be borne 
what may not be borne ! L. eight rows of pantomimes in 
his area etc. Z. octo choros saltantes in aula ; id potest 
ferre, quid jam non poterit audere. K. eight sets of 

choristers in their family chapel If this is allowed to 

pass etc. Couv. huit choeurs de pantomimes qui chantaicnt 

dans le cour S il ose se permettre un tel abus, etc. 

CHAPTER II. A VERSE THAT DID NOT FIT. 
The H ^ were the three noble families of Lu, cadets of 
the ducal house, known as ] $^ ^ Jg and ^ ^ > 
L. They assembled together, as descendants of Duke 
Huan, in one temple. To this temple belonged the gj 
named in last chapter, wh. is called ^ J gs^ because 
circumstances had concurred to make ^ J the chief of 
the three families. For the $ (|f ) Ode wh. they impro 
perly used see J$ |g Ft IV. Bk I (ii) Ode vii. C. jfg 
& W: lift % it ffl. &3 The withdrawal of the utensils 
at the close of the sacrifice, ffi, $J) ^ o Aiding, ffi 
&, fft & -tiLo Princes, or nobles. J ^ gg JS 
S> Profound and far-away, exalted, absorbed ; L. pro 
found and grave ; Z. religione plenus ; K. august ; 
Couv. tres rcspectueuse. The ^ is translated nonnisi by 
Z ; and by tons and solomodo by Couv. ; but it seems 
better treated as a euphonic auxiliary ; Kuan interprets 
by jg ^ L while the vessels were being removed, 

182 



THE ANALECTS. III. III. IV. 

Assisting are the princes, the Emp. looks etc. Z ad 

tollendam sac rificii mensam quomodo usu rpatu r etc . 

K. concluded the service in their chapel by chanting the 
hymn used only on occasions of Imperial worship. 

CHAPTER III. WORSHIP WITHOUT VIRTUE 
INCONGRUOUS. A ffi) etc. A man yet without 
as to gg what? For {^ gg and see Intro VIII. 
C. jjjit *J| are attributes ot the true man, and apart from 
the true man, however elaborate they be, of what use are 
they ? C. thinks that this cap. arises out of the two last, 
and indicates that the character and temple service of the 
three Families are referred to. Kuan says : A man 
without a natural (i.e. good) heart ;. t fo how are you to 
teach him fi ^ ? L. If a man be without the virtues 
proper to humanity what has he to do with the rites of 

propriety? music? Z. homo qui non sit pius, quoad 

ritus quomodo? K without moral character, what 

good can the use of the fine arts do him ? Couv. peut-il 
accomplir les ceremonies? cultiver la musique ? 

CHAPTER IV. SINCERITY BETTER THAN 
FORMALITY. I. Lin Fang, Intro. V. C. says the 
lavishness of the age prompted this question, jjjg Intro 
VIII. ; has two meanings f& ; and ;fc j& (fj ^ 
/f& ^1 would give " the radical principles in ceremonies/ 
but the & H| interprets it here by ^ jfe^ initial prin 
ciple, or first thing. L. the first thing to be attended to 
in ceremonies. Z. petiit rituum potissimum. K. the 
fundamental principle of art. Couv. la chose la plus 
necessaire. 

2. $fc " An exclamation of praise or surprise " Wms. 

183 



III. IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

Kuan. 28 fll #j P ^ C. Conf. ^ :j(: $\ magnified 
his question, for he who understood the ^(C would find 
therein the whole body of li, jjig ;> - fjg^ LZ. idem. 
K. That is a very great question. Couv. Oh ! que cette 
question est importante ! 

3. $1 :H: 5| Rather then be lavish better be frugal. 

jj is of two kinds, | and [^^ felicitous and infelicitous. 
Here as contrasted with jj(jj it is taken by the jfjjj jfj* 
comni. to refer to " jfi[ felicitous occasions, e.g. -^ j($ 
^ Capping (when coming of age), marriage, and sacrifices. 
^- |> in -tiLo control, attend to; e.g. Mencius VII. I. 
23. g :R IB Kgf " Let them carefully cultivate their 
grain fields and flax fields." Kuan. ^ , tfj iji f|: #, 
C. The golden mean betueen lavishness and economy, 
between ceremoniousness and excessive grief, is the desi 
deratum. The external rites should symbolise the internal 
emotion, for ^fe ^f ^ J JM $. fl %l reality takes prece 
dence of expression, and ^J 75 K ^. ^- -liL>, the sub 
stantial emotion is the basis of li. L. In festive ceremonies 

it is better to be sparing than extravagant ceremonies 

of mourning .deep sorrow than a minute attention to 

observances. Z. In ritibus potius quam prodigalites 

pracstat sobrietas : concinnitas moeror. K. in the 

art used in social usages it is better to be simple than to be 
expensive etc. Couv. il faut micux roster en-dec.a des 

limites que de les depasser, la douleur qu un appa- 

roil pompeux. 

CHAPTER V.UXCIVILISK1) ORD1CR BiaTKR 
Tl IAN CIVILISED ANARCI IY. An alternative interp. 
is : The I Ti with their princes are not in the bereft 

184 



THE ANALECTS. III. Ill, IV. 

m E 

$: to it S H 



1 M A 






& iii tfe 11 1*1 A M 

-til $ fnl M * 

o 



" * Assisted by princes and noblemen, 
Solemnly stands the Son of 

Heaven, - 

What application can this have in the Hall 
of the three Families ! " 

CHAPTER III.- -The Master said : " A 
man who is not virtuous, what has he to do 
with worship ? A man who is not virtuous, 
what has he to do with the music (of the 
temple) ? " 

CHAPTER IV. i. Lin Fang asked 
what was the chief principle in ceremonial 
observances. 2. The Master answ r ered : 
" A great question indeed ! 3. In ceremo- 

185 



III. V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

condition of all our Summer Land. ^ the tribes to the 
n - c - (& tf says w.) i /c those to the n. The ancient 
comm. interpret ^ #n by " are still not equal to," but the 
modern by ^ fJ[ simply " not as." The fe f says 
I5\ ?& -liLo the many, all, i.e. multitudinous. J^ ^ 
-tilo g rca t. C. t, # jht # M Jflo anciently inter 
changed with ft, -? |g BJ gL jjjj H Q The 
Sage grieved over the anarchy of the times and bewailed 
it. L. The rude tribes of the e. and n. etc. not like the 
States of out great land wh. are without them. Z. Barbari 
occidentals et boreales etc. non sicut frequentissimi Sinae 
qui non habent. K. The heathen hordes of the N. and 

K whereas now in China respect for authority no 

longer exists anywhere. Couv. Les barbares de 1 orient 
etc. sont moins miserablcs que les nombreux peuples de la 
China ne reconnaissant plus de prince. 

CIIAPTKR VI. THK GODS ARE ABOVE BRI- 
B1<:S. Date about B.C. 480. ^ fo see III. i. .$ /fj 
A disciple of Conf. in tlie service of the Chi family, v. 
Intro. V. C. jj^ f^ ^ ro the name of a sacrifice. ^ 
l)| the chief of the 3 ^ the five great mtns of China, 
situated in Lu, now Shantung, two miles north of ^ % 
/f^> The sacrifice to this mountain was a ducal privilege, 

cf. ill. i. ?i -f- & 3c ijfi ^ ^ fi rt tU ji| 

The worshi[) of heaven and earth belong to the limp., that 
of the hills and rivers in a principality to its prince, hence 
the action of ^ J% was a usurpation and useless^ as jpfjl 
^ ff. ijfc ;fiS>, the gods take no enjo)-ment in improper 
offerings. & - J o ^ ct c. cf. II. 8. "have you said " 
etc. For I. in Fang see preceding cap. i.e. Lin Fang had 

1 86 



THE ANALECTS. III. y, VI 



m 



=? 



1 Rg ii ft in 



* *& 0| ^ ^ 

nies in general, it is better to be simple than 
lavish : and in the rites of mourning, heart 
felt distress is better than observance of 
detail." 

CHAPTER V. The Master said: 
14 The tribes of the east and north have their 
princes, and are not, like all our great land, 
without." 

CHAPTER VL When the chief of the 
Chi family was going to sacrifice on Mount 
T ai, the Master addressing Jan Yu said : 
"Can -you not save him from this?" "I 

187 



III. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

just learnt the foundation principles of jg and was the mtn 
god more ignorant than he ? L. Alas ! will you say that 
the T ae mt is not so discerning as Lin Fang ? Z. I leu ! 

ergone dicetur ncc aequare Lin Fang ? K. was going 

to offer sacrifice on the top of etc. Ah then it is useless to 

say anything more do you think not as L.F. 

Couv. dira-t-on que les Ksprits sont moins intelligent* 

que L.F. 

CHAPTER VII. A GENTLEMAN IS NEVER 
CONTENTIOUS. 3* ^ Intro VIII. Here described 
as f T fi\ A> a lover of virtue, & ^ M. ?P of 
calm mind and unruffled spirit |ff. Jjjf q$ nothing in wh. 
he contends. Kuan 4jK ^ g$ or jft ^ strive for 
mastery, or precedence. $. & $ sp jf he must, shall it 
be in archery? Kuan. j n & j i$ ffi flfc ^- ffi (ft j& 
I*\ & M Y5? ffj 11$ M Hlo IK S ive P^ce to ; 
Kuan. ^ A J Jt fto *% and fg apply to Jj % f and 
0:^ Archery was of three kinds, ^C M> ft Af and $B 
M> The ^ according to ^ fg may be called Court 
Archery, the ft military archery, being confined to -j; 
officers, the Jje recreation archery. Tlie rules were similar 
in all. In the ^ Jj.]- three sets of competitors advanced 
together to the shooting pavilion ^^ each set consisting of 
3 men. J he rules of courtesy were all duly laid down. 
The loser, then as now, did not " stand a drink " but took 
his punishment by drinking it himself. The $^ which is 
read in the departing tone, indicates that the winner offered 
it. L. The student of virtue has no contentions. If it be 
said he cannot avoid them shall this be in archery ? But 
he bows complaisantly etc. Z. Sapiens nihil est in quo 

188 



THE ANALECTS. III. VI, VII, VIII. 

A -b 

1W -T" iS ^ T- n & 



a s- T i^ 



in 



cannot," he replied. "Alas!" said the 
Master, " is that not saying that the Spirit of 
Mount T ai is not equal to Lin Fang?" 

CHAPTER VII. The Master said :- 
"A gentleman never contends in anything 
he does. except perhaps in archery. Even 
then, he bows to his rival and yields him the 
way as they ascend the pavilion ; in like 
manner he descends and offers him the 
penalty cup, in his contentions he is still a 
gentleman." 

CHAPTER VIII. i. Tzu Hsia asked :- 
11 What is the meaning of the passage, 

189 



III. VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

contendat ; si plane cssct, nonne in sagittando foret ? At 
salutat obsequcntcr etc. K. A gentleman never competes 
in anything he does, except perhaps in archery. But 
even then, when he wins he courteously makes his bow 
before he advances to take his place among the winners ; 
and when he has lost he walks down and drinks his cup of 
forfeit etc. Couv. Le sage n a jamais de contestation. 
(S il en avait), ce scrait certainement quand il tire a 
1 arc. (Avant la lutte), il salue humblement ses aclver- 
saires, et monte a 1 endroit prepare. (Apres la lutte), il 
boit etc. 

CHAPTER VIII. MORALS FIRST, MANNERS 
AFTER. I. Tzu Hsia, Intro V. The quot. is from one 
of the $L f$^ poems excluded from the Odes by Conf. ; 
but its first two stanzas appear in Odes I. v. 3. What 
artful smiling dimples ! What splendid eyes well defined ! 
A plain ground taken for colouring ! Tzu Hsia s difficulty 
was with the Jjl $^ which he read " regarded as," instead 
of " can be," or " to be used for." C. ^ Jj |J :it / 
ffi &. % tSb C. [UK H * ft # 4!!o Good 
definition of pupil and sclerotic. ^ o #} itli i: 3 
^JL 3 The white ground, the basis of the painting, - ft^ 
& & -j& , f r rf) tilo Tlle decorative colouring, the 
adornment of the picture. L. The pretty dimples of her 
artful smile ! The well-defined black and white of her 
eye ! The plain ground for the colours. Z. Venustum 
ridens ducit rictum, pulcher oculus distincte nitet, et ex 
albo facit coloratum. K. Her coquettish smiles, I low 
dimpling they are ; Her beautiful eyes, How beaming they 
are ; O fairest is she Who is simple and plain. Couv. 

190 



THE ANALECTS. III. VIII, IX. 

K 

B ? d m ^ ^ f ^ 

t 

o o o 

^ If 1% II H $J 



3E 
d 



-T 



As she artfully smiles 
What dimples appear ! 
Her bewitching eyes 
Shew their colours so clear. 
Ground spotless and candid 
For tracery splendid ! ? " 

2. " The painting comes after the ground 
work," answered the Master. 

3. " Then Manners are secondary ? " said 
Tzu Hsia. " Tis Shang who unfolds my 
meaning," replied the Master. " Now indeed, 
I can begin to discuss the poets with him." 

CHAPTER IX. The" Master said:- 
" I can describe the civilisation of the Hsia 



191 



III. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

Un sourire agreable plise elegamment Ics coins de sa 
bouche, etc. 

2- C. ft $*& Ij - & ft *, & *J $ 

^, The ancient comm. take the opposite view to this. 
L. The business of laying on the colours follows the 
preparation of the plain ground. 

3. cf. I. 15. C. nig & a fg f Li de 
mands integrity as its basis. ^ISo J(t i -tilo To expand 
so to speak. Kuan, ffl ^ ,fr ffi ; Also Jj X >f> & 

* ffl 3E fiS, & * ffl fJ ^> ftt & To L- Ce- 
remonies then are a subsequent thing. Z. ritus etiam 
subsequitur ? K. Then art itself is a matter of secondary 
importance ? 

CHAPTER IX. AN ARCH/EOLOGICAL LA 
MENT. Hsiadyn. B.C. 22051767; Yin 17661123. 
The descendants of the Hsia Dyn. dwindled into princes of 
the Ch i State (K aifengfu, Honan) ; those of Yin into 
princes of Sung (Honan). They maintained the sacrifices 
to their Imperial ancestors, but a blight had come upon 
their records and their education, and Conf. sought in vain 
for confirmation of the meagre ancient records. K. likens 
Hsia // to ancient Greek civilisation, and Ch i to modern 
Greece ; also Yin to ancient Rome, and Sung to modern 
Italy. C. ^ ^ ^ To witness to, but an old comm. 
interprets by ; %, completes it. X , -ft $f -tfeo ca ~ 
nons, records. JgfU f -liL-, The & says: jg ^ $1] 

&-^^^m^ J \& n w * ja * AO The 

usages and culture of the Yin dyn. I can in a genera) way 
explain for the information of others, etc. L. I am able 
to describe the ceremonies of the Hea, but Ke cannot 



192 



THE ANALECTS. III. IX, X 



& flij ft 5fc IS 

5 * X H 

s a ai JE a 5 

^ IE it a ic Rg 

^ it til -Hi m 

dynasty, but the descendant State of Ch i 
cannot render adequate corroboration. I can 
describe the civilisation of the Yin dynasty, 
but the descendant State of Sung cannot 
render adequate corroboration. And all 
because of the deficiency of their records and 
wise men. Were those sufficient then I 
could corroborate my views." 

CHAPTER X. The Master said: "At 
the quinquennial Sacrifice (in the Lu An 
cestral Temple), after the libation has been 
sprinkled, I have no further wish to look on." 

193 



III. IX, X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

sufficiently attest my words, etc. Z. dynastiao Hia ritus. 
K. I can tell you of the state of the arts and civilisation 
etc. Couv. Je puis cxposer les ceremonies etc. 

CHAPTER X. RITKS USURPED A GRIEVAN 
CE TO THE RIGHTEOUS. fl fjfc jfi jfij ft # 
From after the outpouring and onwards. C. The ^f 
(v. next cap.) was a sacrifice offered, it is said, once in 5 
years to the manes of the primal ancestor ^ jjjQ of the 
imperial family, along with the first emperor of the dyn., 
and as such should only be offered by the Emp., but in 
consequence of the meritorious service of Duke Chou of 
Eu, his nephew, the Emp. Ch eng ($ son of J), had 
granted him the use of imperial rites. After the libation 
inviting the presence of the spirits {$ jfif]l had been poured 
on the ground, the performance of the ritual in the Lu 
temple wrongly implied that King Wen was primal ancestor 
and the Duke of Chou first sovereign, an absurdity wh. 
displeased Conf., hence this remark. L. At the great 
sacrifice, after etc. Z. quinquennale sacrificium etc. K. 
At the service of the great Ti sacrifice (the Mass in 
ancient China) etc. Couv. Dans le ceremonie Ti, tout ce 
qui suit les libations me deplait ; je n en puis supporter la 
vue. 

CHAPTER XL RIGHT APPREHENSION OE 
RELIGION MAKES GOVERNMENT EASY, jjif is 
applied to several sacrifices, but here and in last cap. q. v. 
it is referred to the ^ r quinquennial sacrifice. C. ^fc 



M ^ & J)l 4, ...... >f> 3E ^ jjifc There was no 

profounder way amongst the ancient kings for transmitting 

194 



THE ANALECTS. III. XI, XII. 



m m a 



iff 



T 



CHAPTER XL When some one asked 
the meaning of the quinquennial sacrifice, 
the Master replied : " I do not know. He 
who knew its meaning, would he not find 
himself in regard to the whole Empire as if 
he were looking upon this?" pointing to 
his palm. 

CHAPTER XII. i. He sacrificed (to his 
forefathers) as if they were present ; he sacri 
ficed to the gods as if the gods were present. 
2. The Master said: "For me not to be 
present at a sacrifice is as if I did not 
sacrifice." 



195 



III. XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

a perpetual memorial of their departed than the ;|^ 
wherein he who failed in kindness, sonship, sincerity and 
reverence was unfit to associate none but a king- might 

offer it. fa jf,g fft ^j a M ^ BB n m ^ & 

ffi) Jp ^ T ^ Ifi ^o H C who understood the jff^ 
would understand all principles, his sincerity would be 
perfect, and to rule the Empire would not be difficult. C. 
asks in surprise if we are to infer from Confs answer that 
there was anything he really did not know ! ife A >K 
Jifc S M # 0? ^ %\\ -tiL fiico IIc could not explain 
without reflecting on the impropriety of the Duke of Lu in 
maintaining this sacrifice. ;, jfi The position of him 
who knew in regard to the Empire, Jf: ${j it would be 
etc. 75 is interpreted by /ji^ L. would find it as easy 
to govern the empire as to look on this. Z. qui sciret 
ejus significationem, quoad imperil res, is nonne quasi 
respiceret in hoc ? K. as easy to rule the world etc. 
Couv. Celui qui le saurait, n atirait pas plus de difficulte a 
gouverner Tempi re qu a regarcler ccci. 

CHAPTER XII. Til 1C DOCTRINE OF THE 
REAL PRESENCE, i. C. ^ T- , * 3fc SH 
tfLo ft W ft 9\> fi liLc ] V ft i- s meant sacrifice to 
ancestors, by $$ jfiljl is meant sacrifice to spirits other than 
those of ancestors (nature worship). The principle exhibit 
ed in the former worship is i^ in the latter JJj^ C. 
thinks the disciples here record the Sage s mode of worship. 
The text itself sheds no light thereon. L. lie sacrificed 
to the dead etc. /. Parental >at sicut adessent : litabat 
spiritibus etc. K. worshipped the dead as if he actually 
felt the presence of etc. Couv. faisait des offrandes a ses 

196 



THE ANALECTS. III. XII, XIII. 

parents defunts et aux Esprits tutelaires, comme s il les 
avait vus presents. 

2. Note |5f o Or, To me absence from sacrifice is the 
same as not sacrificing. Conf. deemed absentee worship 
no worship. It was apparently a custom in ancient times, 
as in modern, to worship by deputy. C. j$ 3$ J jjj 
3 J&o Sincerity is the substance, the ceremony the 
shadow. L. I consider my not being present at the 
sacrifice, as if I did not sacrifice. Z. ego si non intersum 
litamini etc. K If I cannot give up my heart and soul 

when I am worshipping, as if I have not worshipped. 

Couv. Un sacrifice (que je ferais offrir par un autre) etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. OFFENCE AGAINST THE 
SUPREME CLOSES EVERY OTHER DOOR. 
Wang-sun was a powerful officer of Wei $},, who by this 
question sought to induce Conf. to pay court to himself as 
one actually more powerful than his master. Amongst the 
household gods the J^ occupied the post of greatest 
honour, in the s. w. corner of the hall ; the U occupied a 
humble unseen position in the kitchen, yet it was the more 
useful and influential post. The 5 lares et penates were, 
the ^ wh. guarded the doors, the |g or kitchen god, 
the 4 j|J for the apartments, the P*j for the gates, the 
ff for the hall. The J>L was additional, and was the most 
honoured, as at the sacrifices to the others the offerings 
were afterwards spread before it and an effigy, or living 
person, was enthroned to receive the honours. L. It is 
better to pay court to the furnace than to the s. w. corner. 

Z. potius quam eblandiri apud spiritum aulre, foci. 

K. the God of the Hearth than to the God of the House. 



197 



III. XIII, XIV. THE ANALECTS. 

Couv. au dieu de foyer qu aux esprits tutelaires des 
cndroits les plus retires de la maison. 

2. One of the loftiest utterances of Conf. C. here 
interprets, ^ g[) JJ & JI; ft 4$ $} Heaven is Liw, 
unequalled in honour ; and to infringe the Law $jft fig is 
to sin against Heaven. Legge somewhat needlessly critices 
this definition, for elsewhere Chutzu describes ^ by Q: 
-tfin#:*f^ ?Co He Who is above as 
Lord is also (called) Heaven. The g fg defines the 
terms by ^ fllj ^ J5/ r ^ ^ gg fljj 4[ff. gf ^ ft Q 
Heaven embraces all things, Law pervades all things ; and 
says of him who sins against Heaven ^ 4jl jf f| J^Jt ^ 
^P "OS Where indeed can be pray for pardon for his 
sins ? L. I le who offends against Heaven has none to 
whom he can pray. Z. committans peccatum in coelum, 
non habet quern deprecetur. K. a man who has sinned 
against God, it is useless to pray anywhere at all, Couv. 
L un ne vaut pas mieux que 1 autre. Celui qui offense le 

Ciel, n obtiendra son pardon par 1 entremise d aucun 

Esprit. 

CHAPTER XIV. THE LESSONS OF HISTORY. 
By JJ] the founders of the clyn. are meant. C. ^^ $ 
-tiLo ~. {^\ Jl J$ .]\l What they surveyed was the 
jgj wh. they revised Jg g A L. Chow had the advan 
tage of viewing the two past clyns. How complete and 
elegant was its regulations ! Z. Tcheou inspexit in duas 
dyn : proh quam abundans ejus decorum ! K. The 
civilisation of the present Chou dyn. is founded on etc. 

How splendidly rich it is in all the arts ! Couv Que 

les lois des Tcheou sont belles ! 

198 



THE ANALECTS. III. XIII, XIV. 



ft ? 5c & 

IB & * SI 

IB JS 0f &| M 

^ ^ * ^ II 1 



CHAPTER XIIL i. Wang-sun Chia 
efiqu red, "What is the meaning of the say 
ing, It is better to pay court to the god of 
the hearth than to the god of the hall ?" 
2. " Not so," answered Confucius, " He who 
sins against Heaven has no where left for 
prayer." 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said :- 
" Chou had the advantage of surveying the 
two preceding dynasties. How replete was 
its culture ! I follow Chou." 

199 



III. XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XV. SACRED CURIOSITY. From 
childhood rites had been the Sage s delight, and for his 
knowledge of them he early acquired fame. C. The ^ 
(>fc) J6I was thc chapel to J|] 2V first dukc of Chou tffc 
^*L : ?ifi:i$AMtft& -lilo The occasion 
ivas on Conf, first entering office, when he went to assist at 
the sacrifices, ^p a town of Lu formerly governed by 
Confs father, ffc ft S 75 fff M HBt &o 
What is understood by Li is the utmost reverence and 

circumspection. L. who will say that the son of 

knows the rules of propriety. Z. quis dicet filium 

cognoscere ritus ? ...hoc ritus est. K. first attended 
the service at the State Cathedral (Anc. Temple of the 
reigning prince) he enquired as to what he should do at 

every stage of the service Who tells me that the son 

of the plebeian of Ts ow is a man who knows the correct 
forms ? Couv. Dira-t-on que le fils du citoyen de Tcheou 
connait les rites. 

CHAPTER XVI. BRUTE FORCE A SIGN OF 
DEGENERATE CIVILISATION. Or, The rules of 
the ancients did not lay stress on (piercing) the target, for 
all men are not of equal strength. There were several 
schools of archery, the one here referred to being the 
Courtesy archery, wherein the essential was accuracy 
rather than force. The opening words arc found in the Li 
Chi m IS, n W par- 315- C. , ? ^ By skin 
is meant the leather, ft {. m &$ ft K * ft 
69 $? IB SI -tiLo Behind the cloth target a piece of 
leather was perched in the middle, wh. was considered the 
bullseye, and called the goose. When King Wu had 

200 



THE ANALECTS. III. XV, XVI. 

A 

^ -til ^ A A RH ^ 



CHAPTER XV. When the Master first 
entered the Grand Temple he asked about 
everything, whereupon some one remark 
ed, "Who says the son of the man ofTsou 
knows the correct forms ? On entering the 
Grand Temple he asks about everything." 
The Master hearing (of) it remarked : "This 
too is correct form." 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said :- 
" In archery (piercing) the target is not the 



201 



III. XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

overcome the $j dyn. and disbanded his troops peace 
prevailed and in archery skill took the place of force. 
Hence the prevailing style of archery is also a sign of the 
times, and that those of Conf. were decadent was manifest 
from its archery. L. In archery it is not going through 
the leather wh. is the principal thing ; because people s 
strength is not equal. This was the old way. Z. 
Sagittatio non fundatur corio. K. In archery putting the 
arrow through the target should not count as points, 
because etc. At least, that was the old rule. Couv. le 
rnerite ne consistc pas a transpercer. 

CHAPTER XVIL BETTER FORMALITY THAN 
NOTHING AT ALL. i. % means to inform by way 
of prayer. Kuan ^ ^ jigj The first day of the moon. 
g| A living sheep. (C. / ^ Kuan ffi (ft ft PK 
C. Of old the Emp. towards the end of each year dis 
tributed to the princes the calendar announcing the new 
moons for the ensuing year. The princes kept these in 
their anc. temples, and at each new moon offered a live 
sheep, requesting ancestral sanction for the duties of the 
month. In Lu since the days of Duke Wen the full cere 
mony had fallen into desuetude, an officer merely presenting 
the sheep. This Tzii Kung wished to do away with as an 
empty and costly form. L. wished to do away with the 
offering of a sheep connected with the inauguration of the 
first day of each month. Z. volt-bat abolere pro com- 
monitione calcndarum offercnclam oveni. K. wanted to 
dispense with the sheep etc. Couv. voulait supprimer 
I usage etc. 

2. Conf. would keep the office in hope of restoring the 

202 



THE ANALECTS. III. XVII, XVIII, XIX. 

A A -b 

^ PI s -it ML it 



o * - b 

E it m m 

essential, for men are not of equal strength. 
Such was the rule of yore." 

CHAPTER XVII. i. TzuKung wished 
to dispense with the live sheep presented in 
the Ducal Temple at the announcement of 
the new moon. 2. The Master said : 
" T zu ! You care for the sheep. I care for 
the ceremony." 

CHAPTER XVIIL The Master said :- 
" If one were to serve one s Prince with per 
fect homage, people to-day would deem it 
sycophancy." 

CHAPTER XIX. When Duke Ting 

203 



III. XVII, XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

service. C. $ %j f/f [IJ^ love in the sense of begrudge. 
L. You love the sheep etc. V.. tu a mas illani ovum. 
K. What you would save is the cost of the sheep. Couv. 

vous tenez par economic a garder cette brehis ; moi, je 

ticns a conscrver cctte ceremonie. 

CHAPTER XVIII. HOMAGE DUBBED SER 
VILITY. ^ jjig According to all the Regulations or, 
with complete etiquette. C. says that this was Confs 
own experience, but that other men would have put it, I 
have served my prince with perfect etiquette and petty men 
call me servile. Not so Conf. L. The. full observance 
of the rules of propriety in serving one s prince is accounted 
by people to be flatter} . Z. serviens principi omnino 

servo ritus ; pro adulatione. K. Men now account it 

servile to pay to their prince all the honours due to him. 
Couv. Envers mon prince j observe cxactcmcnt toutes les 
prescriptions. Lcs homines m accuscnt de flatterie. 

CHAPTER XIX. A COURTEOUS PRINCE MA 
KES A LOYAL MINISTER. This occurred before 
Confs long exile, while he was minister in Lu. Note [_, 
: jF" ^J tU lnc Sage s name is given in full and " tui " 
used out of respect to His Highness the Duke. C. ~%$ 

fjii K & us iw iii # ? , Ja &o If a p iincc use his 

ministers courteously, then his ministers will serve him 
loyally. L. A prince should employ his ministers 

according to the rules of propriety ; with faithfulness. 

7.. juxta ritus. cum fidelitate. K. Let the prince 

treat his public servant with honour with loyalty. 

Couv. Le prince doit commander ses sujets scion les 
prescriptions, et les sujets doivent lui obeir avec iulelite. 

204 



THE ANALECTS. III. XX, 

CHAPTER XX. LOVE S SWEET DREAM. C. 

B-# M 2 A-* ft # R 2 A:* The one is the 

other carried to excess. The Ode is Li. I, and is said to 
represent the longing of King Wen. The following is 
offered as a rough idea of its contents : 

The faithful bird on yonder river s isle 
Cries to his loyal mate with anxious hail, 
Bashful and modest is the virgin maid, 
Well fitted for our gracious Prince to wed. 

The tangled weeds float waving to and fro, 
Like maiden tresses in the gentle flow, 
Bashful and modest waits the virgin maid, 
Whom sleeping, waking, seeks our Prince distrait. 

He seeks, all anxious seeks her for his Bride, 
Awake, asleep his thoughts with her abide, 
Far wandering his soul goes after her, 
His body tossing restless in his bower. 

The tangled weeds float waving in the ford, 
We pluck them gaily for the festal board. 
Bashful and modest comes the virgin maid, 
With harps and lutes we escort her to our Head. 

The tangled weeds float waving to and fro, 
We spread the festive board for high and low, 
Bashful and modest comes our virgin Bride, 
With bells and drums we welcome her Our Pride. 

L. expressive of enjoyment without being licentious, and 

205 



III. XX, XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

of grief without being hurtfuliy excessive. Z. laetetur 
quin diffluat, mocrct sed sine sauciationc. K. passionate 
but not sensual, melancholy but not morbid. Couv. 
exprime la joie et non la license, la douleur ct non 1 abattc- 
ment. 

CHAPTER XXL A FOUR-IN-HAND CANNOT 
CATCH UP FOOLISH WORDS, i. This was said 
after Confs return from exile. Duke Ai B. C. 494-467. 
ForTsai Wo v. Intro. V. jJJs >f; " spirits " and ^ "of 
the land : " still maintained outside Chinese cities. C. 
says, Each dyn. planted tress suitable to the soil, but this 
reason, while less repugnant, seems hardly more satisfactory 
than Tsai Wo s. 3g suggests ^ hence (C) ffi ^ ? 
flg | the appearance of fear. Cf. J III. ii. 5. ^ 
ffl fa IK ^f Sto Trie disobedient shall be slain before 
the land altars. But this is the threat of the Hsia Founder, 
K S tf. th e great Yu pj, $ A and $ A may 
be" singular, as Legge interprets, the man of etc., but the 
plural seems quite as regular. L. the chestnut tree, 
meaning thereby to cause the people to be in awe. Z. 

quaesivit de Telluris aris dyn. Tcheou homines utantur 

castaneis, scilicet, lit populus timens contremiscat. K. 
emblems used on the altars to the Titular Genius of the 

land Chou dyn. has chosen the li (chestnut) tree as a 

symbol of awe (li) to the population. Couv. Les Tcheou 
y plantcnt des chataigniers, afin d inspirer au peuple la 
crainte et la terreur. 

2. c. it ijj. ft! gtHI*jS;M^ffie*^ 

means, although the thing be not completed it has gone 
too far to be stopped. Conf. here rebukes Tsai Wo for 

206 



THE ANALECTS. III. XIX, XX, XXI 

* - 



o 

P^ ~E^ [&H is. ?&f -S* 

pj <$< lypJ 8@ ^1 /a 



n ^ 

S 2. 



asked how a Prince should employ his 
ministers, and how ministers should serve 
their Prince, Confucius replied saying: 
" A Prince should employ his ministers with 
courtesy. A minister should serve his 
Prince with loyalty." 

CHAPTER XX. The Master said:- 
" The Kuan Chu ode is passionate without 
being sensual, is plaintive without being 
morbid." 

CHAPTER XXL i. When Duke Ai 
asked Tsai Wo concerning the Altars to the 

207 



III. XXI, XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

his foolish remark wh. might arouse in his prince a spirit ol 
cruelty, g ft -& , &Q L . Thillgs lhat arc done jt js 

needless to speak about ; had their course remon 
strate about; past, to blame. Z proclinates 

res ne cxprobes ; cum transactc fucrint, ne crimineris. K. 
It is useless to speak of a thing that is clone ; to change a 
course that is begun ; or to blame what is past and gone. 

Couv. Rien ne sert de faire des remonstrances sur 

celles (choses) qui sont dejd trcs avances, ni de blamcr ce 
qui est passe. 

CHAPTER XXII. A GREAT MAN, OF LIMIT 
ED RANGE, i. ^ ^ name Jj -^ dlcd B . c 
645. A native of the ^ State, of wh. in 685 he became 
Minister under Duke Huan, and for many years administer 
ed public affairs with marked success. The speculative 
work under title of *g -^ has been falsely attributed to 
him (Giles Biog. Die.) " One of the most famous names 
in Chinese history " (L). " It is curious tliat Kuan Chung, 
the Bismarck of ancient China adopted the same motto in 
politics as etc. Do ut des: & Jft ffr |,L " (K ). 
C - Wl K M became (virtual) leader of the barons, i. e. 
was "the first and greatest of the five pa (fg or $}), 
leaders of the princes of the empire under the Chow dyn " 
(L). 2S sce II- 12, but here, talents, calibre. L. Small 
indeed was the capacity of K C. /. illius capacitas proh 
quam exigua ! by no means a great-minded man ! 

Couv. One K. C. a 1 esprit etroit ! 

2. economical, sparing. C. H IS g : ^ , The name 
of a terrace, or tower, a palatial resort. An older view 
is that by H gfj three wives (or marriages) is meant. 



l .S 

208 



THE ANALECTS. III. XXI, XXII, 



& ifc 



* $ *S ft 



fix t-J T i2i <- EC <TH 

o 

o 

> - 

o 

fl S IE ^5 "T s 3R A 

tutelary deities of the land, 2. Tsai Wo re 
sponded : " The Sovereign of Hsia adopted 
the pine, the men of Yin the cypress, but 
the men of Chou the chestnut, intimating 
that the people should stand in awe/ 3- On 
the Master hearing of this he said : " When 
a deed is done it is useless to discuss it, 
when a thing has taken its course it is 
useless to remonstrate, what is past and 
gone it is useless to blame." 

CHAPTER XXII.-- 1. The Master 
said : " The calibre of Kuan Chung s mind 

209 



III. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

%. 15 ^ fjB 41 W> - A B? ft V, The officers 
of a household cannot each be provided with a separate 

function, but one man must attend to a number of duties, 

K. C. had a separate man for each duty, gj pluralism. 
L. Was K. C. parsimonious ? Kuan had the San Kwei, 
and his officers etc. Z. parcus. K. simple in his life, 
was he not ? Why, Kuan had that magnificent Sans Souci 

Pleasaunce of his a special officer appointed to every 

function in his household. Couv. trop parcimonieux 

dans sa maison aucun officier n cst pas charge de deux 
emploies. 

3- f& JW> C. says the interlocutor suggests that 
K. C. did not practise economy because he knew what 
etiquette demanded. }=^ ; &= ; g % ft pj # 
~& ft 9\- -tlLo Erected screens at the gates to shelter the 
inside and outside. %fgf $} friendly meeting. The 
J is described (Kuan) as a red lacquered wooden stand, 
8 in s high, with 2 in. legs. C. says it was placed 
between the two main pillars, and g)(- g#| ffc S H J R S 
6^ 3t- Jl> when the pledges had been drunk the cups 

were inverted on the stand. L rules of propriety? 

The princes of States have a screen intercepting the view at 

their gates on any friendly meeting between two of 

them, had a stand on wh. to place their inverted cups. Z. 

diathy ro obstruit januam invertendes poculis rcpositor- 

ium. K. walls built before their palace gates when 

two reigning princes meet, each has a special buffet. Couv. 
Quand les princes out une entrevue amicale, ils ont une 
credence sur laquelle on renverse les coupes. 

CHAPTER XX1IL CONFUCIUS TEACHES THE 



210 



THE ANALECTS. III. XXII. 



Jx ft % W 

IE $r m & 



was but limited ! " 2. Some one observed :- 
11 Do you mean that Kuan Chung was 
economical? "3- "Kuan," he replied, "main 
tained his San Kuei palace, and the members 
of his staff performed no double duties- 
how can he be considered economical?" 
4. "But surely Kuan Chung understood 
etiquette? "5- The Prince of a State," said 
Confucius, " has a screen to mask his gate- 
Kuan too had his gate screen. Princes of 
State, when two of them have a friendly 
meeting, use a stand for their inverted 
pledge-cups, Kuan too used such a cup- 



211 



III. XXIII, XXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

BAND MASTER. The blind were the professional 
musicians of old. f] : . $j$ to perform a musical p : ece. C. 
S/K ^ -O/o Inform. ^ (= : JO fliji , ^ g o The 
director of Music. Music was elecadant in the days of 
Conf. hence his discourse. ^ fo J\l o together. { 
($$) & -liL !<-* go, grow, swell out. J4u f|I &o nar ~ 
mony. 4$, fljj & brilliance, f^ fa $g ^ g ^ 
without break. ^c^|g^--j^^!L the grand conclu 
sion. The ij] adverbial like, ly. L. instructing the 

Grand music-master How to play music may be 

known. At the commencement of the piece, all the parts 

should sound together. As it proceeds harmony, 

severally distinct and flowing without break etc. Z. 

erudiens magnum phonascum de musica ait: 

exordio erumpit, sonis unitis : remittitur harmonice et 
distincte ; continentur perseverat ad concludendum. K. 

the way in wh. a piece should be played with a full 

orchestra. At first, the full volume of sound in the piece 

should be heard. Then attention to and bring out 

each note distinct and clear, but flowing without 

break or interval, thus to the end. Couv. Lcs regies 

sont faciles a connaitre. Lcs divers instruments com- 

mencent par jouer tout ensemble : ils jouent en suite 
d accord, distinctenient et sans interruption, etc. 

CHA1TKR XX1V.THK TOCSIN OF THE EM- 
PIKE. This incident occurred during the Sage s second 
exile, but the elate is uncertain, v. Intro, p. 45. The first 
;> is posscsive, On a chiintzu s arriving etc. C. fjg 
was a border town of the \fa State, now supposed to be in 
m *J Hf KI FJi m Hoiian prov. % A, ? SI 

212 



THE ANALECTS. III. XXII, XXIII, XXIV. 



1i & 2. & =f if R 

^ 

IB ^ ill #P "] ^ ^p R 

>*LJ /7A ^ 

" o 

stand. If Kuan understood etiquette who 
does not understand it ? " 

CHAPTER XXIIL The Master dis 
coursing to the State Band Master of Lu on 
the subject of Music said: "The Art of 
Music may be readily understood. The 
attack should be prompt and united, and as 
the piece proceeds it should <fo so har 
moniously, with clearness of tone, and 
continuity of time, and so on to its con 
clusion." 

CHAPTER XXIV. The Officer in 

213 



III. XXIV, XXV. THE ANALECTS. 

1g An officer in charge of a frontier pass, ist and 3rd- 
J read hsien " = }{fi f ffi jj to introduce, or be in 
troduccd. Kuan T Jl _h ft it So C. fj ^ gt o 
Kuan, fg ^7 $j Ao ^- (> 5fe f -tiLo L sc office, 
i. e. the prince of Wei, as is supposed, having failed to 
employ him. /fv $|> ife D /fc i*i\ A metal bell with a 
wooden tongue, M & %t W W\ 81 \& W ^F< &> used 
to warn the people on the promulgation of important notifi 
cations. Another interp. is ;fc $| 0f j;jl ffij JS" Jtt K> 
a bell used to guide people on the right road. I.. When 

men of superior virtue I have never been denied the 

privilege of seeing them My friends, why are you 

distressed by your Master s loss of office? The Empire 
has long been without the principles of tmth and right ; 
Heaven is going to use your Master as a bell with its 
wooden tongue. Z Sapiens cum pervenerint in hunc 

locum etc imperium caret ordine jamdiu quidem : 

coelum mox utetur magistro, ut sit lignea lingua tintin- 

nabulum. K. Whenever a wise man etc concerned 

at your present want of official position ! The world has 
long been without the order and justice of good govt ; now 
God is going to make use of your Teacher as a tocsin to 
awaken the world. Couv. Chaque fois qu un sage etc. 
Mais le Ciel va donner au peuple en ce grand sage un 
heraut de la verite. 

CHAPTER XXV. MUSIC AND MORALS. Shao, 
or The Succession (C. gg = $g |J) was a piece attributed 
to the Emp. Shun Jf: K C. r 25 5-2205. Wu, or The 
Conquest, (C. jjf / jfi^ gL p lt^> the overthrow of 
woe and disorder) was attributed to King Wu ^ 5 B.C. 

214 



THE ANALECTS. III. XXIV. 



o 



a m 



^ ^ ^ iF Jt * ^ 

fi ^1 T. fir . r 

charge of the frontier town of I requested an 
interview, saying: " Whenever a man of 
Virtue has come here I have never failed to 
obtain an interview," whereupon the follow 
ers of the Sage introduced him. On coming 
out he observed : " Why do you grieve, 
gentlemen, over this loss of office? The 
Empire for long has been without light and 
leading; but Heaven is now going to use 
your Master as an arousing Tocsin." 

215 



III. XXV, XXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

1 1 22-1 115. Shun succeeded Yao peacefully and by virtue 
of his goodness ; Wu overcame the tyrant Chou fa] by 
force of arms. The characters of Shun and Wu were 
equally virtuous, but their music differed as did their 
experiences ; the one was the music of peace, the other that 

of strife and victory. (C). L of the Shaou that it was 

perfectly beautiful and perfectly good. Z. dicebat music- 
am " Concordia " esse absolute pulchram turn absolute 

lenem ; " Bellator etc. K all the excellence of the 

physical beauty of harmony ; but it has not all the ex 
cellence of moral grandeur. Couv. Chants du Succes- 

seur du Guerrier etaient tout a fait beaux, mais non 

tout a fait doux. 

CHAPTER XXVI. THE LETTER WITHOUT 
THE SPIRIT IS DEAD. C. Jg ft jg A t& 
0, %L 3$ ^> The essential thing for a man in office is 
affection for his people, hence magnanimity is his root of 
action. So reverence is the root of ritual and sorrow of 
funeral ceremonies. & $& 3 # %\\ &. fil % V& & 
ffi ff 2, ffi $i 7$> Without the reality wherewith is 
the benefit of the man s actions to be viewed? L. High 

station filled without indulgent generosity; wherewith 

should I contemplate such ways. Z. tencntem summ.v 

minime beneficium, ego, quo fultus, videam illos ? K. 

Possession of power without generosity; courtesy without 

seriousness ; I have no desire to look at such a state of 

things. Couv. De quelle regie puis-je me servir poiw 
juger la conduitc d un homme etc. 



216 



THF ANALECTS. III. XXV, XXVI. 

-UL JLL 

T* |T 



pi CL gl ^ffi 

^ wl 

m is 



CHAPTER XXV. The Master spoke 
of the Shao as perfectly beautiful in its form 
and perfectly good in its influence. He 
spoke of the Wu as perfectly beautiful in its- 
form but not perfectly good in its influence. 

CHAPTER XXVI. The Master said :- 
" High station filled without magnanimity, 
religious observances performed without 
reverence, and mourning conducted with 
out grief, from what standpoint shall I view 
such ways 1 " 

217 



The Analects. 

VOLUME II. 

BOOK IV. 

CONCERNING VIRTUE. 

CONTENTS. As $ Education is the subject of Book 
I, ^ sonship and $fj brotherliness being its two radical 
elements ; as |E government, the principal constituent of 
which is self-control, is the subject of Book II ; as also jji 
*J| order and music, the essentials of which are respect and 
harmony, constitute the subjects of Book III ; so fH is the 
text of Book IV. Virtue is its nearest equivalent, but it is 
the Virtue of beneficence and rectitude, Socratic rather 
than Roman, see Intro. Sec. VIII. 

CHAPTER I. ENVIRONMENT AND CHARAC 
TER. A J|i under the Chou dyn. consisted of 25 
families, i.e. of 5 jSJS of 5 families each, ffi ls interpreted 
by : |?< It is natural to read ffi ffi as " become wise," 
but such is not the accepted view. Kuan. ffi^ j|f flj [ 
C. He who does not choose to live in virtuous surround 
ing 8 fflr 3fe 3C & ft * >fr> will lose his discrimi 
nating sense of right and wrong. L. It is the virtuous 
manners etc. If a man in selecting a residence, do not fix- 
on one where such prevail, how can he be wise ? Z. Si 
vicus ex humanitate est laudandus, qui seligat non habitare 
humanitatis sedem, qui censetur sapere ? K. It is the 
moral life of etc. He is not an intelligent man, who etc. 

218 



The Analects. 



VOLUME II. 



BOOK IV. 

t 

fci n n t t c 



?y t: ^ ^ If si 

CHAPTER I The Master said : " It is 
the moral character of a neighbourhood that 
constitutes its excellence, and how can he be 
considered wise who does not elect to dwell 
in moral surroundings ? " 

CHAPTER II. The Master said : 
man without Virtue cannot long abide in 
adversity, nor can he long abide in happi- 

219 



IV. II, III. THE ANALECTS. 

Couv. Un bon voisinage est celui ou regne la probite. 
Pourrait-on appelcr sage etc. 

CHAPTER II. THE CONTENTMENT OF 
VIRTUE. $| if^K or cannot abide adversity. C. 
$K SI S &> straitened, ^i] ?g fi.&* covet - The 
virtuousless H$&&X$!i&&<t if long in adver 
sity casts off restraint, if long in prosperity goes to excess. 
But the virtuous ^ : l jjjj $H )T -T> $S rests in his 
virtue [and has no aim outside it. As to the wise fllj ^lj 
fib |H lM ^f> I? 0? ^i* l le counts it gain to be virtuous, 
and holds fast to whatever of it he has attained. L. " ^< 
pj may not, /p ffg cannot. The inability is moral." 

L cannot abide long in a condition of poverty and 

hardship, or in a condition of enjoyment. The virtuous 
rest in virtue ; the wise desire virtue. Z. destitutes 

probitate non potest diu manere in paupertate, gaudio : 

probus quiescit in virtute, sapiens lucro ducit probitatem. 
K. A man without moral character cannot long put up 

with adversity, enjoy prosperity. Men of moral 

character find themselves at home in being moral ; men of 

intelligence find it advantageous to be moral. Couv 

indigence ou dans 1 opulence trouve son bonheur clans 

la vertu ; n ambitionne quo le tresor de la vertu. 

CHAPTER III. ONLY THE GOOD CAN LOVE 
AND HATE. C. tf ; S B $k only. ^ $g %l 
fo t & ffi ^ t W $- Eor a man must be without 
selfishness before he can love or hate his fellowmen aright. 
L. It is only the truly virtuous man who can love, or 
who can hate, others. Z. Solum virtute pracditus potest 
amare alios, potest odisse alios. K. It is only men of 

220 



THE ANALECTS. TV. Ill, IV, V. 

moral character who know how to love men or to hate 
men Couv. Seul 1 homnic vertucux sait aimer et hair les 
hommes comme il convient. 

CHAPTER IV. TO WILL VIRTUE IS TO BE 
FREE FROM VICE. ^ C. f$ fa Really, or, If 
really ; Kuan | Jffo C. * % >fr 2, ffi 2, By 
.will is meant the aim (0f ;) of the heart. |n ^ A 4jl 
& m 2, # do no evil. $ R tf #/ jg * fc * 
# A * */& B ft IK M & o The philo- 
sopher Yang says : Tho the will be set on Virtue it does 
not follow that mistakes will not arise, but deliberate wrong 
will not be committed. L. If the will be set on virtue, 
there will be no practice of wickedness. Z. vere intentus 
in probitatem, nihil malt aget. K. If you fix your mind 
upon a moral life, you will be free from evil. Couv. 
Celui qui s applique serieusement a cultiver la vertu 
s abstient de mal faire. 

CHAPTER V. THE RIGHT BEFORE ALL 
ELSE. I. ffi , The first is ^ff ^ retain them, 
the second ffi & 2, leave them, f? ^ Z & *S ft 

Bn 5 Jt fil -& in jlto In tllis wa y does a man f 

honour examine his prosperity, or remain content with his 
adversity. L. Riches and honours etc. If it cannot be 
obtained in the proper way, they should not be held. 

Poverty and meanness dislike. If etc. they should not 

be avoided. Z. Divitiae cum honoribus etc. pauperitas 

et ignobilitas, aversantur ; at vel si non ex recto jure 

offenderis ea, ne deseras. K. Riches and honours are 
objects of men s desire ; but if I cannot have them without 
leaving the path of duty, I would not have them etc. 

22! 



IV. V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

Couv. La pauvrete et 1 abjection sont en horreur aux 
homines ; si ellcs vous viennent, meme sans aucune faute 
dc votrc part, ne les fuyez pas. 

2. s$ ^ HOW ! c. % -T ffr pjt $ 3* ^ ja at- 

t -&O The right of an honourable man to that title rests 

on his Virtue. L. If a superior man abandon virtue, 

requirements of that name. Z. Sapiens amandata virtute, 
qui dum explebit sapientis nomen. K. A wise man who 
leaves his moral character is no longer entitled lo the name 
of a wise man. Couv. Si 1 homme sage etc. comment 
soutiendra-t-il son titre de sage ? 

3- C. jjg & ;ff fS m o For the brief period 
of a meal. ^ #> ;: i #/ il BJh Times of 
haste and flurry, ffl f$^ iffl ffi flt tffi K?- Circum 
stances of upheaval or exile. Such is the spirit of the 
chun-tzu in regard to the acceptance JJ^ or rejection ^ % 
of wealth, rank and all things. L. The sup. man does 
not even etc. act contrary to virtue etc. Z. in repentiuis 
casibus profecto in ea cst, in eversionis angustis etc. K. 
A wise man never for one single moment in his life loses 
sight of a moral life ; in moments of haste and hurry, as in 
moments of clanger and peril, he always clings to it. 
Couv. II y demeure toujours, meme an milieu des affaires 
les plus pressantes, meme au milieu des plus grandes 
troubles. 

CHAPTER VI. THE TRUE LOVER OF VIRTUE 
AND HATER OF VICE. i. C. JF tl ff JJ l! 

t^JP3eTiKi;*iJH in ;>o The 

lover of Virtue well knows its value, hence he will put 
nothing under heaven before it. L. I have not seen etc. 

222 



THE ANALECTS. IV. II, III, IV, V 

E m = 

&. A -T- & ^ #? 7 t 

o 

it B MB AH 

- 

m w u ^ ^ tg -HI 
^ sit nt m ^ M t 

o 

m ft ^ A 

> o 

^ * Ji t: ffi 

ness; but the Virtuous man is at rest in 
Virtue, and the wise man covets it." 

CHAPTER III. The Master said: 
"Only the Virtuous are competent to love 
or to hate men." 

CHAPTER IV. The Master said : "He 
who has really set his mind onVirtue will 
do no evil." 

CHAPTER V. i. The Master said: 
" Wealth and rank are what men desire, but 

223 



IV. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

He who hated what is not virtuous, would practise Virtue 

in such a way that etc. approach his person. Z 

amator is justitiae, nihil est quod anteponat ei : osor is 
iniquitatis, ita aget justitiam ut etc. K. I do not now see 
H man who really loves a moral life etc. One who really 
hates an immoral life would be a moral man \vho would 
not allow anything the least immoral in his life. Couv. 
Cclui qui aime vraimewt la vcrtu la prcferc a toute autre 
chose ; celui qui hait sincercment le vice, cultive la vcrtu, 
et fuit toute attaint du mal. 

2. C. {H m m ffi ffn 3> * So Altho 1 Virtue 
is difficult of attainment it is also easy. I ,. Is etc ? I have 
not seen the case in wh. his strength would be insufficient. 
Z. Idem. K. Nevertheless, if a man were really to exert 

himself I do not believe he will find that he has not the 

strength to do it. Couv. Est-il un homme qui travaille 
de toutes ses forces a pratiquer la vertu un jour entier ? 

3- C. g^ |J p] A particle of doubt. L. Should 
there possibly be any such case, I have not seen it. Z. 
forte id extitit ; sed ego nonrlum illud vidi. K. At least 
I have never heard etc. Couv. Peut-etre en existe-t-il ; 
mais etc. 

CHAPTER. VII. A MAN S VIRTUES KNOV\ N 
FROM HIS FAULTS. J^~ Exceed, transgress, fault. 

C. ^ 7- %. K ^ A fit ^ K mo The 
chuntzu errs through generosity, the petty man through 
selfishness. f f 3 K % /h A B K & The 
chuntzu errs through kindness, the inferior man through 
callousness. E. The faults of men are characteristic of 
the class to which they belong. By observing a man s 

224 



THE ANALECTS. IV. V. 



SS ~ $l 3$L -zt IM A 

i^Ei l_ 7{V Qlik - 4>A y\ 

o 



*l 



unless they be obtained in the right way 
they are not to be possessed. Poverty and 
obscurity are what men detest ; but unless it 
can be brought about in the right way, they 
are not to be abandoned. 2. If a man of 
honour forsake Virtue how is he to fulfil the 
obligations of his name! 3. A man of 
honour never disregards Virtue, even for the 
space of a single meal. In moments of 
haste he cleaves to it; in seasons of peril he 
cleaves to it." 

225 



IV. VII, VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

faults it may be known that he is virtuous. Z. Homines 
excedunt singuli in suo genere : observa cxccssus, et sic 
scies corclia virtutem. K. Men s faults arc characteristic. 
By observing a man s failings you can judge of his moral 
character. Couv. Chaque classe d hommcs tombe dans 
un execs qui lui est particulier. 

CHAPTER VIIL MY LIFE TO READ THE 
RIDDEE ! Or, He who hears etc. may etc. The Comms 
holding Conf. to be all-wise, (^ jf[j -{] ;), a veritable 
Baddha, are unwilling to recognise this saying as an 
expression of the Sage s personal yearning for Eight. To 
the unprejudiced the Sage would be ennobled and not 
degraded by interpreting, " If I could hear the Truth in 
the morning, I would be willing to die in the evening." 
The ancient Comm. fnj ^ interprets : If in the morning 
I heard that right principles prevailed I could die the same 
evening. J % Iff. % & $c ; Qi Tao is the natural 
law of all existence, or (L.) the principles of what is right 
in events and things. L. If a man in the morning hear 
the right way, he may die in the evening without regret. 
Z. si mane acceperis sapientiam, vespere mori licebit. 
K. When a man has learnt wisdom in the morning, he 
may be content to die in the evening before the sun sets. 
Couv. Celui qui le matin a compris les enseignements de la 
sagesse, le soir pent mourir content. 

CHAPTER IX. SHABBY AND UNASHAMED. 
-JZ A man of education, a student. & with, g discuss, = 
to discuss with. E. A scholar whose mind is set on 
truth, and who is ashamed etc. E. literatus intendens in 
sapientiam, et tamen erubescens etc. K. It is useless to 

226 



THE ANALECTS. IV. VI. 

?\ 

ft ff * 

t t # EI 



B ^ t ftH ^ * 

^ /n * ui t 

?Jc ft ^ ^ ft ft ^T 

CHAPTER VI. i. The Master said: 
" I have never seen one who loved Virtue, 
nor one who hated what was not Virtuous. 
He who loved Virtue would esteem nothing 
above it; and he who hated what is not 
Virtuous would himself be so Virtuous that 
he would allow nothing evil to adhere to 
him. 2. Is there any one able for a single 
day to devote his strength to Virtue? I 
have never seen such a one whose ability 

227 



IV. IX, X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

speak to a gentleman who wants to give himself up to 
serious studies, and who yet etc. Couv. un hommc qui 
se livre a 1 etude de la sagesse etc. ne merite pas de recevoir 
mcs enseignements. 

CHAPTER X. PRINCIPLE AND PREJUDICE. 
j$j destination, towards. C. says means ]&f. ^ determi 
nation for, and J^C is ^ ~f!f determination against, or ($$ 
j) by nj and / J respectively; M TJ]" M 7 TJj no 
I shalls or I shall nots ; i.e. every course shall be tested 
by the law of right. Kuan, jg gfc - % J if 
ftt 69 28 So The phrase ft 2. fL J is difficult to 
parse. " He is the partisan of the right," suggests itself as 
the simplest equivalent. L. interprets " his is the accord 
ing with and keeping near to righteousness." JUL along 
with, y& C. interprets as $ to follow. L. The sup. 
man, in the world, does not set his mind either for anything, 
or against anything ; what is right he will follow. Z. 
Sapiens vir quoad totum imperium, nihil obstinat velle nihil 
nolle, aequitas est quacum adhaerct. K. A wise man in 
his judgment of the world has no predilections nor pre 
judices ; he is on the side of etc. Couv. Dans le gouverne- 
ment de 1 empire, le sage ne vent ni ne rejette rien avec 
opinionatrete. La justice est sa regie. 

CHAPTER XL THE PHILOSOPHIC DESIRE 
JUSTICE NOT MERCY. Or, The noble man thinks of 
the consequences, the inferior man of being favoured. ~]\ 
dh > /h A> sec Intro. VIII. C. |g ^ ^ ^ ^ fff 
& 3$ ?i T"o ^ delight in goodness and dislike its 
opposite is the mark of the chuntzu. ftj ^C $f ^J $ft & 
S ^h AO Unworthy ease and aiming at all he can 



THE ANAICTS. IV. VI, VII, VIH. 

A f/- f ::: :^^:^ : ^Z 

. fc. -T Z:, W * 
Vk If ^ 



would be insufficient. 3. If perchance there 
be such I have never seen him." 

CHAPTER VII. The Master said: "A 
man s faults all conform to his type of mind. 
Observe his faults and you may know his 
virtues." 

CHAPTER VIIL The Master said: 
"He who heard the Truth in the morning 
might die content in the evening." 

229 



IV. XI, XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

get, this is the mark of the inferior man. fg, /$ ^ -{U^ 
Cherish, means to keep in mind, fj| f& |{j ft J(: [fi] /fj 
j iBr\ 1 maintain the virtue he has actually acquired, 
fg ffl ffi W 11 & > Sunk in the comfort he 
has laid hold of. JS ?flK g j Dread the law ; fg Ig ; 
j| TflJ look for advantage. L. suggests earthly for 
-^ ; Couv. wellbeing. L. The sup. man thinks of 

virtue; the small man thinks of comfort sanctions of 

the law; favours he may receive. Z. sapiens vir 

affectat virtutem, vulgaris homo cogitat terrena ; leges, 

studet lucro. K. A wise man regards the moral 

worth of a man; a fool, only his position justice, 

favours. Couv. L homme sage aspire a la perfection, et 

1 homme vulgaire, au bien-etre ; a observer les lois, 

a s attirer des faveurs. 

CHAPTER XII. SELFISHNESS BREEDS ANI 
MOSITY. C. ^ fa 4o 5g ^ & ffi fij ft B ^ 
S K Ao The phil : Ch eng says : He who seeks his 
own interests must injure others. L. He who acts with a 
constant view to his own advantage, will be much mur 
mured against. Z. Incumbere in lucrum ad agendum, 
multas simultates excipiet. K. If you always look only 

to your own advantage many enemies. Couv. Celui 

qui c here he uniquement son interet propre, excite 

beaucoup de mecontentements. 

CHAPTER XIII. THAT WHICH MAKES THE 
WHEELS RUN SMOOTHLY, ft Bl Operate, ad 
minister the State, jfl j8 fnj Like what is his Li. C. 
Hi <K" lfi ^ K &O Deference is the essence (substance) 
fpj ^f ft ^ jjfc $1^ Ho yu means no 

230 



THE ANALECTS. IV. IX, X, XI 



^ tt & r<. * % 

u " 

B H T B * 

m s & 



1i SI HI V ft 

ffi n ni ^ m ^ m 

CHAPTER IX. The Master said: 
"The student who aims at Wisdom, and yet 
who is ashamed of shabby clothes and poor 
food, is not yet worthy to be discoursed 
with." 

CHAPTER X. The Master said : " The 
wise man in his attitude towards the world 
has neither predilections nor prejudices. He 
is on the side of \vhat is right." 

CHAPTER XL The Master said : 
"The man of honour thinks of his character, 

231 



IV. XIII, XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

difficulty. * $5 JJiJ :Jt iJ HI etc., otherwise, 
tho 1 his rules of etiquette be complete, what use are they ? 
L. Is etc. with the complaisance proper to the rules of 
propriety etc ? If etc. what has he to do with the rules of 
propriety ? Z. Potesne juxta officiorum veracitatem ad- 

ministrare regnum ? tune quid negotii? tune ad quid 

officiorum formae ? K. He who can rule a country by 
courtesy and good manners that are in him, will find no 
difficulty in doing it. But etc. what can the mere rules of 

etiquette and formality avail him. Couv. Celui qui n a 

pas la deference requise par 1 urbanite, quelle urbanite 
peut-il avoir ? 

CHAPTER XIV. NOT PLACE OR FAME, BUT 
FITNESS FOR THEM. ^ &, being in the indicative 
and not imperative mood, one would naturally render : 
I will not be anxious, etc. but this is heterodoxy. C. $} 
JSt-jfc fiH ffi &> AC K fi ^ means, that whereby 
he may stand in the position (desired). g -J 1 El ;& T 
* K ffi * IM e ^. The philos. Ch eng says: 
The wise man seeks for that wh. is within himself ; i.e. 
seeks his satisfaction within. L. A man should say, I am 

not concerned that I have no place, -..how I may fit 

myself for one not known, I seek to be worthy to be 

known. Z. ne angaris quod careas dignitate, sccl solli- 
citus sis de eo oh quod eleveris. K. Be not concerned 
that you are not known, but seek to do something to 
deserve a reputation. Couv. Ne soyez pas en peine de 
ce que personne nc vous connait ; travaillez a vons rend re 
digne d etre connu. 

CHAPTKR XV. CONFUCIAN MONISM : A 



232 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XI, XII, XIII. 



fig f$ -T fir 7- it * 

&. m a ffij A 



II 

o 



II M y. ^ A 

s w it m n s 

^ ^ nS M B ^ 

- 

the inferior man of his position. The man 
of honour desires justice, the inferior man 
favour." 

CHAPTER XII. The Master said: 
" He who works for his own interests will 
arouse much animosity." 

CHAPTER XIII. The Master said: 
" Is a Prince able to rule his country with 
courtesy and deference, then what difficulty 
will he have ? And if he cannot rule his 
country with courtesy and deference, what 
use are the forms of courtesy to him ? " 

233 



lV\ XV. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

CONSCIENCE FOR SELF AND OTHERS, i. ^ 
name of Q ^ Intl - VJ1L P Interjection oh ! ^ J 
.& (Kuan f fj4) like the stringing- together of cash, 
beads etc. ft it - - H If > In my doctrines there 
is one principle by which to thread them ; or, which runs 
through them. C. If # ffi ^ B5 * M -lilo A 
ready unhesitating response, ig A ^ >b }$ #8 *B 

ifri S2 BS lib $ JH ^ ^ KD Thc niind of thc Sa s 

may be summarised in one principle which satisfies every 
demand, tho in practice it is of diversified application. 
Tseng Tzii had discovered (f-,1f <g|) the various applications 
< /[] jg) O f this law, and earnestly put them into practice 
(jj ft ^.)> ^ ut ^ 1C ^ iad not > ct ^ earnt tncn " essential unity 

* *n ac is - w> c - sa y s fl J ^ * ^ 

Ml * S BS ZS W ft & ^ ffi &3 The all answer 
ing monism of the Sage may be likened to the absolute 
unceasing sincerity of I leaven and Karth, whereby all 
things find their right place. The ^ | is the principle, 
fig; the ft ?!} :JI; 0f is the practice, /fl, So was it 
with the Master s teaching. L. my doctrine is that of an 
all-pervading unity. Z. mca agendi ratio per unum per- 
transigit omnia. K. In all my life and teaching there is 
one underlying connected principle. Couv. ma doctrine se 
reduit a une seule chose qui embrace tout. 

2. ifjj d % and ln;it is tllc cll(l or> tliat is all- ^ 
conscientiousness, ar.d ^/l consideration for others, tho 
seemingly two are counted as one in essence. C. ;& 
means $& ^^ , means fl| > the or.e intensive, thc 
other extensive. & is the {ffl essence, or embodiment, 
l its ffl manifestation. & is the ^ ig law of one s 

234 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XIV, XV. 

E m 



ft 



a 



tl Hi ^ ^ 

m H f W S * UK 

o 

*a> A .izi jg- -pr m AV 

Wi y\ J^ ^a M J ;iu> W- 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said: 
" One should not be concerned at lack of 
position ; but should be concerned about 
what will fit him to occupy it. One should 
not be concerned at being unknown; he 
should seek to be worthy of being known." 

CHAPTER XV. i. The Master said: 
" Shen ! My teaching contains one all- 
pervading principle." " Yes," replied Tseng 
Tzti. 2. When the Master had left the 
room the disciples asked, " What did he 
mean ? " Tseng Tzu replied, " Our Master s 

235 



IV. XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

higher nature J the A JH the (same) law extended to 
other men. JS& = f* ;jj>> the heart in the centre, or right 
place, relationship to self ; &l heart-like, i.e. following the 
naturally good heart in relations with others. L. The 
doctrine of our Master is to be true to the principles of our 
nature, and the benevolent exercise of them to others, this 
and nothing more. Z. Magistri ethica est integritas 
cordis extca;a ad pioximum, ct nihil aliud. K. The 
principle in the Master s life and teaching is comprised in 
the two words, conscientiousness and charity. Couv. 
Toute la sagesse cle notre maitre consiste a perfectionner 
soi-meme et a aimer les autres comrne soi-meme. 

CHAPTER XVL WHAT IS RIGHT VERSUS 
WHAT WILL PAY. C. nfe 8i -dLo Know, be 
enlightened. ^ ft ^ Jl $f ,> That wh. accords 
with divine principle ; flj ^f A f$ 2. 0? $,\ that wh. 
men s lower nature desires. (@ R P) :g -^ *^ 8g 
%$ A* A ^ K ?f!)c ^ l iat the common herd is in 
regard to self-interest that the wise man is in regard to 

the right. ($ K 0) g -f- 4} ft 4 B5 IR ^ *o 

\\"ise men have even sacrificed their lives for the sake of 
what is right,- an idea repugnant to the idea of gain, for, 

A 0f ft & * 3K , ffi m & ffi 5E, there 

is nothing men desire more than life, or detest more than 
death ; therefore who would be willing to part with life for 
the sake of the right, except the enlightened ? L. The 

mind of the sup. man is conversant with righteousness ; 

gain. Z. sapiens vir est prudens in justitia, vulgaris homo 
intelligans in lucro. K. A wise man sees what is right in 
a question ; a fool what is advantageous to himself. (Ala- 

236 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XVI, XVII, XVIII, 

+ + + : 

A -fc A 

Hr IE B /h SB B 

> * 

^iii^fM Afjffn^c 

o 

15 ffif S 1fe i ^ ^ 

^ ft 5^ ? ] ^ it 

teaching is simply this : Conscientiousness 
to self and consideration for others." 

CHAPTER XVL The Master said: 
" The Wise man is informed in what is 
right. The inferior man is informed in what 
will pay." 

CHAPTER XVII. The Master said: 
" When you see a man of worth, think how 
to rise to his level. When you see an 
unworthy man, then look within and examine 
yourself." 

CHAPTER XVIII. The Master said: 

237 



IV. XVII, XVIII. THE ANALKCTS. 

buster says The gentleman regards what is right, the cad 

what will pa} ) Couv tres intelligent en ce quo 

eoncerne le devoir, I interet propre. 

CHAPTER XVII. RIVAL THE GOOD, BE 
WARNED BY TIIK BAD. C. ffl ffi ft M # 
ft" At: TM.^ I lopj to obtain this worth for oneself. L. 
When we see men of worth we should think of equalling 

them, turn inwards and examine ourselves. /. videns 

non sapientem, tune interius teipsum examina. K. When 
we meet with worthless men, we should turn into ourselves 
and find out if we do not resemble them. Couv. Ouand 
vous voyez un homme depourvu cle vertu, examinez-vous 
vous-meme. 

CHAPTER XVIII. FILIAL PIETY IXCLUDKS 
FILIAL REMONSTRANCE. C. , f;g .& i.e. 
# & T SE fi* ft n n & n -HL> (From JS 
fiH rt M J ^- i- I 5)- \\ hen parents are in the wrong a 
son may, with bated breath, a sympathetic mien, and a 
gentle voice remonstrate with them. ^ $j^ Jg fj ^ 
-^:^ Stimulate his respect and reverence, until the\- are 
again pleased with him, then again urge them, ffi ^ (ft 
IJn Jjl Sfe Jfll, (See above jf$ fjil). If in their displea 
sure they beat him till the blood flows, lie must bear no 
resentment. Kuan says ^~JJ JT corporal discipline. 
Better suffer punishment than allow his parents, for lack of 
persuasion, to wrong others. L. In serving his parents, 

a son may remonstrate with them, but gently; do not 

incline to follow his advice, increased degree of re 
verence, but etc. ; and should they punish him, he does 
not murmur. Z. serviens pater et mater scnsim 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XVIII, XIX. XX 

H 



at 



M df. ,jfc $ $fr. ^ 

^ ftl W ft W $t 

II * 3 /P * x 

" In his duty to his parents a son may 
gently remonstrate with them.- If he see 
that they are not inclined to yield, he should 
be increasingly respectful but not desist, and 
though they deal hardly with him he must 
not complain." 

CHAPTER XIX. The Master said: 
11 While a father or mother are alive, a son 
should not travel far. If he travel he must 
have a stated destination." 

CHAPTER XX. The Master said: 
" If for three years a son does not change 
from his father s ways, he may be called 
filial." 

239 



IV. XVIII, XIX, XX, XXI. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

icprehendas, . .magis revere re etc.; si te vexent, ncc 

luin indignaberis. K. should seldom remonstrate with 

them ; but if he was obliged to do so not listen, yet 

not fail in respect etc. ; however much trouble they may 

give him, never complain. Couv. Si vos parents 

tombent dans une faute, evertissez-les avec grande 

douceur Quand memo iis vous maltraiteraient, n en 

ayez aucun ressentiment. 

CHAPTER XIX. A ROVING SOX UXFILIAL. 
The $g ^f says /; = / [!>]> a definite direction. C. 
says, when you say jf( you must not go ~$tj^ (JJf J 

0), 3- m &> ft Z *fr >b HO n 3b lf a 

son can cultivate the parental (kind of) heart, i.e. the 
same thought for them that they have for him,- he may 

be called filial. L. may not go abroad to a distance, 

a fixed place to wh. he goes. Z ne longa peragres 

determines locum. K. should not go far abroad let 

them know where he goes. Couv. n allez pas voyager au 
loin, dans une direction determinee. 

CHAPTER XX. -Seel, u. 

CHAPTER XXL A FILIAL SOX REMEMBERS 
HIS PARENTS AGE. Or, On the one hand as a cause 
for joy, on the other for fear. C. [j }fJ gfi -|;g ^ to 
bear in mind. 2cf. Jl: ^ y^ 1j$ ill* ^^ rejoicing in their 
length of days and fearing their decay. L. The years 
etc. may by no means not be kept in the memory, as an 
occasion at once for joy and for fear. Z. Parentum aetas 
nequit non tcneri ; hinc quidem ut laeteris, inde vero ut 
timeas. K. A son should always keep in mind etc., as a 
matter for thankfulness as well as for anxiety. Couv. 

240 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XXI, XXII, XXIII. 

5 * * 

? m * =? i ft) * IF 

o 

B m tb B gi r a 






& - - .. 
^ 2, W fli] -ft, 
Z ^ Z 61 - ^ 

CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 
" The age of one s parents should ever be 
kept in mind, as an occasion at once for joy 
and for fear." 

CHAPTER XX1L The Master said: 
" The men of ojd were reserved in speech 
out of shame lest they should come short in 
deed." 

CHAPTER XXIIL The Master said : 
" The self-restrained seldom err." 

241 



IV. XXII, XXIII, XXIV. THK ANALECTS. 

Vous clove/ vous rip[)olor souvont etc. vous rejouir do lour 
longevite, et craindrc qu ils nc vionnont a mourir. 

CHAPTER XNIL PERFORMANCE SHAMING 
PROMISE. Or, The non-utterance ^ & of thj 
words J|" (of) the ancients ~j ^f was shame J[ of ^ 
their $]t] not ^ coming up to (them) jij^ C. ^f xf> 
J ll "I fl fr ^ We For performance to come short of 
promise is the acme of shame. E. The reason why the 
ancients did not readily give utterance to their words, was 
that they feared ...... actions not come up to them. Z. 

antiqui sermonem non effundebant ; vcrecundabantur se co 
non attingere. K. Men of old kept silence for fear lest 
what they said should not come up to what they did. 
Couv. Les anciennes n osaient pas emettre He maximes ; 
ils craignaient que lours actions no repondissent pas a lours 
paroles. 

CHAPTER XXIII. SKLF-RESTRAIXT AVOIDS 
ERROR. Or, ]^y using restraint your mistakes will be 
few ; or, Those who have gone astray through self-restraint 
are few. E. The cautious seldom err. 7.. qui in se 
coercendo deficiant sibi, rari sunt. K. lie who wants 
little, (or, I le who confines his sphere) seldom goes wrong. 
Couv. On s egaro rarement en s imposant a soi-meme des 



regies severes. 



CIIAPTICR XXIV. ACTIONS SPEAK EOUDER 
TIIAX WORDS. The Comm. ftj thinks chapters 
15-24 were recorded by Tseng T/u s disciples. Note the 
use of Tseng T/u, the philosopher Tseng in 15. E. The 
sup. man wishes to be slow in his words and earnest in his 
conduct. Z ....... tardus in verbis ct promptus in actionibus. 

242 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XXIV, XXV, XXVI. 

tt * 

23 



m gg m a 

fl flB S" 

- 

g IE ^ ^ 

i^> ^T i?j 



CHAPTER XXIV. The Master said: 
" The wise man desires to be slow to speak 
but quick to act." 

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: 
" Virtue never dwells alone ; it always has 
neighbours." 

CHAPTER XXVI. TzuYu said: "In 

243 



IV. XXIV, XXV, XXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

K. slow in speech and diligent in conduct. Couv. 

lent dans ses discours et diligent dans ses actions. 

Cl IAPTER XXV. V I R T U E ATTRACTS 
FRIENDS. C. $$> m $Lo Neighbours in the sense 
of friends. L. Virtue is not left to stand alone. lie who 
practises it will have neighbours. Z. virtus non sola 
nianet, certe habet asseclas. K. Moral worth is never 
left alone ; society is sure to grow round him. Couv. La 
vertu ne va jamais seule ; un hommc vertueux attire 
toujours des imitateurs. 

CHAPTER XXVI. IMPORTUNITY ESTRAN 
GES. C. jsj^ $\ ^ ,fjf^ Annoying frequency. L. 
frequent remonstrances lead to disgrace frequent re 
proofs make -the friendship distant. 7. es importunus, 

tune dedecore afficieris ; tune alienabis. K. keep 

constantly pointing out his errors it will lead to your 
disgrace etc. Couv. Celui qui par des avis reitcres se 
rend importun a son prince etc. 



244 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XXVI, 



Sr 



serving one s prince importunity results in 
disgrace ; as importunity between friends 
results in estrangement." 



245 



V. I. THE ANALECTS. 

VOLUME III. 



BOOK Y. 



CONCERNING CERTAIN DISCIPLES 
AND OTHERS. 

CONTENTS. This book is said by Chu Tzii to treat 
of the character of men and their doings, and to be an 
enquiry into affairs and principles, and he refers approvingly 
to the opinion of jj j who surmised that it was the 
production of a disciple of Tzii Kung, probably because 
his name occurs in it several times. 

CHAPTER I. CONFUCIUS AS MATCHMAKER, 
i. For Kung Ych Ch ang see Intro. V. "Jf verb, to wive. 
fjji black cords, |J bound, imprisoned, -f- child, son, 
daughter, pp from net and wrong, enmeshed in or 
through wrongdoing. C. ft $\\ 4j[ f$ fc ft ffjj r , 
S & 9\- 3e 3$ n f fiJU Sin or its opposite 
rests entirely with the individual himself, for how can that 
\vh. merely attaches from without be cither honour or 
disgrace. L. that he might be wived ; altho he was put 
in bonds, he had not been guilty of any crime. Z. licet 
esset inter vincula, non esse ejus culpam. K. Xo man 
need hesitate to give his daughter to such a man to wife. 
It is true lie has been in prison etc. Couv. a cjui Ton 
pouvait convenablement donncr une fllle en maiiage ; cjue, 
bien qifil fut dans les fers etc. 

2. Nan Yung. Intro. V. ^ Kuan says, judicial decapi 
tation after death. JJ, Hi:-, elder bu> . i. e. the cripple 

246 



THE ANALECTS. V. I. 

VOLUME III. 



BOOK V. 



HI It K * -til fi >A 

"* "* X D 

^s ^ -f- ft m s -a 

3t 



31 



CHAPTER I. The Master said of Kung 
Yeh Ch ang that he was a suitable man to 
marry, for though he had been in prison it 
was through no wrong-doing of his. So he 
gave him his own daughter to wife. 2. The 
Master said of Nan Yung that when the 
country was well governed he would not be 
set aside, and when the country was ill 
governed he would escape suffering and 



247 



V. I, II. THK ANALECTS. 

Mcng Pi. C. ^f Jg> fl" *& M JM means he would cer 
tainly find employment ; Ja Jl: s% jj, g f^ / ftg | 
Jfl Jt & $8, a ?i *t a IB: liL> because he was 

guarded in speech and action lie would be employed in the 
periods of order and escape evil in times of disorder. In 
repudiating the view that Conl. cho.se an inferior spouse for 
his own daughter out of respect to his elder bro , f f- 
says that such ideas derogate from the dignity of the Sage, 
who was independent of any such jj$ &K f ear f misunder 
standing. I., not be out of office, escape punishment 

and disgrace. /. non rejicietur, cvaclet a poem s et 

nece. K. he will not be neglected, escape persecution. 

Couv. au rait to uj ours une charge; il saurait, ^par sa 

circonspection), echapper aux tourmcnts et a la peine 
capitale. 

CHAPTER IL HONOUR BREEDS HONOUR. 
Tzu Chien v. Intro. V. $ the State of Lu ; altho 
decadent it was stih 1 not destitute of men of honour, for 
otherwise how could Tzu Chien have learnt to be hon 
ourable? 1 ? / A Sch a man . C. Tlu first Jtfi is ^ 
A this man, the second is f %& this virtue, tj K JJX 
&. &. f& Jl : ffi 1Ic h "l respect to the worth}- in 
choosing his friends, thereby perfecting his character. 
L. Of superior virtue is such a man! If there were not 
virtuous men in Lu, how could this man have acquired 
this character. /. quantae sapientiae iste vir ! K. \Vhat 
a wise and good man he is ! I wonder if there were no 
etc. how that man could have acquired the character he 

has. Couv. Quelle sagesse est en cet homme ! Si 

n avait pas de sages etc. 

248 



THE ANALECTS. V. I, II. 



^ Z 

m * 



Z 

o 



?Jr 



death. So he gave him his elder brother s 
daughter to wife. 

CHAPTER IL The Master said of TzG 
Chien : "An honourable man indeed is 
such a one as he ! Were Lu without men 
of honour how could he have acquired this 

excellence ! " 

249 



V. Ill, IV. THE ANALFCTS. 

CHAPTER III. A VESSEL OF HONOUR. Jg 
Tzii Kung s name, see Intro. V. fnj #|K \Yhat like? 
Kuan. He called himself by his name out of respect to 
the Master. C. %$ /ff JfJ ;. ]fc fy\ An article of re 
cognised utility. The J$J gj \vcre grain vessels used in 
the Grand Anc. Temple, the 3$] in the fg-j and the gf in 
the Jg] dyn. ; they were frf[j i^ 31 jewelled and were 
very ity e handsome. Altho Tzti Kung ^ 3g JJ 1 -T> 
5Jjf had not yet got beyond the \ r essel or machine stage, 
he was a vessel of honour ^j , M ^? ^- x "- I- 

\Vliat do you say of me, Tsze ? You are a utensil A 

gemmed sacrificial utensil. Z. ego Se quomodo ? tu 

es vas gemmata capedo. K. A jewelled work of ait. 

Couv. Un vase pour les offrandes, 

CHAPTER IV. VIRTUE NOT GUAGED BY 
FLUENCY, i. Jjf name of jl} Jjf Intro. V. Yung! 
he is virtuous but not eloquent. C. \^^ P ^f .{JJ, facility 

of speech, {t 3 :8 A ffi W ffi fU iffi WF A B fS 

S H> Chung Kung was grave and reserved, and the 
men of the period deemed facility of speech a mark of 
worth. L. Yung is truly virtuous, but he is not ready 
with his tongue. Z. pcrfcctus, at non facundus. K. good 

moral man, not a man of ready wit. Couv. tres 

vertucux, mais pen habile a parlcr, 

2. C. gJJ^ ^* ^U, fij g ^^ To encounter, or to an 
swer. The ffjff ff defines it as fj ^ A to oppose men. 
He who meets men with a read}" tongue. P -f.^ C. says 
j^? ready. Tb.c filJj Jt ^ys M Ifr ^ f? ^ III 

<fr^ u ft- n r h iffi t? Hi *> jt nicans not rootc(1 in 

the heart, but only prepared and uttered by the lips. L. 

250 



THE ANALECTS. V. Ill, IV. 

eg = 

o 

t: it m ft m *u M 

n ft A = r - $1 to ffl -T tl 

o 

> > "* ^ 

o * 

*li IS )H fff) S -to 



CHAPTER III. Tzu Kung asked: 
" What is your opinion of me ? " " You are 
a vessel," said the Master. "What sort of a 
vessel?" he asked. "A jewelled temple 
vessel " was the reply. 

CHAPTER IV. i. Some one remark 
ed: "A virtuous man is Yung, but he is 
not ready of speech." 2. " What need has 
he of ready speech?" said the Master. 
"The man who is always ready with his 
tongue to others will often be disliked by 
them. I do not know about his virtue, but 
what need has he of ready speech? 

251 



V. IV, V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

They who encounter men with smartness of speech for the 
most part procure themselves hatred. X. cxcipiens alios 
cum verborum discussionc, saepe odio habetur ab aliis. 
K. A man who is always ready with his tongue to others 
will only often make enemies. Couv. Ceux qui rec,oivent 
tout le monde avec de belles paroles, qui viennent seulement 
des levres, etc. 

CHAPTER V. AN UNCERTAIN CALL." For 
Ch i-tiao K ai sec Intro. V. There is my for this (office) 
as yet inability to be assured. The ; is possessive. C. 
K iu jit 2g fM W> refers to this art of ruling men. 
fB\ ffl R %\\ Jt n Jfc iffi n ^ M M -til, means 
to truly know it to be so without a particle cf doubt. 
L. I am not as yet able to rest in the assurance of THIS. 
Z. ego id necdum potui indubitate noscere. K. I have 
not yet confidence in myself. Couv. Je ne suis pas 
encore parvenu a savoir parfaitcment (Tart de me gouverner 
moi-meme et les autres). 

CHAPTICR VI. DISCRETION BETTl^R THAN 
VALOUR. For Yu, i. e. Tzu Lu see Intro. V. The 
ftl u says 2J fe $$ }]> ffi \\V ^ JJ{^ ( Hj s ) doctrines 
for regulating the State and ordering the world. ^ ft 
-j?; ^ ^ JH> Non-progressive means not put into prac 
tice. p. fa ft ^ f/J JiK Ipf a P8 Si S> I ; lo:it on 
sea means he could not bear to se<> the degradation of the 
people. C. quotes f -f- assaying J? ftf f:, fg ^ 
T ^ $& K "7 ? i\ This exclamation about floating away 
on the sea is a sigh over the absence of a virtuous prince in 
the Empire. C. on Jjlt J5|f Jf{ ^ (no ca[)acity for select 
ing his materials) says *^P|g3CSBB89JC^flB 

252 



THE ANALECTS. V. V, VJ. 

* E 

rfr m [Hi & ? m if ^ 



T- ^ X m Sr 

O O 

^ ^ fir ^ 



CHAPTER V. The Master wanted to 
engage Ch i-tiao K ai in office, but he re 
plied : " I still lack confidence for this." 
Whereat the Master was pleased 

CHAPTER VI. The Master said : 
"My doctrines make no progress. I will 
get upon a raft and float away upon the sea. 
If any one accompanies me will it not be 
Yu ? " T/AI Lu on hearing this was pleased ; 
whereupon the Master said: "Yu is fonder 
of daring than I; he also exercises no 
discretion." 

253 



V. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

$1 JK ^ 8? JA 85 K & HL> The Master praises Jus 
braver) 1 and ridicules him for not being able to cut and 
measure the rights of things in order to only go in tlie right 
direction. L. float about on the sea. lie that will accom 
pany me will be Yu, I dare to say He does not 

exercise his judgment upon matters. /. Mea doctrina 

non propagatur : si conscensa rati lluctuam in mari at 

cares quo feras judicium de rebus. K. There is no order 
or justice now in the government of China. I will betake 
me to a ship and sail over the sea to seek for it in other 

countries you do not exercise judgment when using 

(your courage). Couv. Si je me confiais aux flots de 

la mcr, cclui qui me suivrait etc il n a pas le discern 
ment necessaire pour bien juger. 

CHAPTER VIL UNFAILING VIRTUE: FE\Y 
THERE BE THAT FIND IT. i. For Meng \Vu see 
II. vi. T/u Fu Intro. Y. fn Intro. VIII. The fjjjj ft says 
t *& ^ fiu ^ J2> \lrtue must be perfect and un 
failing. 

2 - ^- K* ft -$L^ by JK soldiers is meant, for the 
military levies were supplied according to the amount of 
land tax. According to the /] jfi rt ^ every district of 64 
^f provided I chariot, 4 warhorses, 12 oxen, 3 men in 
armour and 72 foot soldiers all completely armed, -jp jfft 
:t JK- t> S M )] 3* ft ^, T/ii Fu attained to 
X irtue for a day or a month,- intermittently ; hence it was 
as difficult to say he was Virtuous as to say that he was 
not. I lis ability was indisputable, his unvarying rectitude 
doubtful. For T" ^ . [$] see 1. v. F. might be 
employed to manage the military levies, but I do not know 

254 



THE ANALECTS. V. VII 

t 

o 

o o 

i^ Pj tc^ -"- x^w- mj 

o 

*u tn a in m, z =? B w 

> > o 

> > 



CHAPTER VII. i. Meng Wu Po 
asked whether Tzu Lu was a man of Virtue. 
The Master answered "I do not know." 
2. One his repeating the question the Master 
said : " Yu ! In a kingdom of a thousand 
chariots he might be appointed to the ad 
ministration of its levies, but I do not know 
about his Virtue." 3. " What about Ch iu ? " 
he asked, to which the Master replied: 
" Ch iu ! Over a city of a thousand families, 
or a Household of a hundred chariots, he 
might be appointed as Controller ; but I do 

255 



V. vi r, vin. THE: ANALECTS. 

whether he be perfectly virtuous. Z. potest fieri ut regat 
cjus milites : ncscio illius cordis perfectionem. K. a State 
of even the first rate power entrusted with the organisa 
tion of the army. I cannot say if he could be called a 
moral character. Couv. capable de former les troupes 
etc. Je ne sais pas si sa vcrtu est parfaite. 

3. For >, .jlj. % see Intro. V. The {$ {J says: 
& i ft A #, % E i jg 4* :#, The chief of a 
city controlled men, the steward of a Family controlled 
affairs. L. employed as governor. Z. potest gerere ejus 

gubernatorem. K. large town small principality. 

Couv. capable de gouverncr la maison cl un grand prefer. 

4. For Ch ih Tfc Jg ^& see Intro. V. The $jj Q says 
^ ffi means clad in Court robes, girdled with a sash and 
standing by his prince s side. It describes ^ by |$ ?* 
neighbouring princes and by 2J $J ; E ministers 
coming on State engagements. L. employed to converse 
with the visitors and guests. Z. possit cum hospitibus 
cloqu. K. At court, in a gala-dress reception, entrust 
ed with the duty of entertaining the visitors. Couv. de 
converser avec les hotes et les visiteurs. 

CHAPTKR VIII. TZU KUXG S TRI13UTK TO 
HUI. Tzu Kung and Ilui. Intro. V. -&; etc. You and 
I lui which surpasses ? |$ Tzu Kung s name, ^l To 
look up, or for, expect, hope. How dare 1 hope to be like 
Hui ! jfjj ^f interprets JJ/ by J-^ com[)are. J^Jt uses, or 
by. He hears one point and by it knows ten, i. e. all. yj- 
Si[ & ^ nc incient comm. f^J JpJ \er\- naturally inter 
prets by " I and you," but the dignity of the Sage, increas 
ing with the ages, forbids such an indignity. C. ^r >>t 1$ 

256 



THE ANALECTS. V. VII, VIII. 

A 

im ui & ?-" t & //* n & 



IE] iiii im m & B ^ * ^ 

-Hi m -iii -f 4 "i Hi Hi 

nl m ^ tt! 3K M 



not know about his Virtue." .4. "And what 
about Ch ih ? " lie asked. " Ch ih ! " said the 
Master. " Girded with his sash and standing 
in a Court, he might be appointed to con 
verse with its guests; but I dp not know 
about his Virtue." 

CHAPTER VIII. i. The Master ad 
dressing Tzu Kung said: "Which is the 
superior, you or Hui?" 2. "How dare I 
look at Hui 1 he answered, " Hui hears one 



257 



V. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

tH, excel. - and -|- ; $[#?, + C *> 

One is the beginning of numbers, ten the end. JiL^ ,^ f jU, 
grant, allow. L. comp.ire myself with I Iwuy. Ilwuy 
hears one point and kn<>\vs all about a subject etc. /. qui 

ausuni suspicerc lioei ? ego concede) tibi quod non 

vales. K. when I have learnt anything I can only follow 
out its bearing and applications to one or two particular 
cases. Couv. mettre en parallcle avec Ilouei? 

CHAPTER IX. CARVING ROTTEN WOOD 
AND DECORATING MUD WALLS. Tsai Yu Intro. 
V. Kuan g, ft ^ 8ft W II > The fig {? 
says - U ^, g- S ffi m, C. fjj jg fj J S Ifl) 
Jg asleep during the day. fij^ (g -{JL rotten. ^^ @ llL> 
trowel, g" 3C * M fr I M & Jll 0? ^ &> Jt I " cans 
that his will was torpid and teaching found no place for 
exhibition, f^ JJ \\l reproof. ^ /f^ Jg, ^^ 7^ jjlf 
& $& if ^1>. ^ means that he was not worth rebuking, 
which is the severest rebuke of all. The {|g iff says $ 

/A S li ^" 8K 2- . of unclean earth - Also A 

*2 -fl S tfe ^ ^ill > ^ man must ^ avc somc ground 
for the reception of teaching. L. a wall of dirty earth will 
not receive the trowel. This Yu ! what is the use of 

reproving him?" Z. die cubabat e sordido Into murus 

non potest tectorio exornari. K. s[)ent the best hours of 
the day in sleep. You cannot carve anything out of rotten 
wood nor plaster up a wall built of rubbish. Couv. un 
mur de fumier et de boue ne pent etre crepi. 

2. The : jp [:] are not read, it is assumed that these two 
words are a gloss ; if not, then that this statement: was made 

C5 

on another occasion, gfc changed this, i. e. &g .11: ||" 

258 



THE ANALECTS. V. VIII, IX 

fl 
it A 0* ^ II ft %~1m *u ia $11 

o 

:JC -lii -F ill * -T ill -tU fci -I 

> o > 

ff Kg B K> * 3 ^ r US 

^ o 

^ K te -T 3-S "T H ^ ^^m 

> o 

H- B ^ a ^ JSd -7- El [ill 
^ Bii //^ M "T -III * ittJ - 



point and from it apprehends the whole ten. 
I hear one point and apprehend a second 
therefrom." 3. The Master said : " You 
are not equal to him, I grant you, you are 
not equal to him." 

CHAPTER IX. i. Tsai Yii spending 
the daytime in sleep, the Master said: 
" Rotten wood is unfit for carving, and a 
wall of dirt unfit for plastering. As to 
Yii, \vhat is the use of reproving him ! " 
2. " Formerly," he continued, " my attitude 
towards others was to hear what they said 
and give them credit for their deeds. Now 

259 



V. IX, X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

W] if t 3 1f\ The 3f JJ- A is I in regard to men. 
$| is an exclamation. L. At first, my way with nun etc. 
It is from Yu that I have learned to make this change. 
/. Initio ego quoad alios etc. K. At on- time, when I 
wanted to judge of a man, I listened to what he said, and 
I knew for certain what he would do in his life etc. Couv. 
Auparavant quand j avais entendu parler tin homme, je 
croyais que sa conduite repondait a ses paroles etc. 

CHAPTER X. PASSIOX IS WEAKNESS NOT 
STRENGTH. Shen Cheng, -f Jg] Intro. V. C. ft ij, 
S SB 7F m 2. SU iti A ffi m ffi #, Finn and 
unbending, man s greatest difficulty. #g J$ % ;> ;; j 
pljlj , Strength means to master all that comes. ; %% 
nil S\ By passion is meant to be at the mercy of 
whatever presents itself. L. I have not seen a firm and 

unbending man is under the influence of his passions. 

Z. fortiter rigidum T chang voluptati deditus etc. K. 

he is a man of strong passions ; he is not a man of strong 
character. Couv. T chang est 1 esclave de ses passions ; 
comment a u rait il fermete d ame ? 

CHAPTER XL THE. GOLDEN RULE, cf also 
XII. ii; rfi /j|f XIII. 3. and Matt VII. 12. Or, When 
Tzil Kung said, What I do not wish men to impose on me, 
1 wish not to impose on them, the Master observed, 
That is not what you have reached to. C. jjfc fn ft 
i ^ ft {^ J8K This is the action of the perfectly Vir 
tuous and is independent of effort, and to this Tzu Kung 
had not attained. Comparing this with XII ii, where <tyj is 
used C. says Iffi # @ $ M $U # Jh i!Fk 
Jfc 0? Jl t 2. }J. J ;; f!(^ being in the indicative 

260 



THE ANALECTS. V. IX, X, X . 



A * n -f # ^ OS: IS A 

o 

o o > 

% 

-111 $t sf 1 H $f M 

> o 

my attitude tow r ards others is to listen to 
what they say and note what they do. It is 
through Yii that I have made this change." 

CHAPTER X. The Master said: "I 
have never seen a man of strong character." 
Some one remarked, " There is Shen 
Ch eng." " Ch eng ! " said the Master. " He 
is under the influence of his passions, and 
how can he be possessed of strength of 
character ! " 

CHAPTER XI.--Tzu Kung said: 
"What I do not wish others to do to me, 

261 



V. XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

mood implies spontaneous action ; ^J imperative, implies a 
prohibition, and herein lies the difference between magnani 
mity and tolerance. L. What I do not wish men etc. 
Tsze ! you have not attained to that. Z. ego quod nolo 
alios addere super me etc. K. \Yhut I do not wish that 
others should not do unto me etc. Couv. Ce que je no 
veux pas que les autres me fasscnt etc. 

CHAPTER XII. CONFUCIUS CULTURE EX 
OTERIC, HIS PHILOSOPHY ESOTERIC. C. % $ 

Jifl- *>**& &, By % 

^ is meant the external manifestation of his moral char 
acter, such as his grave deportment and cultivated expres 
sion, ft -ft X $? 3c* 5? ?I> By nature is meant 
that part of the Divine principle with which man is endowed. 
Ji m % ^ H a t * i!3> By ?c } is meant 
the Divine principles themselves (or their natural embodi 
ment ). Jl: jj JjJK In reality they are all one prin 
ciple. Confucius is said to have seldom spoken of (?g g 
;,) these subjects, so numbers of his followers had never 
heard his views. Tzu Rung is assumed to have just heard 
them and J|ft Jt ^ to here admire their excellence. L. 
The Master s personal displays of Ids principles and ordin 
ary descriptions of them may be heard. His discourses 
about Dian s nature and the way of Heaven cannot be 
heard. Z. Magistri concilium decorum, possum obtinere 
ut percipiam ; at Magistri doctrinam de nattir.i coclique 
lege, non datur percipere. K. You will often hear the 
Master speak on the subjects of art and literature, but you 
will never hear him speak on the subjects of metaphysics 
or theology. Couv. II est donne a tons les disciples 

262 



THE ANALECTS. V. XI, XII, XIII, 



m =? ro m m x ^ fr A, H- 

f r ft llf] 2c 3c R 0r T^ * 

> 

(1 # -Hi it 7- W El & ^ 

^ !ifl ~* 2. ft %. & W fa 

$\ * "T B ffii -jp til jfjn 

T41 n 14 iiil ^ IS 

o 

that also I wish not to do to them." 
"Tzul" observed the Master, u that is a 
point to which you have not attained." 

CHAPTER XII. Tzii Kung said : 
" Our Master s culture and refinement (all) 
may hear ; but our Master s discourse on the 
nature of man and the Laws of Heaven it is 
not given (to all) to hear." 

CHAPTER XIIL When Tzu Lu heard 
any precept and had not yet been able to 
put it into practice, he was only afraid lest 
he should hear some other. 

263 



V. XII, XIII, XIV. THE ANALECTS. 

d entendre Ics lemons du Maitre sur la tenu du corps et les 
bienseances, mais non scs enscignements sur la nature clc 
1 homme ct 1 action du Cicl. 

CHAPTER XIII. DIGEST ONE MEAL BEFORE 
TAKING ANOTHER. L. When Tsze Lu heard any 
thing, if he had not yet succeeded in carrying it into 
practice, he was only afraid lest he should hear something 
else. Z. si habuerat documentum quin illud potucrit in 

actum deducere. K he was afraid to learn anything 

new. Couv il craignait cl en recevoir un nouveau, 

jusqu a ce qu il fut parvenu a mettre en pratique le 
premier. 

CHAPTER XIV. CULTURE MAY EXIST A- 
PART FROM RECTITUDE, ft ^ name g| a 
statesman of Wei, and contemporary of Conf. He caused 
his lord to divorce his wife and married his own daughter 
to him. Later his lord s immorality resulted in exile from 
the State, and jj ^ married his aforesaid daughter to the 
new lord. He also had contemplated insurrection. Tzu 
Kung could not understand how such a man should get 
the posthumous title of $ the refined, cultured ; but Conf. 
maintains that the Laws for posthumous titles ^ ; j: had 
been properly applied to his namesake. The jjjjjj j^f and 
Kuan define f$ by J[g PJj jfif J^ Wherefore? ^ J^J[ 
therefore. L. He was of an active nature and yet fond of 

learning. Z. ob (juid vocatus cxpolitus ? sagax et 

amans studium. K. IVau-clcrc. lie was a man of great 
industn , who ap[)lied himself to self-culture. Couv. Poli 
ou cultive tres intelligent. 

264 



THE ANALECTS. V. XIV, XV. 

CD 

tf ^P T-- ^ ^ ill T- ? 

> 

ill B fH IK >F T- M 5t 

til it T- ^ i S lil [fi] 

Jt W ;1 X T fe fg B 

K S W ili fB] rffj ft 



CHAPTER XIV. Tzu Kung asked: 
"On what ground has K img Wen Tzu 
received his posthumous title of Wen?" 
"He was clever and fond of learning," re 
plied the Master, " and he was not ashamed 
to seek knowledge from his inferiors ; that 
is why he has been styled Cultured/ " 

CHAPTER XV. The Master remarked 
of Tzu Chan that he had four of the Ideal 
Man s characteristics ; in his personal con 
duct he was serious, in his duty to his 
superior he was deferential, in providing for 

265 



V. XV, XVI. THR ANAT.KCT?. 

CHAPTER XV. ARTICLES OF THE IDEAL 
MAN S CREED. : f- j$ or fe ffi fjg was a high 
officer of the Jj$ State, and a contemporary of Conf., who 
wept at his death. The {jjfj ft says ff B means f$ A 
$c ^ treatment of others and general conduct. C. : Jfe^ 
U }$ modest and retiring, ffiU jiS 1ft 4L circumspect 
and respectful. ![ ^ flj & affectionate beneficence. 
f^ is not |g f J forced service, but directing and ordering. 
L. in his conduct of himself he was humble ; in serving etc. 

respectful; in nourishing etc. kind; in ordering just. 

Z. habere sapientis dotes quatuor : Is sua agens cst 

humilis, obsequiosus, alens beneficus, admini- 

strans aequus. K. He showed himself to be a good 

and wise man in four ways. In his conduct of himself 

earnest, in serving the interests of his prince serious. 

In providing for the wants of the people generous, and 

in dealing with them just. Couv. pratiquait parfaite- 

ment quart vertus : a savoir, la deference envers ses egaux, 
le respect envers ses superieurs, la bienfaisance envers 1 
peuple, le justice envers ses sujets. 

CHAPTER XVI. THE ART OF FRIENDSHIP. 
Or, \Yas good at friendly intercourse. ^ M ^ con- 
temporai-} of Conf. and minister of >$ State, his post 
humous name was JJg. The {|i means secunclus, as ffl 
means primus and ^ tcrtius. C. quotes f^ -J- as 

saying: A 3c ^ IW % &, A B5 \& #f fi 

:^, Prolonged intercourse results in the decay of 
courtesy, familiarity breeds contempt, and it is the 
maintenance of courtesy despite lapse of time that is here 
referred to as excellent. L. knew well how to maintain 

266 



THE ANAIZCTS. V. XV, XVJ. XV/I 

b X 

#n ^ ? /" -fift -? $1 -ill 

-AM sF* J <v .>* -s 4 -rX( LLii 

o o 

K i-Ii A B 

^tf fi?) ^ ^ 3C 

o 

tt ft 1 rTn ff K 

the people he was beneficent, and in direct 
ing them he was just. 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said: 
"Yen P ing Chung was gifted in the art of 
friendship. Whatever the lapse of time he 
maintained towards his friends the same 
consideration." 

CHAPTER XVIL The Master said: 
"Tsang Wen Chung kept a large tortoise 
in an edifice, on whose pillar tops were 
representations of hills, and on its king-posts 
of water plants, of what sort was his 
wisdom ! " 

267 



V. XVI, XVII. Till: ANAI.l.CTS. 

friendly intercourse. The acquaintance might be long, but 
he showed the Stimc respect < Z. apposite cum 

aliis amicitiam ncctit ; cliutine, et adhuc reveretur eos. 
knew how to observe the true relations in friendship. 
However long standing he always maintained through 
out the same invariable careful respect. Couv. est ad 
mirable clans ses relations avcc ses amis ,..il les traite 
toujours avec respect. 

CHAPTER XVII. PANDERING TO A TOR 
TOISE. Or, Housed a turtle, with hill-like capitals and 
duckweed king-posts etc. Such capitals were only proper 
in the Imperial Temple, and it is supposed that Conf. s 
criticism is due to the superstitious veneration thus shewn 
to this creature, China s medium of divination. The State 
of %i was famous for its tortoises, whence they acquired 
thei/name. C. }j$ jfcl I 1 ! 1 A minister of $ alias fcXJS 
K name K, J fi ^ -Ul, )fi " likc to kec P ^ 

* Illi &> tt Sfl -i ^ -2- ^ * : ^ ^\ a ^ 

h ffl tt -flL > r P- san ^ ^ C-n had a refutation for wisdom ; 
Conf. means that he neglected what was due to the people 
and also offended the spirits by these extravagances. L. 
on the capitals of the pillars of wh. he had hills made, with 
representations of duckweed etc. Z. habitaculum fecit 
inagnae testudina. K. The man actually built a chapel 
elaborate with carvings for a large tortoise wh. lu kept. 
Couv. a fait batir, pour loger une grande tortue, tine 
edifice etc. figure des montagnes etc. et la pjinture a 
represente etc. (Wenn tchoung believed that a tortoise 
surrounded with such honour would certainly biing down 
celestial favours, ignoring that it merely divined and did 
not cause good or evil). 

268 



THE ANALECTS. V. XVIII. 

A 

o ^ 

I J >l*^ ?*~~, 4l\\ JV\\ .X*. J>^C 

"* t 

o ^\ ^ *=* n J 

ft] a M <& -fe fe il 

^i t ^p jii ^ @ *$ 

o 

^ * ^ ft -fr B * f- 

CHAPTER XVIII. i. Tzu Chang ask 
ed : " The Prime Minister Tzu Wen thrice 
took office as Prime Minister with never a 
sign of elation, and, though thrice retired 
from it, showed never a sign of annoyance; 
the policy also of his late ministry he never 
failed to explain to the new Minister ; what 
would you say of him?" "He was con 
scientious," answered the Master. " Was he 
a man of ideal Virtue ?" asked the disciple. 
" I do not know," said the Master. " Why 
should he be deemed a man of ideal 

269 



V. XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

CIIAPTLR XVIII.--TRUK VIRTUE INCLUDES 
ALL THE YIRTUKS. i. -? & Intro. V. C. ft J* 
*B ^S ffi Jl W ft SC #> Official title of the Prime 
Minister of the Ch u State. -~jp suriume; |gj name; 
ix SS" % nourished by a tiger. Tradition says he was 
born a bastard, exposed, suckled by a tiger ((rj $& ancl 
found by a prince who brought him up. lie never showed 
his emotions lg %$ ^ ft^ He ignored himself and 
knew only his country s welfare, hence he was perfect in 
loyalty & ^ ^ On the whole chapter the { ^ says, 
Loyalty and purity are excellent points but fn connotes 
>fr ?& , the perfect virtue of the heart, fc ^ *_& 

:i\ ^ ffi ffii /i j > ffi* * *& t -tiL> The t are i )cr se 

loyal and clean handed, but the loyal and clean-handed are 

not per se : L. The minister thrice took office, 

and manifested no joy in his countenance. Thrice he 
retired, and manifested no displeasure. He made it a point 
to inform the new minister of the way in wh. he had 

conducted the govt. etc loyal perfectly virtuous. 

Z. nee habuit guaclii spjciem fidelis an corde per- 

fjctus ? qui attigerit perfectionem ? K. the least signs 

of elation dis.q^pointment the line of policy wh. the 

Govt. under him hitherto had been pursuing a con 
scientious man I cannot say if he could be called a 

moral character. Couv. il n en manifesto aucune joie 

fidele an devoir (son indifference pour les changes) 

est-clle la perfection? 

2. C. -{{I -~f- was a minister of the >/f State, of the 
name of >f , The 3?.V ^ s ffi & nanic ft* murdered 
K C. 548. fjj{ JC -f* \\TIS also a minister in >/f ^ name 
%( M^ Ten ^ meant 40 horses. He renounced all 

270 



11 IK ANALKCTS. V XVIII. 



> 

ui % z ^c n M 



PI 



z -& n -T 



a 



fnj ^ in] & f 3g -f- n 

^ . 

Virtue?" 2. "When Ts ui Tzu put to 
death the Prince of Ch i, although Ch en 
Wen Tzu held a fief of ten chariots he 
abandoned all and left the country. On 
reaching another State he said : They are 
like our Minister Ts ui Tzu , and left it. 
On reaching another State, he again said: 
They are like our Minister Ts ui Tzu , and 
left it. What would you say of him?" 
"He was clean-handed," said the Master. 
" Was he a man of ideal Virtue ? asked the 
disciple. " I do not know," answered the 

271 



V. XVIII, XIX, XX. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

rather than live in a rebellious State ; but he found a similar 
condition of things elsewhere, traitors all. ffi pure in 
motive, or life. L. They are here like our great officer, 

Ch iu, and left it pure. /. assimilantur meo magno 

magistratui etc purus. K. I see they are all par 
ricides, the same as our parricide minister at home a 

pure, high-minded man. Couv. et quitta sa terre natale, 

(parce qu elle avait etc souillee du sang de son prince) 

Lc Maitre repondit : II craignait la moindre souillure. 

CHAPTER XIX. SECOND THOUGHTS BKST. 
C. ^ 3 ~f- was a minister in $j> name ft 3^ With 
third thoughts ^ ^ fig self-interest arises. L. thought 

thrice and then acted Twice may do. /. bis jam 

sufficit. K. Think twice that is sufficient. Coin-. 

II suffit de reflechir deux fois. 

CHAPTER XX. WISE FOLLY. C. 3j ft -f was 
a minister of $j name -jfc according to the ^ ffi jflf^ 
during the reigns of Duke ^ an ^< Duke Jj^^ Order 
prcvailed during the former rule, and Xing Wu quietly 
performed his duties. In this " his wisdom may be equal 
led." The next reign brought disorder, and the prince 
lost his throne. It was here that Xing Wu was deemed 
foolish, for he still remained loyal, and never spared himself 
in situations the " wise " refused to have anything to do 
with, until order and his prince were restored. L. Xing-wu 

acted the part of a wise man a stupid man. Others 

may equal his wisdom, but they cannot equal h ; .- stupidity. 
Z. ejus sapientia potest attingi ; ejus insipientia etc. K. It 
is easy to act like him as a man of understanding, but it is 
not easy to imitate him in the way he showed how to act 

.272 



THE ANALECTS. V. XVIII, XIX, XX. 

I 

& ^ ^ ill 



o o 



n =t z m * ^ 

* o 

ii ^ jfii ^-p 

> > 

Master. "Why should he be deemed a 
man of ideal Virtue ? " 

CHAPTER XIX. Chi Wen Tzu used 
to think thrice before acting. The Master 
hearing of it said : " Twice would do." 

CHAPTER XX. The Master said: 
"While good order prevailed in his State 
Ning Wu Tzu was a wise man. When the 

273 



V. XX, XXI. Till-. ANALKCTS. 

as a man of no understanding. Couv. Sa prudence pent 
etre imitee ; son imprudence est au-dcssus do tou e 
imitation. 

CHAPTER XXL AN KXILK S I/)NGING. This 
remark may be located in the year 493, or thereabouts. 
The fjjj U unnecessarily places it in the period of starva 
tion \vhen leaving Wei ; i- $j il >3i fg 11 li K At 
the time Conf. was about 60 and his /J^ -f- were not 
schoolboys, but men in office, forgetful of the teachings of 
their Master. C. jfc ?L * JSJ S W "Jj\ i * ft BH 
S IS X Jlfc -&> This is a sigh for home during his 
wanderings, on finding his teachings did not prevail. J 
3R ^ /h r f *o P 1 J A ffi 19 *?^ indicates those of 
his disciples who were in T.u. (Kuan ^^ ^ > i" 

H iS $ ^ 69 1): Jt fffi ; ^c rfii Kf M v "*|v -^> 

High-spirited (great aims but careless in action, |^ X Kil 
refinement in form. j J |i Jl: >C S-! & $C W " {J J 
Sift 3$^ There was evidence that their education was 
approaching perfection. J& $\] j To cut to proper shape, 
i. e. where to draw the line. -^ $c / ^ elegantly are 
they becoming accomplished. L. says " the antecedent to 
^ is all the preceding description." L. Let me re 
turn ! The little children of my school are ambitious 

and too hash . They are accomplished and complete so 

far, restrict and shape themselves. /. reverta jam 

quidni revertar ? mei prigi filioli, animo grandi tenuiorumque 
incurioso, cons[)icuo sunt absoluti decoro, at nornian: 
nesciunt ad (|iiam id cxigant. K. I must think of going 

home My young people at home are all high-spirited 

and independent; they are besides accomplished in all the 

274 



THE ANALECTS. V. XX, XXI. 



^ ffi 14 f -til 111 IW 

* o 

fti fli ^ it -K f< 



State fell into disorder he was a fool. His 
wisdom may be equalled, his folly cannot be 
equalled." 

CHAPTER XXI. When the Master 
w r as in the State of Ch en he said : " Let us 
return ! Let us return ! My young people 
at home are ambitious and hasty ; their cul 
ture acquires elegance, but they do not know 
where to draw the line/ 

275 



V. xxn, xxni, xxiv. TIII-: ANALECTS. 

arts ; but they have no judgment. Couv. Retournerai- 

je ? Lcs disciples que j avais dans moil pays, ont dcs 

aspirations elevees, s appliquent pen aux choscs vulgaiivs, 
et sont d une distinction rcmarquable. IMais ils ne savcnt 
pas comment regie r ccs bonnes qualites. 

CIIAPTKR XXII. RKSKXTMKXT BEGETS RK- 
SENTMENT. ffj ]}$ and ,] $f were two sons of the 
Prince of the small State of J& Yl\ end of jj dyn. Cf. 
Menc. II. I. II et al. The throne was left to Shuh-ch i 
\vlio refused to take his elder bro. s place. Po-i likewise 
declined it, and both withdrew from the Court. When 
King Wu took up arms against the Kmp. Chou they both 
re-appeared and remonstrated against such disloyalty. 
Both are said to have died of hunger declining to dv.ell 
under a disloyal rule. )l] : = JJl therefore. L. did not 
keep the former wickednesses of men in mind, and hence 
the resentments directed towards them were few. 7. non 
recogitabant anliqua. errata ; avcr^antcs illos ideo erant rari. 
K. They forgave old wrongs ; therefore they had little to 
complain of the world. Couv. oublaient les defauts 
passes d autrui ; pen d ennemis. 

CIIAPTKR XXIII. STRAWS SIIKW TIIK CUR- 
RICXT. C. Ki /| [ft the name of a man of $ noted 
for his uprightness, jfy]^ ffjf {]/, vinegar. lie is supposed 
to have given the vinegar as if it were his own. ^ /f j" $\ 
/fj\ Me said he had when lie had not. L. upright etc. 

Z. rectum. K. an honest man household necessary. 

Couv. la dr. >iture. 

CIIAPTKR XXIV. TIIK SIIAMK OK A DOUHLK 
FACE, vide I. iii. C. jjj^ ^ & excessive. Dlder 

276 



THE ANALECTS. V. XXII, XXIII, XXIV 

1t tt 

E ~ 

m T- in ^ --T 

Hf IS 3fr & 

> o 

-K K m fi:i 

s & m & & 



ffif s is & & 



CHAPTER XXII. The Master said: 
" Po I and Shu Ch i never bore ills in mind ; 
hence those who bore them resentment were 
few." 

CHAPTER XXIII. The Master said: 
"Who says that Wei-shang Kao is upright ? 
Someone begged vinegar of him, whereupon 
he begged it of a neighbour and gave it 
him." 

CHAPTER XXIV. The Master said: 

277 



V. XXIV, XXV. TIIK ANALECTS. 

comms. rc:id it / feet, indicating respectful moving of the 
feet. f -f says % PJJ fj ; |tf] A liL, An an 
cient of reputation. When _ refers to Conf. it is always 
pronounced ^ ;//^, a certain one in token of respect. 
L. Fine words, an insinuating appearance and excessive 
respect etc . To conceal resentment against a person and 
appear friendly with him. Z. phalerata verba, fucatam 
faciem, exaggeratum officium etc ; recondere odium, et 
amice tractarc unum aliquem etc. K. Plausible speech, 
fine manners and studied earnestness are things of wh. a 

c> 

friend of mine was ashamed etc. To conceal resentment 
against a person and to make friends with him etc. Couv. 
Employer un langage ctuclie, prendre un exterieur trop 
compose, donner cles marques de deference excessivcs, etc. 
Hair un homme au fond du coeur et le traiter amicalement 
etc. 

CHAPTER XXV. ASPIRATIONS, i. Yen Yuan 
and Tzu Lu, Intro. V. f : J standing by, in attendance on. 
; will, wishes. C. jjj^ fiij ^ ^ Why not? L. Come, 
let each of you tell his wishes. Z. vestrum animum. K. 
Your aim in the conduct of your life. Couv. vos clesirs. 

2- C. aK, m 2, tlL to wear; |g, ffi BE furs; fft* 
f& .& spoil, ((% to wear out) ; fe, fil ^ to dislike, bear 
hatred. L. I should like, having etc. to share them with 
my friends, and tho they should spoil them, I would not 
be displeased. Z. vellem currus etc. cum amicis ea com- 
municare etc. K. I would like, if I had etc. to share them 
etc. to be able to consider such things as much belonging 
to them as to me. Couv. Je desirerais partager avcc mes 
amis 1 usage cle mes voitures etc mecontentement. 

278 



THE ANALECTS. V. XXIV, XXV 



Sfr ^ il Z W ffrJ J 






JIV* 

o 



A 



"Plausible speech, an ingratiating demean 
our, and fulsome respect, Tso Ch iu Ming- 
was ashamed of them; I, Ch iu, also am 
ashamed of them. To conceal one s resent 
ment and yet appear friendly with the 
man, Tso Ch iu Ming was ashamed of it; 
I, Ch iu, also am ashamed of it." 

CHAPTER XXV. i. Once when Yen 
Yuan and TzQ Lu were standing by him the 
Master said : " Suppose each of you tells 

279 



V. XXV. Till ANALECTS. 

3- C. ft, jig .& to bust; ^ ffl # fig abilities; jfi 
# ii ^C ;S "fcc a display of; ^ Bil ft #J achieve 
ments, merits. $jj ^J> is interpreted by fnj .^ as not 
put burdens on others. I... not to boast of my excellence 
or to make a display of my meritorious deeds. A. noil 
jY.ctare meas dotes, nee amplificare merita. K. not to 
boast of my ability and to be able to be humble in my 
estimate of what I have done for others. Couv. ne pas 
vauter mes bonnes qualites, ne pas exagerer mcs bons 
services. 

4- C. 3& s?\ JJt H J^l -j ^ To nourish the aged in 
comfort. Hjj fc |il ; Jiy fg^ To be with them in 
good faith. /J/ ff *(g ^ Jiy ,HI, To cherish the young 
with kindness. ^ -^ says, the Master 5f t was at rest 
in Mrtue, Yen Yuan ^< $& fc was not remiss in regard 
to it and Tzu Lu jj f^l sought it. All three are deemed 
equally unselfish in intent, but Tzu Lu had to strive to be 
unselfish, Yen Yuan had to keep his mind fixed on it, while 
the Master was spontaneously thus without effort. I .. in 

regard to the aged, to give them rest; friends, shew 

them sincerity ; the young, to treat them tenderly. /,. 

s.encs, alimcnto cos tranquillarc ; amicos, f.delitate eos pro- 
sequi ; juniores amore eos fovere. K. a comfort to my old 
folk at home ; to be sincere, and to be found trustworthy 
by my friends ; and to love and care for my young people 
at home. Couv. Pourvoir abondamment aux necessites 
des vieillards, meriter les confiances etc., aider avec affection 
les cnfants et les jeuncs gens. 



280 



.THE ANALECTS. V. XXV. 



& 3 * 



ffi SHE $$ flft 

#fcR nwf i/ln Pl lA 



flff H 



his wishes ? " 2. " I should like," said Tzu 
Lu, u to have c images and horses and light 
furs to wear, so as to share them with my 
friends, nor would I feel any annoyance if 
they spoilt them." 3. " I should like," said 
Yen Yuan, " never to make a display of my 
good qualities, nor a parade of my merits." 
4. "May we hear the Master s wishes?" 
asked Tzu Lu. " They would be," said the 
Master, " to comfort the aged, be faithful to 
my friends, and cherish the young." 



281 



V. xxvi, xxvrr. TIIK ANALKCTS. 

CHAPTER xxvi. ON SELF-ACCUSATION. ^ 

is an exclamation of regret. Alas ! B ^ ^P > It is 
ended! It is all over! f| f^ Self-accusation. L. It 
is all over ! I have not yet seen one etc. and inwardly 
accuse himself. Z. itane ergo ? ego nondum vidit, qui 
possit videre suos defcctus, et interius seipsum incusare. 
K. Alas ! I do not now see a man who etc., or is willing 
to bring a suit against himself before his own conscience. 
Couv. Faut-il done desespjrer de voir n n homme qui 
reconnaise ses fautes, et sc les reproche en secret ? Moi, 
je n en ai pas encore vu. 

CHAPTER XXVII. CONFUCIUS FONDNKSS 
FOR LEARNING. C. ^ : f dfe #D B5 * B * 
$ > t& If lit & ty!l \ * The Master had innate wisdom 
and never had aught but a love of learning, hence he s.iys 

o ^> * 

this to encourage others. It is easy to have a good start 
for knowledge, it is hard to reach its goal ; he who reaches 
that goal is the sage, and he who docs not learn cannot 
avoid being a rustic. L. there may be found one honour 
able and sincere as I am, but not so fond of learning. Z. 
certe habet fidelem et sincerum sicut me, etc. K. I wen in 

a very small town men conscientious and honest as 

myself; only they have not tried to cultivate themselves 
etc. Couv. il se trouve certaincmcnt des homines, ;\ qui 

la nature a donne, des dispositions a la fidelite et a la 

sincerit 



282 



THE ANALECTS. V. XXVI, XXVII. 

* 

#? ^ & ~F" ffn ^ ~f 

. 

tit * -t- a ^ B 



Zr^i 
M, 

CHAPTER XXVI. The Master said: 
" It is all in vain ! I have never yet seen a 
man who could perceive his own faults and 
bring the charge home against himself." 

CHAPTER XXVII. The Master said: 
" Even in a hamlet of ten houses there must 
be men as conscientious and sincere as 
myself, but none as fond of learning as 
I am." 

283 



VI. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME III. 



BOOK VI. 



CONCERNING CERTAIN DISCIPLES AND 
OTHER SUBJECTS. 

TITLE. This book is called Yung Yeh, and up to 
Chapter XIV it is a continuation of the last. The remain 
ing chapters treat of wisdom, righteousness and Virtue. 

"CHAPTER L LENIENCY AND LAXITY, i. jg 

Jan Yung, style Chung Kung, v. Intro. V. ^J f ~$J ffi> 
Might be appointed facing the south. C. $j ]fij ^^ A 
3$ Sg }p 2L ii> The seat where the people s Prince 
listened to and controlled affairs. The north is still the 
seat of the Emp. and of all his representatives, and towards 
it the ruled must face. L. There is Yung !- He might 
occupy the place of a Prince. Z. Yung posset fieri 
meridiei observus. K. There is Yung he should be 
made a prince. Couv. est capable de regler les affaires 
publiques, le visage tourne vers le micli. 

2. Of ^f ^ f 6 nothing is known, tho C. says he 
was a man of $f and assents to the supposition of {$} j% 
that he may have been the -f- ^ f of $ ft] (Cluiang 
tzu). The text of the chapter is the word f[ft\ Its mean 
ing is, an abridgment, a precis ; it means general 
(e- g- K^> not particular. Here C. describes it as 

284 



THE ANALECTS. VI. I. 

VOLUME III. 
BOOK VI. 



m s it ?- 

m 

^T fi 1 " -p f i t*^ i{i 

O AA* 
" > 1^ 

&. 111] *I 



CHAPTER I. i. The Master said: 
" Yung ! He is fit to occupy a ruler s seat." 
2. Chung Kung thereupon asked concern 
ing Tzu-Sang Po-Tzu. " He will do," said 
the Master, " but he is easy-going." 3. " For 
a man who is strict in his own life," ob 
served Chung Kung, " to be easy in conduct 
in the surveillance of the people may, I 

285 



VI. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

>f< >$\ rot worrying, or troubling (about details), and 
styles Jan Yung ft fjh ffi Iff, The ft $ describes 

& gt b>- * # %f |.j >i- ~v jjjj ;f f ft ^ 2 jj^ 

never failed in magnanimity through uncalled for Ivirslmcss 
or arbitrarv urgency ; and fj fj Iff by ^ fc ^ ]f( f$ 
S; ifi] & IS 1*" ^ i BU never failed in maintaining a 
right attitude towards inferiors through trifling vexations 
and irritation. Kuan describes fgj as $fj f^i^ L. ] I e 
may pass. He does not mind small matters. 7.. bene 

quidem ; modicus est. K. a good man, independent. 

Couv. il se contente aisement. 

3- Thf ^ m records of ^ %. fg -J^ that he ^ 
^< vE fin liU use< J to s t about unclad (in summer). 
Conf. ridiculed him as jfc \P\ \ & }/*; L \- Jig ^ want 
ing to bring man down to a level with the animals. L. If 
a man cherish in himself a reverential feeling of the necessity 
of attention to business, tho he may be easy in small 

matters in his gov t of the people, etc., is not such an 

easy mode of procedure excessive? Z. vita rigiclus, 
administrationc autem modicus, et sic gubernare suum 

populum etc nonne tune erit nimis remissus. K. 

when a man in his private life is serious with himself, he 
may in his public life, be independent in his dealing \\ith 

the people too much independence in that? Couv. 

Ktre soi-meme toujours diligent, et ne pas exiger trop de 

son peuple. Mais etre soi-meme negligent, ct exiger 

peu des autres, n est-ce pas se contenter trop facilement ?< 

CIIAITI^R II.--NOXKTHATI.OVKTII\VISIX)M. 
H 5V Dukeof I.u H. C. 494466. At this time Conf. 
had returned from exile in his old age. For 0j [] v. 

286 



THE ANALECTS. VI. I, II. 



/ - - -$> -\ _i, _J-O ^rfc 

W iff S -^ US 

o 



suppose, be allowed ? But he who is easy 
going in private and easy-going in public, 
that surely is sheer laxity ? " " Yung s state 
ment is correct, " said the Master. 

CHAPTER II. Duke Ai asked which 
of the disciples was fond of learning. Con 
fucius answered him : " There was Yen Hui,- 
he was fond of learning; he never visited 
his anger on another, and he never repeated 

287 



VI. II, III. THE ANALECTS. 

Intro. V. He died at 32. C. gg Tfc ^ To remove, 
visit his anger on another ; ^ fg [jj, repeat. His j/ 
G #J S Jt ill tft> achievements in self-subjugation 
having reached to such an extent, he might truly be said 
to have loved to learn. It must be remembered that 
morals were the principal subject in " learning." fjj ^ 
^MlE^/^Pff. B> His anger was limited to a 
particular case and was not in himself. ^ is life, or 
appointed time, fate. C~ Jff.^ L. lie loved to learn. 
He did not transfer his anger ; he did not repeat a fault. 
Unfortunately his appointed time was short etc. Z. qui 

amabat hoc studium : at infeliciter brevis fuit vitae etc. 

K. He never made others suffer for his o\vn annoy 
ances unfortunately he died in the prime of life. Now 

there is no one, none of real culture. Couv. qui 

s appliquaient avec ardeur a 1 etude et a la pratique de la 
vertu Malheureusement, il a peu vecu. 

CHAPTER III. TWO DISCIPLES IIEEDEESS 
OE MONEY. The two incidents here introduced are 
said to have occurred while Conf. was Minister of Justice 
in Eu. r. Eor -f* 3$ i.e. Tfe ]JI} ^f- and f] : f- v. Intro. 
V. C. f^, g }L T ffi -sent by Conf. A g was ^ 
$V K J\ 6 4 pints; a J$ was 16 S\- ; a fr was 16 ^ 
or 160 5]-^ E. being employed on a mission. 7.. 
missus fuerut. K. sent on a public mission to a foreign 
State. Couv. charge d une mission. 

2. C. ft] $ jfjli ^ Jii, Make up to thosj wlio are 
short; ^; & & ^ li;ird pressed; ffc ^ fej ^f ft^ 
add to those with abundance. E. proceeding to Ch i he 
had fat horses etc superior man helps the distressed, 

288 



THE ANALECTS. VI. II, III. 



& IF = ? & T- -p -T- jig 

n. a n i? #f ^ ^ 

- 

HE ? I* n = 






a fault. Unfortunately his life was short and 
he died. Now there is none like him, nor 
have I heard of one who is fond of learning." 
CHAPTER III. i. Tzu Hua having 
been sent on a mission to the Ch i State, Jan 
Tzu asked for grain for his mother. The 
Master said, " Give her a///." He asked for 
more. " Give her ayii then " was the reply. 
Jan Tzu gave her five ping. 2. The Mas 
ter remarked: "On Ch ih setting out for 
Ch i he drove sleek horses and wore light 

289 



VI. Ill, IV. THE ANALECTS. 

hut tides not acid to tlvj wealth of the rich. Z. sapiens 
opitulatur indigentibus, non vero addit divitibus. K. 
reserves his charity for the really needy ; lie does not help 
the rich. Couv. le sage secourait les indigents etc. 

3. For Yiian Ssfi v. Intro. Y. $ ;> 5}?^ Me being 
made ruler (by ConD |||) Jj? etc., or, in the villages and 
hamlets 0*" your neighbourhood. C. -FL *f 3$ !*} ff] 
S H.K & & S 3?> When Conf. was Minister of Justice 
in 1 .u lie made Ssa ruler over a township, to which a 
salary of 900 measures of grain attached. L. gave him 
900 etc. Z. dedit etc. K. appointed his salary etc. 
declined it as being too much. Couv. lui donna. 

4 C. $ > *| Jh fJK A prohibition. Five families 
made a ^ 25 a JiU 125 a jg|J and 500 a SU }% 
S ^ In f> A regular official salary should not be 
refused, the surplus may be given to the poor of the 
place. I,. May you not give them away in the neigh 
bourhoods, hamlets etc. Z. eas largieris tuis villis, pagis, 

oppidis, vicis, quidni ? K. If etc. cannot you share 

with your relatives and neighbours at home? Couv. 
vous le distribuerez aux pauvres dans les hameaux, les 
villages, les villes et les bourgades cle votre prefecture. 

CHAPTiai IV. - THE STOXI^ THAT THE BUIL 
DERS REJl^CTJ^D. For fli r^ see Intro. V. C. $ 
$. $ Particoloured ; Jf 7^ {^ red, broun ; a colour 
esteemed under the |] dyn. ^J |^] JH with perfect 
horns. [\\ Jl|, [ij Jlj ^ jfifjl^ The gods (or spirits) of 
the hills and streams. A $t ^ Jlk # & ^ ^> Tho> 
men might not want it the gods would not reject it fifi rj 
3C PI [ffj t? M> His father was low and bad. ft ^ 

290 



THE ANALECTS. VI. Ill, IV. 

m 

* * M z ir^ m 

> 

^ m m ro m & m & 



Z 



jn ft %L m ^ n ;t m 

furs. I have heard that the wise man suc 
cours the needy ; he does not add to the 
rich." 

3. When Yuan Ssu was made governor 
of a certain place, the Master allowed 
him nine hundred measures of grain, which 
he declined. 4. " Do not decline it," said 
the Master. " Can you not bestow it in your 
courts and hamlets, parishes and villages ? " 

CHAPTER IV - The Master speaking 
of Chung Kung said : " If the offspring of 
a brindled ox be ruddy and clean-horned, 
although men may not wish to use it, would 
the gods of the hills and streams reject it? " 

291 



VI. IV, V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

M >P ffi Ji K T- t^ The *in* of tllc father 
cannot do away with the good character of his son. L. 

If the calf etc would the spirits of the mountains and 

rivers put it aside ? Z. Versicoloris vaccae pullum an 

illi rejicient ? K. altho men may hesitate to use it in 
sacrifice, is yet not unacceptable to the Spirits of the land. 
Couv. quand meme on ne voudrait pas 1 offrir en victime, 
les esprits etc. n exigeraicnt-ils pas qu elle leur fut immolee ? 

CHAPTER v. CONSTANT v . SPASMODIC 

VIRTUE. Hui, see Intro. V. This reads like a remark- 
made in Conf s old age, so the whole has been put into the 
past tense. C. ^ 3| t 2J , ftl K 8K B5 ft K fS 

$1^ means he had no selfish desires and possessed heart 

virtue. JJ M Jg *N * H - S Jg * JJ M 

Jl^ Reached it on a day or in a month, or once a clay, 
once a month. L. Such was Hui that for 3 months there 
w d be nothing in his mind contrary to virtue. The others 
may attain to it on some days or in some months, but 
nothing more. Z, ceteris vero diei mensisve est meta 
etc. K. For months he c d live without deviating from a 
pure moral life in thought as in deed. With other people 
the utmost is a question of a day or a month. Couv. 
une fois par jour on par mois. 

CHAPTER VI. QUALIFICATIONS FOR OFFICE. 
Decision, penetration, all-roundness. Chi K ang Tzii, see 
II. xx. For Chung Yu, T/ fi (Tuan-mn Tz tT) and Ch iu 
(Jan Ch iu), see Intro. V. $ $ 3$^ administration, $ 
& 3$ ^ government. C. The reply of Conf. was based 
on the especial ability of each 5fr ft fift Ok^ each had 
something in wh. he was long. ^ ft & $}j^ Decision, 

292 



THE ANALECTS. VI. V, VI. 



m iii B & m B flij /] B 

B nj ft f 7- 4 ^ 

m ^ M -Hi & Pni B m m 
-di^^mmf^ M t K 





o 



CHAPTER V. The Master said, "Hui! 
His heart for three months together never de 
parted from Virtue. As to the others, on 
some day or in some month they reached it, 
but that was all." 

CHAPTER VI. Chi K ang Tzu asked 
whether Chung Yu were suited for employ 
ment in the administration. " Yu is a man 
of decision," said the Master. " What diffi 
culty would he find in the administration ? 
"And T zu?" he said, " Is he suitable for 
the administration?" "T zu is a man of 
penetration," was the answer. " What diflfi- 

293 



VI. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

ability to decide; ii jfi I|i Ig, was well-versed in the 
underlying laws of matters. { ^ ^ ffg^ of many 
parts, talented, an all-round man. The J ! $C ^P W 
/fj\ may be read, as to assisting in the administration 
what (difficulty) w d he have ? L. Whether he was fit to 
be employed as an officer of govt. Yu is a man of deci 
sion ; what difficulty w d he find in being an officer of 

govt? intelligence various ability. Z. potis esset 

fungi administration Yeou est judicii potens, pro 

fugendo munere, quid erit negotii ? penetrantis 

ingenii dotibus pollens, ut intersit gubernio, quod diffi- 

cultatis erit? K. He is a man of decision. What is 
there in being a minister under the govt. that he sh d find 
any difficulty in it? great penetration many accom 
plishments. Couv. si etait capable d administer les affaires 

publiques (en qualite de grand prefer.) sait prendre une 

decision; quelle difficult^ etc tres intelligent 

beaucoup de talents etc. 

CHAPTER VII. BETTER EXILE THAN ABET 
AN UNRULY LORD. ^ R see III. i. et al. gj ^f 
$| see Intro. V. Pi, modern Jfc g$ in ffi j\\ fu Shan 
tung was a stronghold of the Chi clan, whose head had 
usurped his prince s power. Conf. when Minister had 
vainly sought the dismantling of Pi, as it was a menace to 
the ducal supremacy. Cf. XL xxiv ; XVI. i ; XVII. v. 
The R. ( was the boundary line of >/f and $K and 
according to fj E? a Minister might not go beyond the 
boundaries of his own State to seek for men of worth. ^ & 
Q etc. may mean, I must withdraw to. #n ft $i "-ffi 
% ^ If any one (or invitation) return to me. C. jgf B 

294 



THE ANALECTS. VI. VI, VII. 



o " 



& 



"I 



culty would he find therein ? " " And Ch iu ? " 
he asked, " Is he suitable for the administra 
tion ? " " Ch iu is a man of much proficiency," 
was the answer. " What difficulty would he 
find therein ? " 

CHAPTER VII The head of the Chi 
clan sent to ask Min Tzu Ch ien to be gover 
nor of Pi. Min Tzu Ch ien, replied, " Courte 
ously decline the offer for me. If any one 

295 



VI. VII, VIII, IX. TI1K ANM.KCTS. 

tfc & ft M J IS -:fc $K lfan > onc conles a s ain to 

call me I must go to Ch i. f f- says: [^ K -ft f^ 
and a few others were the only disciples who disdained this 
kind of service. L. Decline the offer for me politely. 
If any one come again to me with a second invitation I 
shall be obliged to go and live on the banks of the Wan. 
Z. tune ego profecto ero Wen fluvium supra. lv. I 
shall have to leave the country altogether. Couv. je 
serai certainement au tlela de la Wenn. 

CHAPTER VIII. THE SORROWS OE DEATH. 
fQ *r see Intro. V. C. ^ $3 M $ il & , Hie 
ancient scholars accounted it a kind of leprosy or scabies. 
(May it have been small-pox?) jjjjfj^ ]j jjjjjj $1^ The 
southern window. When an officer was ill the jji was for 
him to lie under the north window, which entailed his 
removal to the south if his prince called, so that the latter 
might sit on the north, the ruler s position. It is surmised 
that Po Niu had been so removed, but that Conf. avoided 
being treated in princely fashion by putting his hand 
through the south window. ^ |$ ^ ^^ I- It is 
killing him. It is the appointment of Heaven, alas! That 
such a man sh d have such a sickness ! etc. Z. amittetur ; 

fatum est ! K. sick with an infectious disease made 

his last adieus. We shall lose him, but God s will be done ! 
Couv. Nous le perdrons. Le Ciel 1 a ainsi ordonne. 

CHAPTER IX. A SOUL SUPERIOR TO SUR 
ROUNDINGS. C. tff *ft $, A bamboo vessel, i.e. a 
section of a bamboo. H |E $L^ A gourd ladle, or bowl. 
^ ^f says, His delight was not in the bamboo bowl, gourd 
dish, or mean alley, but ^< ^ g H % M >fr ffij & 

2196 



THE ANALECTS. VI. VII, VIII, FX. 

.i - f 

*L A 

? *f & Wf B fa ^ H\\ 



1? ^ St & 8? ill If *f 

A. - SJc Hi A ffii tr & ^ ^ 

^ SK lei ill *f ^ K ^ 

tfc m rfn ?JT ^ B9 ^ 



comes for me again, then I shall certainly 
be on the banks of the Wen." 

CHAPTER VIIL When Po Niu was ill 
the Master went to enquire about him. 
Having grasped his hand through the win 
dow he said : " We are losing him. Alas ! 
It is the will of Heaven. That such a man 
should have such a disease ! That such a 
man should have such a disease ! " 

CHAPTER IX. The Master said : 
" What a man of worth was Hui ! A single 
bamboo bowl of millet; a single ladle of 
cabbage soup ; living in a mean alley ! 

297 



VI. IX, X, XI. THE ANALECTS, 

-Jl : $? ^ III he did not allow his poverty to affect his 
soul and disturb that in \vh. he delighted. L. Admirable 
indeed was the virtue oflfui ! With a single bamboo dish 
of rice, and a single gourd dish of drink, and living in his 

mean narrow lane, allow his joy to be affected by it 

7. Proh . quam sapiens etc. alii non ferrent hujusmodi 

squalorem, suam laetitiam. K. I low much heroism is 

in that man ! Living on one single meal a day, with water 
to drink, and living in the lowest hovels of the city, no 
man c d have stood such hardships etc. Couv. Quclle la 

sagessc etait grande ! n ayant qu une corbcille de 

nourriture et une cucilleree dc boisson toujours content. 

CHAPTER X. TIRED BEFORE STARTING, ft 
^ see Intro V. tfi Jf means half way, as g |i would 
mean on the road. C. -ft ^ J # .gfc Jg gg ^ fig 
The strengthless want to advance and cannot. j| %j fig 
?li M f* 8fc> The line drawers can advance and do not 
want, ft :?? ftl If Jfc IS @ ffic til like drawing a line 
on the ground to limit themselves. L. not that I do not 
delight in your doctrines etc., give over in the middle of 
the way, but now you limit yourself. Z. non quod non 
amem magistri doctrinam etc. is media via deficit ; mine 
vcro tu haerescis. K. not because I do not believe in your 
teaching, but I want the strength to carry it out into prac 
tice show it when they are on the way. But you, you 

stick at it from the outset altogether. Couv. me depluise ; 

maisje n ai pas la force de la mcttre en pratique tombe 

epuisc a moitic route. Pour vous, vous vous prescrivez 

des limitcs etc. 

CHAPTER XL NOBLE v. IGNOBLE SCI IOLAR- 

298 



THE ANAIJiCTS. VI. IX, X, I\ . 



"* o 

^ m EI m H % in 



M ^J ^J ^N fe -Hi 

B |g ^ * * [E] ^ 

o/r /^ M U ^ ,i. ~jfo 

^> ~1 /i- /U, 0/j Hi EK 

o 

Others could not have borne his distress, but 
Hui never abated his cheerfulness. What a 
worthy man \vas Hui ! " 

CHAPTER X. Jan Ch iu remarked: 
" It is not that I have no pleasure in your 
teaching, Sir, but I am not strong enough." 
" He who is not strong enough," answered 
the Master, " gives up half way, but you are 
drawing the line already." 

CHAPTER XL The Master speaking to 
Tsu Hsia said: "Be you a scholar of the 

299 



VI. XI, XII. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

SHIP. J $ or, You are etc. For -^ g see Intro V. 
C - flK ^ ;ff , IFK The term for a scholar. f ^ 
says ?t -f S 8 B, /h A fl S A. The wise man s 
scholarship is for his own sake, th-j small man s is for the 
sake of others, for display, gjf J says : ft f- /J* ^ 
Z 3K W Hi flj B3 ffn r_L, The difference between 
the noble and petty man is the difference between rectitude 
and self-interest, i.e. Is it right ? or What shall I gain ? 
Again /L Pf JJ ft : ^C ^R ;# ^J {lL> Kvery thing hurt 
ful to divine law arises from self-interest. L. Do you be a 

scholar after the style of the superior man, mean man. 

Z. tu esto sapiens litteratus ; ne sis vulgaris litteratulus. 
K. Be a good and wise man while you try to be an 
encyclopaedic man of culture ; be not a fool while etc. 
Couv. Soyez un lettre vcrtueux et sage, et non un lettre 
sans vertu. 

CHAPTER XII. AS THE MEN SO THE AD 
MINISTRATION. For =? ffi and jg g see Intro. V. 
fg is Tzu Yu s name. Jg gf ^^ A prolonged inter 
rogative. KM, A city of $ s. of Mt. T ai, now 
& m tt i" ft W W , C. ffi, Kf ,J, M ^ f, 
A short and speedy way. ^ ^ ^{^ flij ffj ^ J^ Jp^ 
Ifil ft H /h ^ ^B ,2U He who tikes no short cuts 
will in every action be correct and will not follow expedi 
ency. ^ ^ ~4* ctc - )a -ii- *\ & a -i 1 ifn ft a a 

^iJ ,/V , K> He had self-respect and no private ends to 
serve by cringing to others. L. Have you got good men 

there? who never in walking takes a short cut, and 

never comes to my office, except etc. A. Tu esne nactus 
hominem? qui vians non sequitur compendiariam etc. 

100 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XI, XII. 



^ T- /h n 

m j^ m 

D /r* ^ -{^ T- 

3<. IM j 

o 

^ ^ . ft 

A *ft fm 



nobler type, not a scholar of the inferior man s 
type." 

CHAPTER XII. When Tzu Yu was 
governor of the city of Wu the Master asked 
him : " Have you been able to obtain 
men ? " There is one T an-t ai Mieh-ming," 
was the reply, " who when walking takes no 



VI. XII, XIII, XIV. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

K. I lave you siuxveded in gelling a good man under 
you ? I have now a man who never acts upon expediency. 
Couv. Avez-vous trouve des honinies (|ui meritcnt votre 
-onfiance ? ..,11 ne va jamais par K-s scntiers ecartes et 
caches. 

CHAPTER xiii. - - BETTER PREVARICATE 

THAN BOAST. Meng Chili-fan was a scion of the house 
of SL, named fjlij and a Minister of Lu. The \ ]f ] is said to 
be a gate or piss on the Lu frontier. Hie flight was in the 
i !th year of Duke JT , C. approvingly- quotes fl J wlio 
recognises this 3 f- R d the one in Chuang Tzu as 
the same person. C f^ | #j 4^ Boastful of his 
achievcn-nts. ^^ jjjr -[f ^ A ilight on defeat. J ^ 
n M> The rear of the troops is called Jg^ ^ $|j ^^ 
To whip. ^ Jjjr jjjj & ] fe <$ X ; ;> It isan i lonour 
to be the last to flee on a defeat. L. does not boast his 
merit. Ik-ing in the rear on an occasion of flight, when 
etc. advance. Z. non se jactat : capta fuga, tune crat in 

postsignanis ; jam portam ingressus non quoad ego 

ausus fuerim retro etc. K. lie was a man who never 

would boast he slowly brought up the rear; city 

ate It was not courage wh. kept me behind. ]kit 

you see my horse w d not go. Couv. ne se vaute pas 

lui-meme Arrive a la porte de la capitale Ce n cst 

pas que j aie eu le courage de me retirer a pros les autrcs 
etc. 

CHAPTER XIV. EEOQUENCh: AND BEAUTY 
PASSPC )RTS IN A DECADENT AGE. The jft was the 

officer who read the invocation in the ducal Anc. Temple. 
$fc was the Invocator in the $j State, name -f Jft and 

302 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XII, XIII, XIV. 

+ + 



M ^ -111 R ffil 



A 



short cuts, and who, except on public busi 
ness, has never yet come to my abode." 

CHAPTER X.IIL The Master said: 
" Meng Chih-fan is no boaster. When they 
were fleeing he brought up the rear, and only 
when about to enter the gate did he whip up 
his horse, saying : It is not that I dare to be 
in the rear ; my horse would not come on. 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said: 
" Without the eloquence of T o, the Temple 
reader, and tke beauty of Prince Chao of 

303 



VI. XIV, XV, XVI. THE ANAIJLCTS. 

was noted for his p ^ eloquence. j|jj was son of the 
Duke of fc> noted for his handsome presence, as also for 
incest with his half sister, wife of Duke H of Wei, cap 
xxvi. C. says J ffi ft fry flfc & ^ A decadent age 
loves flattery and takes pleasure in external charms ; ^[i jj 
Sfi $L^ j& ft ; without these it is hard to get on, hence 
he grieves over it. I... Without the specious speech of the 
litanist T o etc. Z. Si non liabes precatoris T ouo facun- 
diam difficile est quod servaberis etc. A man who has not 
the wit of that parson (the Sydney Smith of the lime) and 
the fine appearance of that noble lord (the Lord Chester 
field etc.) will never get on in society now. Couv. A 

moins d avoir le talent de 1 orateur difficile d echapper 

a I liainc dans ce siccle. 

CHAPTER XV. STRAIT THE GATE, NARROW 
THE WAY. C. ft jjjj m ^ ?tf. An expression 
of astonishment and grief. The Philosopher gfc says $ 
l& j& A^ A j JS EJ> It is not that Truth keeps away 
from man, it is man himself who keeps away from it. E. 
Who can go out by the door? .Ho\v is it that men will 
not walk according to these ways ? /. et quare nemo 
transit per hanc naturalis legis viam ? K. How is it that 
men do not know that one cannot live except through the 
Way? Couv. Pourquoi p^rsonne ne marche-t-il par la 
voie de la vertu ? 

CHAPTER XVI. NATURE AND TRAINING. 
On & Kuan says )l Qfy ft fj-J ft Jft, W % } gj n. ^ 
2l (ft, SK, a a B8, tt m & > Everything has 
form and substance, e.g. paper is made of bamboo, the form 
is paper, the substance bamboo, fffi excels i.e. ^ exceeds. 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XIV, XV, XVI. 





-til F ^1 

U $ 31 its 

HIJ ft /Ji S8, 

^ Hi] Sr ^ ^ 



Sung, it is hard .to escape in the present 
generation." 

CHAPTER XV. - - The Master said : 
"Who can go forth except by the door? 
Why will not men go by this Way ? " 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said: 
" When nature exceeds training you have the 
rustic. When training exceeds nature you 

-305 



VI. XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

adornment, culture. C. if ^ ?f A, T? if) IBS & 
Vulgar and unfinished, ft , : , ! F ^ UH H ^ BB 
EiR & f* JS. llL > A clerk, well-informed and experi 
enced, but lacking in sincerity. Jfj ftj }ft Sf $K ^ ftj 
$ fiB J ffiU Parti-coloured, so blended as to 
approach equality of proportion. $il ill: ft ^ H f p> ^ ct - 
ter be a rustic than a scribe. I,. Where the solid qualities 
are in excess of the accomplishments, \ve have rusticity,... 

...the manner of a clerk equally blended, we then have 

the man of virtue. Z. si nativa simplicitas superet culturae 

ornatum, tune eris rudis etc debita proportione. K. 

\\ hen the natural qualities of men get the better of the 

results of education, they are rude men literati 

properly blended. Couv. Celui chez qui les qualites 
naturelles 1 emportent sur la politesse cles manieres et du 

langage, est un homme agreste sur les vertus interieures, 

estcornme un copiste de tribunal egal degre. 

CHAPTER XVII. TO L1VK ILL AND STILL 
LIVE IS GOOD FORTUNE. [) ^ ilL> He who 
is without it and lives, it is his good fortune that he escapes. 
The H ft says the first & & #j & 2, & is at 
l)irth, or the beginning of life ; the second / ^ /J ^/- Jfi 
\\t is preservation in the world. C. |] ^ \(i f)L means 
without rectitude. L. If a man loses his uprightness and 
yet lives, his escape from dcatJi is the effect of mere good 
fortune. Z. homo nascitur recttis ; quod non rectus tamen 
vivat, fortunata est dispensatio. Is^. Man is born to be 

upright; ceases to be that, it is by the merest chance 

that he can keep himself alive. Couv. Tout hommc en 
naissant a la rectitude du coeur. Si celui qui la perd, ne 

306 



THE ANALECTS. IV. XVI, XVII. 

fc 



% m =? m 

-* Jl I ly 

< A y& 

iH & f 

ft 

^ & ^ 

have the clerk. It is only when nature and 
training are proportionately blended that you 
have the higher type of man." 

CHAPTER XVII. The Master said: 
" Man is born for uprightness. Without it 

he is lucky to escape with his life." 

307 



III. XVIII, XIX THE ANAI.KCTS. 

pcrd pas en meme temps la vie, il a bonlieur qu il n a pus 
merite. 

CHAPTER XVIIL TO KNOW, LOVE, REJOICE 
IN TRUTH. The four ; "it" may mean Truth or 
Viitue, or the Right, C. quotes J* J as saying ; #-fJ ; 

* *ii ft lit m -ill # ftf- ifn * ft 4!L S! 

3$ ft JJf ft fin $1 l!L* Hie knower knows there- 
is the Truth, the one who likes it likes but has not attained, 
the rejoicer has in a measure attained and rejoices in it. 
Another philosopher gg %fc -^ says : It is like the 5fY #J 
five cereals, the first knows they are edible, the second eats 
and likes them, the third eats his fill. L. They who know 

the truth are not equal to those who love it, delight in 

it. Z. cognoscens sapientiam non sicut amans illam 

delectatur ilia. K. know it love it find their joy in 

it (the difference between a moralist, a philosopher, and a 
real man of religion). Couv. II vaut mieux aimer la vertu 

que cle la connaitre seulement, en faire ses delices, etc. 

CHAPTER XIX. -- HIGHER TRUTH FOR 
HIGHER MINDS. C. |g^ ^ ^ to tell. It means the 
teacher ought gg IS T SB ft ^ Z H J IS H % 
A fin M M ^ ^ {JL, to teach his pupils according 
to their grade, tlien his lessons will be received, and there 
will be none of the evil of skipping over parts. L. To those 
whose talents are above mediocrity, the highest subjects 
may be announced. Z. mediocrem hominem superemi- 
nentes possunt edoceri sublimiora. K. You may speak of 
high things to those who in natural qualities of mind are 
above average men. Couv. Un hornme d une vertu plus 
qu ordinaire pcut entendre cles enseignements releves. 

-.308 



THE ANA1.ECTS. VI. XVIII, XIX. 

A-:" ; + : " + 

il A 

g A TSJ IF- -^ #n 7 
& UJl ^ Sf El 

> 

o 



J \~LLt <fc-A ^c j 5\ J *4_3 

"~ " 

CHAPTER XVIII. The Master said: 
" He who knows the Truth is not equal to 
him who loves it> and he who loves it is not 
equal to him who delights in it." 

CHAPTER XIX. The Master said: 
." To men above the average one may dis 
course on higher things ; but to those who 
are below the average one may not discourse 
on higher things." 

309 



VI. XX. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XX. WISDOM AND VIRTUE A 
DEFINITION. Fan Ch ih, Intro. V. fa # The former 
was the departed human spirit, or daimon ; the latter the 
various nature deities. Eater the jfiljl came to mean benefi 
cent spirits and $g malevolent ones, demons, ffi ^ etc., 
An old interpretation makes it, " Strive to perfect the 
people s rectitude." C. This reply was corrective of Fan 
Ch ih s faults. J 7ft; ^ $L win also means men. }$ jjf} 
ft & to obtain, acquire. $ ffl ^; frj A & 0? 

S> rfij <$ 3S * & * * "I IK fci # t> I!L, 

To devote one s strength to the proper duties of human 
conduct and not to be deluded about spirits which cannot be 
known, is the business of the wise man. ^ flg^ ^ Li &> 
Self-subjugation,- also ^ ^ Ijj. ^ jiff il, ffi & Jt ^ 
2. ffi i%^ I- To give oneself earnestly to the duties due 
to men, and while respecting spiritual beings, to keep aloof 
etc. The man of virtue makes the difficulty to be overcome 
his first business, and success only a subsequent considera 
tion. Z. vacare hominum naturali perfectioni etc 

perfectus si anteponat partem difficilem et postpomit ac- 
quisitionem etc. K. To know the essential duties of nun 
living in a society of men, and to hold in awe and fear the 
Spiritual Powers of the Universe, while keeping aloof from 
irreverent familiarity etc. A man who wants to live a moral 
life must first be conscious within himself of a difficulty and 
1 as struggled to overcome etc. Couv. Remplir les devoirs 
piopres a I homme, honorer les esprits, mais s en tenir a dis 
tance prudence. Un homme pai fait met en premier lieu ce 

qui cst le plus difficile (asavoir, la victoire sur ses passions) ; 
il met en second lieu les avantages qu il en doit retirer etc. 

310 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XX 



M 



M t z 

B "I 



CHAPTER XX. When Fan Ch ih asked 
what constituted Wisdom the Master replied : 
" To devote oneself earnestly to one s duty 
to humanity and, while respecting the spirits, 
to avoid them, may be called Wisdom." On 
his asking about Virtue, the Master replied : 
" The man of Virtue puts duty first, however 
difficult, and makes what he will gain there 
by an after consideration, and this may be 
called Virtue." 



VI. XXI, XXII. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

CHAPTER XXL CLEVERNESS AND VIRTUE 
CONTRASTED. C. *II # *t ** 2j* BB ffi 8fc fa 

$$,, The clever arc men of affairs and ever restless. {H 
* ft m m fill H m *" )1> The Virtuous rest 
in rectitude and are stable and immovable. L. The wise 

find pleasure in water, virtuous, hills active, tranquil... 

...joyful, long-lived. Z. prutlens delectatur aquarum 

fluiditate, perfectus amat montium immobilitatem ; ac- 

tione movetur, virtute quiescit ; jucunde vivit, 

longaevus. K. Men of intellectual character delight in 

water scenery ; moral character mountain scenery etc. 

Couv. L homme prudent aime 1 eau, et I hommc parfait les 
montagnes se donne du mouvement, clemeure im 
mobile vit heureu x ; vit longtemps. 

CHAPTER XXII. LU NEARER THE IDEAE 
THAN CH L Ch i was the northern neighbour of Eu. 
C. Seeing that Ch i was larger and more powerful than Eu, 
who w d not deem it greater ? But Lu had the beneficent 
hereditary influences of Duke Jf|, while Ch i had the 
hereditary traditions of the usurpation of |jj Q^ Lu s 
principles were right but she lacked the men. In Ch i both 
principles and men were lacking. *2 :?? ;Jfc : ; JH> 
The rule of the ancient kings. C. adds, only Conf. c d 
have succeeded but they w d not let him try. L. Lu, by 
one change, w d come to a State where true principles 
predominated. Z. Lou si uno gradu proficiat, perveniet ad 
rectam normam. K. if Lu w d only reform she w cl have a 
perfect govt Couv. Si la principaute cle Lou dcvenait 
meilleurc d un clcgie, elle serait parfaite. 



312 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XXI, XXII. 



-T 531 m t: IF 

B fr t: % B 



*F t tf 

- * ill. * 

o 

Ml ^H jaf ^ 



CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 
" The clever delight in water, the Virtuous in 
hills ; the clever are restless, the Virtuous 
calm ; the clever enjoy life, the Virtuous pro 
long life." 

CHAPTER XXIL The Master said: 
" The State of Ch i, at one reform, could 
attain to the standard of Lu ; but Lu, at one 
reform, could attain to ideal government." 

313 



VI. XXIII, XXIV. THE LN.M.ECTS. 

CHAPTER XXIII.- -ANCIENT NAMES WITH 
OUT ANCIENT PRINCIPLES. Or, A drinking horn 
that is not a horn! C. describes ft by It a rounded 
corner, and says some say it was a % Jfif wine vess 
others a *ffi wooden tablet, both living round 
corners. The formation of the character suggest 
shaped drinking horn. The article had changed its shape 
.hile retaining its name, so to call him a prince or a mm,: 
who has lost his authority is a misnomer. I- A c 
vessel without corners,-A strange cornered vessel 
o quale, o vere angulatu.n vas ! K. A goblet that is not 

globular: why calj it a goblet? Couv. s il 

d anglcs, cloit-il ctrc appclc kon ? 

CHAPTER XXIV.-SELF-DENIAL DOES NOT 
MEAN SELF-DESTRUCTION, # ft fc w "^y 
read # % A, The emendation rests on the authority 
of ChuTzu s teacher fi] W & d Dr Le ^ e consderS 
it a " happy correction of the text." But there are 
who think the original fc more suitable,- 
your felloxv-man is at the bottom of the well. 

K # m * *. ^ Tsai XVo 5 f ; 5 ; 

feared that altruism meant destruction, jffi nh m ^ 
Cause him to go and rescue. Ri ai" Ff5 ^ *^ l^ 
Sink himself in the well. iiyi ?} W ?B : 
] Jeceive him in a matter that was right to do. ft ,, I* 

.5, n. m ^ )fr *t. i^ 11 1 him into doing somcth " HT 

fotfonstent with ie right. L. A benevolent man tho 
it be told him etc. A sup. man may be made to go to 1 

well but he cannot be made to go down into it. b 

fooled 2:. philar.thropus in puteo cst homo, h 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XXIII, XXIV 



T- A m ^ =? 



m % a 






"I l@ ^ M K ^ Pnl 

isj iii -si n . a s 



CHAPTER XXIIL The Master ex 
claimed : " A wassail-bowl that is not a 
bowl ! What a bowl ! What a bowl ! " 

CHAPTER XXIV. Tsai Wo asked, 
saying : " An altruist, even if some one said 

to him. There is a man in the well, would, 
I suppose, go in after him ? " " Why should 
he act like that ? " answered the Master. 
" The higher type of man might hasten to 
the well, but not precipitate himself into it ; 
he mieht be imposed upon, but not utterly 
hoodwinked." 



VI. xxiv, xxv, xxvr. Tin- ANALECTS. 

ille prosequetur Sapiens poterit admovcri, non poterit 

praecipitari : clccepi halluciirui. K. A moral man, 

a man fallen into a well, I suppose he w d immediately 

follow into the well imposed upon, but not made a fool 

of. Couv. Un homme parfait tombe dans un puits 

aller au borcl du puits, mais il ne s y jettcra pas lui-meme 

trompe aveugle. 

CHAPTER XXV. LKARNING AND JUDGMENT 
AS SAFEGUARDS. B$ A boundary, a path, to get off 
the path. C. $) 3 liL> Important, conditioning it by //. 
B$ n &* Go back on. jf? : ^ says: |ijf. S$ ft % jfij 

learned man who is without judgment loses himself in a 
learned wilderness. E. The sup. man, extensively studying 
all learning and keeping himself under the restraints of the 
rules of propriety, may thus likewise not overstep what is 
right. Z. sapiens late incumbit in scienliam, et moderatur 
earn ad honestatis leges ; sicque poterit non rcfragari sapi- 
entiae. K A good man who studies extensively into the 
arts and literature, and directs his studies with judgment 
and taste, is not likely to get into a wrong track. Couv. 
Ee disciple de la sagesse eludie les livres, ...et il regie sa 
conduite d apres les vrais principcs,... . ne pas s ecarter de 
la voie clroite. 

CHAPTER XXVI. IIONI SOIT QUI MAE Y 
PENSE. Cf S. Mark VI. 18 ; S. John IV. 27, et al. 
A- - suggests "Took an oath on it." C. Nan Tzti was 
the incestuous wife of Duke g of $g cap. XIV. When 
Conf. arrived in Wei she invited him to see her. Conf. 
sought to avoid the interview but was unable, for of old 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XXV, XXVI. 





XV 

El * -T ft * 

^ r.ri i=t 

JvL sij J 

o 

n % m i 



m 



& ^ ^ ^ jet ti 

o t> 



CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: 
" The Scholar who becomes widely versed 
in letters and who restrains his learning 
within the bounds of good taste, is not likely 
to get off the track." 

CHAPTER XXVL When the Master 
went to see Nan-tzu, Tzii Lu shewed his dis 
pleasure, on which the Sage swore to him 
saying : " If I have in any way done wrong, 
may Heaven reject me ! May Heaven reject 
me ! " 

317 



VI. XXVI, XXVII, XXVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

when a man took office in a State it was the }f for him to 
have an interview with the Prince s wife Tzii Lu looked 
upon his interviewing this woman as discreditable. ^ >J 
-IJf^ To take an oath, declare. ^^ 3" >f> fa /ft jjiu -f^ 
lU JC iS lll^ ^ ot accordant with decorum or right. 
!K SS & liL> Reject, cast off. L. Wherein I have done 
improperly. Z. si est quod ego peccavi coelnm me rejiciat. 
K. If I have had an unworthy motive in that, may God 
forsake me. Couv. Si j ai mal fait, que le Ciel me rcjette. 

CHAPTER, XXYTLTI IK SCARCITY OF VIR 
TUE.. Or, "The people have had little of it for a long 
time " See the f /jff . C. r|* M J fnt ^ ]& 2. & 
&^ Cluing is the term for neither excess nor deficiency, 
r^ 2|i {ft jfa^ Constant, normal. 3* S -t!L> Utmost. 

n & -&> Few littlc - S ? sa > rs ^ ; (8 e} 1 } ^, 
f ^ ^ ffi Jf!f^ The on neither side (or never eccen 
tric) is called chung ; the unchanging (or unvarying) is 
called ywigy i.e. the fixed standard. L. Perfect is the 

virtue wh. is according to the Constant Mean ! Rare 

has been its practice etc. Z. aequabilis medii virtus, nonne 
ilia summa est ? K. The use of the moral sentiment well 
balanced and kept in perfect equilibrium,- that is the true 
state of human perfection. It is seldom found long so kept 
up amongst men. Couv. I .a vertu qui se tient dans 
1 invariable milieu, est la plus haute perfection. Pen 
d hommes la possedent, et cela depuis longtemps. 

CIIAPTICR XXVIIL THE I l IILANTI IROPIST 
AND THE SAGIC. i. The man who can so universally 
benefit his fellows is great enough to be called il A fnj $|K 
What may he be like? C. jilj. Ijg -llL, Widely, fc J^ 

313 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XXVII, XXVIII. 



A 



m .n ^ n 

CHAPTER XXVII. The master said: 
"The virtue that accords with the golden 
mean, how perfect it is ! For long has it 
been rare among the people." 

CHAPTER XXVIII. Tzu Kung said: 

" Suppose there were one who conferred 

319 



VI. XXVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

as m & -fc T> as JH *a w w SB . 

4JJ, > The law of l applies to all ranks ; the position of 
Sage carries with it the highest name that can be given. 

ffi> >b % $R ^ & &> In thcir hcarts not satisficcl 

The fij IJK What thing, or connection, is taken as ffij 
ih #J t^ Why limit this to philanthropy ? L. Suppose 
the case of a man extensively conferring benefits etc., and able 

to assist all, what w d you say of him ? perfectly virtuous ? 

Why speak only of virtue in connexion with him? 

qualities of a sage? Even Yao and Shun were still solici 
tous about this. Z. qui agis de philanthropia ? at nonne 
rcquiretur sanctus ? Yao et Choen, illi adhuc laborabant 
ad hoc. K. If there is a man who carries out extensively 
eood works for the welfare etc. and is really able to benefit 
the multitude etc. Why call him only a moral character ? 

a holy or sainted man felt their short-comings. 

Couv. qui repandrait partout ses bienfaits parmi le pcuple, 

<;t pourrait aider tons les homines sans exception? a la 

vertu parfaite? ne faudrait-il pas la plus haute sagesse ? 

avaient la douleur de ne pouvoir le faire. 

2. c. Hi B & A t # *h- To t )ut himsclf in 

another s place is the spirit of the philanthropist. L. wish 
ing to be established himself seeks also to establish others, 

enlarged enlarge others. Z. ipse consistcre, ctiam 

crigit alios; ipse penetrare, ctiam promovet alios. K. 

^..in forming his character forms the character of others; 
in enlightening himself etc. Couv. se tenir ferine lui-n:eme 
etc comprendic lui-menie (ses devoirs), et il instruite les 

autres. 

3. j the near at hand, oneself, from one s immediate 

320 



THE ANALECTS. VI. XXVJJJ. 



vV /-* S* >{-* 3 *fc 

.LL U_ 9"p | . \j ^J\c 

o -% 

\ 4(; & $ ffij 
S EL @ til An 

/vT* ^X* iliiT jTn /j- j f TFT 

i^ Y/* ^^* -^ ^C ^^ 

ffff ifn ^c ^ ^ t 

benefits far and wide upon the people, and 
who was able to succour the multitude, what 
might one say of him ? Could he be called 
a philanthropist?" "What has he to do 
with Philanthropy ? " said the Master. 
" Must he not be a Sage ? Even Yao and 

Shun felt their deficiency herein. 2. For the 

321 



VI. XXVI II. THE ANALECTS. 

environment to make a comparison i.e., Do as one would 
be done by. C. J JR gft ^ To take from oneself. 
Bl B $f ^ lr fill A $IJ JE @f C, To take one s 
own likes and dislikes as a parallel for others, so as to know 
theirs. L. To be able to jud^c of others by what is nigh 

in ourselves art of virtue. Z. posse ab intimo sumcrc 

exemplum etc. K. able to consider how one w d see 
things and act if placed in the position of others. Couv. a 
juger des autres par soi-meme, et a les traiter comme on 
desire etre soi-meme. 



322 



.THE ANALliCTS. VL- XX VIII. 



m 






philanthropist is one who desiring to main 
tain himself sustains others, and desiring to 
develope himself developes others. 3. To be 
able from one s own self to draw a parallel 
for the treatment of others, that may be 
called the rule of philanthropy." 



323 



VII. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME IV. 



BOOK VII. 

CONCERNING THE MASTER 
HIMSELF. 

CONTENTS. Shu Krh,-A transmitter. C. jft ffi 

gfi -^ A BAlf2lK*ftff2: 

Iff JL H ~f~ ~tl $> This section consists of 37 chap 
ters, many of \vh. record how the Sage by his modesty in 
structs others, ard also give a description of his appear 
ance and manner. 

CHAPTER I. CONFUCIUS THE HISTORIAN. 
C. ^jt^ $ g5 ffjj [1 Simply a transmitter of the past ; 
ffc fl J filJ 4fi -tiL to create, originate. / fj ^ ^ A 
^ m m m #1 !S * ^ X> For none but a Sage 
can originate, but to transmit is within the range of a wor 
thy. J$ J 1^ ^ ;^, j^f An expression of respect, ($ 
to steal, arrogate, presume). >^ ii^ ]S !t"t l^C ^c A high 
office * of worth in the Shang dyn. but some take ^ to 
be the Founder of the Taoist sect, and yf, to be ^ jjj[{ 
grantlson of the legendary Fmp. gj Jj1> whose family 
name is given as ^ and his name as $g^ Chuang-tzu fre 
quently refers to him. 1 le is described as over 700 years 
old and still not infirm at the end of the /jj dynasty. His 
name is derived from his feoff -^ Conf. s love of 



324 



THE ANALECTS. VII. I 

VOLUME IV. 
BOOK VII. 



ft 1i T- 

3 m 6 

5g ii ffi 

S& : . * ffi * 

L> 
2"E T- "" 

IS ^ 

Jfc fp 

CHAPTER I The Master said : " A 
transmitter and not an originator, a believer 
in and lover of antiquity, I venture to com 
pare myself with our ancient worthy P eng." 

325 



VII. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

antiquity etc. is seen in his compilation of the Classics, i.e. 

m i& \ sa m, # m %, vs ?* su an 

work that had never been done before. Hence in speaking 
thus not only docs he not venture to claim the sage-like 
qualities of a creator, but even hesitates to claim equality 
with the ordinary worthies of old, ^ ;J(: fj^ ^ //, jfjj ,fr 
ijt ~f for the more perfect he became the more humble he 
grew. rt 2 m m ffn #; M J fg *^ ft Mtho 
his office was that of transmitter, his merit was double that 
of a mere creator. I not a maker, believing in and lov 
ing the ancients, our old P ang. Z. refero et non creo ; 

credo et amo antiquitatem, niihi sumens assimilari cum meo 
Lao P ong. K. I transmit the old truth and do not ori 
ginate any new theory. I am well acquainted and love the 

study of Antiquity. In this respect old Worthy Pang. 

Couv. Je transmets (les enseignements des anciens), et 
n invente rien cle nouvcau. Je m attache a Tantiquite avec 
confiance et affection; not re vieux P eng. 

CHAPTI^R ii. THE SCHOLAR S PERENNIAL 

LAMENT. #pj means to be wearied, satiated with. C. fg 
fi -$L Chili means to remember, record ; j^ jfjj| nB ^ If 
[fn ?/ |fi >fr ino chih means to silently store up iii mind. 
Another interpretation is !$ #|j ^ to know, understand, ^ 
B" [M & M -III silently excogitate. The whole is con 
sidered as If! jfjj ^ DU ^ g-f revealing the Sage s ex 
treme modest\ r . I .. The silent treasuring up of knowledge ; 

learning without satiety, instructing wearied :- what one 

of these things belongs to me ? Z. meditari animoque doc- 
trinam infigere, addiscere et non fisticlire, instituere etc. 
ecquid inveniuntur in me? K. To meditate in silence ; pa- 

326 



THE ANALECTS. VII. II 



m 



3& A , 

> 

CHAPTER II --The Master said: "The 
meditative treasuring up of knowledge, the 
unwearying pursuit of wisdom, the tireless 
instruction of others, which of these is 

found in me ? " 

327 



VII. II, III, IV. THE ANALECTS. 

tiently to acquire knowledge ; and to be indefatigable ; which 
one.. ....can I say that I have done? Couv. Mediter et 

sc graver dans la memoire les preccptes de la sagessc, 

sat ietc, ."..... sc lasscr, ces trois mcrites sc trouvent-ils en moi ? 

CHAPTER III. THE SAGE S SHORTCOMINGS. 

_:{; fr The non-repair of virtue, jrg in the sense of $p ^ 

# not {> C. quotes the philosopher ^ : f& & f& Ifij 

3 29^Hf^l3c ^^ Character needs emenda 
tion in order to perfection, learning exactness in order to 
lucidity, on seeing the good one must be able to move over 
to it, and errors should be corrected without stint : these 
are four important rules for daily renovation. E. The leav 
ing virtue without proper cultivation : the not thoroughly 
discussing what is learned ; not being able to move towards 
righteousness of which a knowledge is gained ; and not 
being able to change what is not good, etc. Z. virtutem 
non excoli, scientiam non edisseri, cognitam justitiam non 
posse prosequi, minus rectum non posse emendare etc. K. 
Neglect of godliness, study without understanding; failure 
to act up to what I believe right ; and inability to change 
bad habits, etc. Couv. Ce que je crains, c est de ne pas 
m appliqucr a la pratique de la vertu, de ne pas chercher a 
me faire expliquer ce que je dois apprcndrc, de ne pouvoir 

accomplir ce que je sais etre cle mon devoir, me cornger 

de mes defauts. 

CHATTER IV. CONFUCIUS UNBENT AND 

SMILING. C. $B ^ IJi] UK Ji A* > I -V Yc)l M 
means when at leisure and free from business. \\\ \\* ill 
ff ^ unrolled, unbent. ^ ^ ^ & It -til <*e plca- 

328 



THE ANALECTS. VII. Ill, IV. 



m 

to -P 88 * * 

m & m z 



-ft 



CHAPTER III. The Master said : " Neg 
lect in the cultivation of character, lack of 
thoroughness in study, incompetency to move 
towards recognised duty, inability to correct 
my imperfectipns, these are what cause me 
solicitude." 

CHAPTER IV. In his leisure hours the 
Master relaxed his manner and wore a cheer 
ful countenance. 

329 



VII. IV, V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

sant his looks, i.e., a cheerful demeanour. L. unoccupied 
with business, his manner was easy, and he looked pleasant. 
Z. vacivus degcns, cxporrccto erat aniino hilarisque fronts. 
K. Hut notwithstanding what he said above, Conf. in his 
diseneaind hours was always serene and cheerful. Couv. 

O O * 

pas occupcs d affaires, son inanition etait plein d aisance, son 
air affable et joycux. 

CHATTER V. TIIK SAGE S DECAY. The Chou 
dynasty sprang- from j] now flj [\\ &f: in ](& fy] Jf.f 
Shensi. The elder son of King named Tj7{f became the 
first Emperor j 3E of the JJ] dynasty, but died soon after, 
leaving his younger brother J3. i.e. Jft] Q regent during 
the minority of \\"u s son. It was JJJ JV who by his saga 
city and learning established the dynast} , and to Confucius 
he was the beau ideal of a man and a ruler. C. JL -f $ 
RJ ; W: ft JS1 & Z. IB. ^"hen Confucius was in his 
prime his mind was set on carrying out the policy of the Duke 
of Chou, hence in his dreams he seemed to see him ; ff> :J(: 

^ rln * m ft HL fl J fS a *& rfii ft fe fS -^ * 

but in his old age, being unable to carry out this policy, he 
had lost the spirit and therewith the vision. L. Extreme 
is my decay. For a long time I have not dreamed, as I was 
wont to do etc. 7. admodum sane ego contabui ; jaindiu 
ego non amplius etc. K. 1 low my mental powers have de 
cayed ! etc. Couv. J ai bcaucotip perdu de mon energie. 

CHATTER VI. DUTY BEFORE PLEASURE. 
The business of life is character and conduct, the arts aie 
additional. It might almost be translated : With a mind 
fixed on Truth, with virtue for a staff, and elad in unselfish 
ness, I ramble for pleasure amongst the arts and sciences. 

330 



THE ANALECTS. VII. V, VI. 










a 



CHAPTER V. The Master said : " How 
utterly fallen off I am ! For long I have not 
dreamed as of yore that I saw the Duke of 
Chou." 

CHAPTER VI i. The Master said: 
" Fix your mind on the right way ; 2. hold 
fast to it in your moral character ; 3. follow 
it up in kindness to others ; 4. take your 
recreation in the polite arts." 

331 



VII. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

c. 2i HIJ A ft H JIJ US] ffr S ft -tf Trf* is 

one s daily lino of duty to one s fellows, fjg $lj ff Jit ffil 
/fj- ^} JJ- ^ ^ TV means that which one obtains within 
from pursuing one s line of duty, i.e. character, ffc ~%\ /f* 
3 / is the opposite of iwi, it means rely on, accord with. 
tl & $: ^ * M >L> fe * HL A ^ means the 
extinction of selfishness and the perfection of the moral 
character. ^ \\\\ jffi ^ X ^t 0fl i5 M ^ fi ^ 
means the refinements of manners and of music, plus the 
rules of archery, charioteering, writing, and numbers. L. 
i. Let the will be set on the paths of duty. 2. Let every 
attainment in \\ hat is good be firmly grasped. 3. Let per 
fect virtue be accorded with. 4. Let relaxation and enjoy 
ment be found etc. Z. intei.de in rcctam cloctrinam, insiste 
in virtutem, adhacre in cordis pcrfectionem, te recrea in 
liberalibus clisciplinis. K. Seek for wisdom ; hold fast to 
godliness ; live a moral life and enjoy the pleasures etc. 
Couv. Propose/- vous toujours de suivre la voie de la vertu ; 
clemeurez dans cette voie ; ne vous ecartez jamais de la 
perfection ; aycz [)our delassements etc. 

CIIAITI;R vn. THE SACK S KIXDXKSS TO 

POOR STUDENTS. The . Comm. take fj as fj B 

personally , not as from ; ff as $ to offer, and ]^ \; 
as 2J ^i or Ji /}! not as upwards . C. f|[f )]|jj {]). 
stri[)s of dried llesh (The salary of a teacher is still jfc f[^ N 
3C fe or (ft &). Hi to bind, -1- )g S 3K ten strips to 
the bundle. # ^f ^[} |i ^. ft ft W. fi S8 , JlC fe 
JU 3E SB ^/? ^ nc incients on paying a visit always took a 
present by way of showing respect, and a bundle of dried 
flesh was their very smallest L. From the man bringing 

332 



THE ANALECTS. VII. VII, VIII. 

A -t 

m E3 

o > > 

^ ff !i 

tl * fir 



fife fffi fit 

CHAPTER VII. - - The Master said : 
" From him who has brought his simple 
present of dried flesh seeking to enter my 
school I have never withheld instruction." 

CHAPTER VIIL The Master said : " I 

333 



VII. VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

his bundle of dried flesh for my teaching upwards, I h:ive 
never refused instruction to any one. X. si ipscmct prae- 

fercns fasciculum siccac carnis ascenclat, etc. K I have 

taught men who could just afford to bring me tlie barest 

presentation gift as I have taught others. Cou v. Chaque 

fois que quelqu un cst venu de lui-meme a moi en m ap- 
poitant les presents d usage etc. 

CHAPTER VIII. THE SACK S PKDAGOGY.- 
C- fit % >6 * m fa * ft ~& ; A seeking after 
unattained knowledge. |# % P $; fj jfij * fl| ^ 
UJ A manifest desire to express oneself but without being- 
able, jjJc m m K & Expound the meaning f Hfi * 
3f. g$ To unfold in terms. $0 ^ ^3 pC| ppj ^f ^ - 
?jj ^[j :J|: ^ In things with four corners, if you take one 
you can know the other three. / ft M B tt "St! 
J^ /ww conveys the idea of repeating, as evidence (of under 
standing). @ 5J ^ -liL To again inform. The ffjjj ff says 

* ffi^ * w ia >ji i f \ - & m % fill & * fa si 

El K4 -tii l-^d not proceed to other subjects, not that lie 
did not take up the remaining three corners. E. Open up 
the truth to one who is not eager to get knowledge t nor help 

out explain himself. When I have presented one corner 

of a subject etc. learn from it etc. V.. non conantem intel- 

ligcre non erudis, loqui non cxpcdio ; si proposito ur.o 

angulo, jam non rcpetam. K. In my method of teaching 

I always wait for my student to nnke an effort himself to 
find his way through a difficult}-, before I shew him the way 
myself. find his own illustrations pointed out the bear 
ing of a subject in one direction etc repeat my lesson. 

Couv. Je n enseigne pis celui qui ne s efforcc pas de 

334 



THE ANALECTS. VII. VIII, IX. 

ft 

Z =f fl I PPI X 

m ft ^ ^ t* 



expound nothing to him who is not earnest, 
nor help out any one not anxious to express 
himself. When I have demonstrated one 
angle and he cannot bring me back the other 

three, then I do not repeat my lesson." 

CHAPTER IX. i. When the Master 
dined by the side of a mourner he never ate 

335 



VII. VIII, IX, X. THE ANAIECTS. 

comprendre, d exprimer sa pensee la quatricme 

partic d unc question, jc ne 1 enscigne plus. 

CRAFTIER IX. WEEP WITH THOSE THAT 
WEEP. C. I) ift yi condoling with. L. When the Master 

was eating by never ate to the full. He did not sing on 

the same day in which he hid been weeping. Z. comedens 

ad habentis funus latus s:\turabatur : condoluerat,.... 

cantabat. K dined in a house of mourning he never ate 

much mourn for the death of a- friend, the sound of music 

was never heard in his house. Couv. mangeait a cote d un 
homme qui venait de perdre un proche parent, sa douleur lui 

pcrmettait a peine de prendre un peu cle nourriture 

pleurcr un mort sa douleur 1 empechait de chanter. 

CHAPTER X. MORAL COURAGE AND PHY 
SICAL. i. The ;. is tiken to connote Confucius and 

I lui. May it not equally well mean jg ? When one s 
principles are accepted then to continue to act, when reject 
ed to retire. This is in keeping with the Sage s actions. ^ 
Kuan jlppj^ I- When called to office to undertake its duties, 

when not so called, to lie retired: it is attained 

to this. Z. ut adhibiti quidem agamus. depositi vero 
latitemus. K. To act when called upon to act, in public 
life, and when neglected to be content to lead out a private 

life, made up our minds upon. Couv qui soyons 

toujours disposes a remplir line charge, quand on nous 1 offre 
quand on nous la retire. 

2. A J]L consisted of I 2,500 men ; the largest States had 
three JJL and the Imperial Army .six. & ^ may mean, If 
one be necessary, or what is necessary. C. -"f {fft JJ 3L 
M W @ ft 3t- IB Tza Lu scci "S Confucius 

336 



THE ANALECTS. VII. IX, X 



ft =?* fr & m 2. - 
ffi H fc if flij m 

" 



fr 



m m H it ^ ^ 
^ m n ^ % HI] JIT flij 

to the full. 2. On the same day that he 
had been mourning he never sang. 

CHAPTER X. i. The Master address 
ing Yen Yuan said : " To accept office 
when required, and to dwell in retirement 
when set aside, only you and I have this 
spirit." 2. " But, suppose," said Tzu Lu, 
<l that the Master had the conduct of the 
armies of a great State, whom would he as 
sociate with him ? " 3. " The man," re 
plied the Master, " who bare-armed would 
beard a tiger, or rush a river, dying without 

337 



VII. X, XI. Till: ANAI.KCTS. 

only praised Yen Yuan, advanced his own courage, imagin 
ing the Master would certainly prefer him in the leading of 
an army where real courage was needed. L. Conduct of 

the armies of a great State, act with you ? /. educcret 

tria agmina asscciaret? K. Command of an army, 

have with you ? Couv. Trois legions a conduire 

pour vous aider. 

3* Ok /./ tt t S- ^ Stj i zc empty-handed, unarmed $j 
jnj ^ f$ Cross a river (or The River) without means (jjj| 
is a running horse). ^ p^j %fc iff l}i means heedful, 
careful. Jjj fjfj Jjj jll f{j means succeed in his plans. L. 

unarmed attack a tiger, cross a river without a 

boat, dying without any regret. My associate must be 

the man who proceeds to action full of solicitude, fond 

of adjusting his plans, and then carries them into execution. 
Z. sine armis aggreclientem tigrem, sine cymba se commit- 
tcnteni flumini etc. si quern deberem, profecto qui aggreditur 
res cum circumspcctione, et amat praemeditari ad perficien- 
clum. K. I would not have him who is ready to seize a 
live tiger with his bare arms, or jump into the sea, without 

fear of death conscious of the difficulties of any task 

set before him, and who, only after mature deliberation, 

proceeds to accomplish it. Couv a saisir sans aucune 

arme , a traverser un fleuve sans barque, a braver la 

inert sans aucun souci de sa vie. Je choiserais certainement 

n entreprcndrait rien qu avec circonspection, et qui 

reflechirait avant d agir. 

ci IAITI<:R XL AURI SACRA I ; AMI-;S. T.J 

may, is usually permissive and might be read here ; li th. 1 
pursuit of wealth were right. Hut the commentates take 



THE ANALECTS. VII. X, XI 



B # M Hi 

il S Hli It ill 

o > - 

II M #T # 



^< ffi BBS 

> 

regret, him I would not have with me. If 
I must have a colleague he should be one 
who on the verge of an encounter would be 
apprehensive, and who loved strategy- and 
its successful issue." 

CHAPTER XL The Master said : " If 
wealth were a thing one could (count on) 
finding, even though it meant my becoming 

339 



VII. XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

it in the sense of fjj? can, pursuable, for wealth is the gift of 
Heaven and is fixed by Fate. C. $fe ffij Jft 3S W- 
a menial office. # =ft T * HI] $ f2 JSl * 

# 0r * fft S # ifr n * * "I -til if 

wealth could be acquired, although I had to become 
menial to acquire it, I would not refuse, but it is fixed by 
Fate and cannot be obtained by pursuit. L. If the search 
for riches is sure to be successful, though I should become 
a groom with whip in hand to get them, I will do so. 
As the search may not be successful, I will follow after 
that which I love. Z. si divitiae quidem possent comparari 

etc.: at quando nor. penes me est comparare, affecto. 

K. If there is a sure way of getting rich, a groom 

and keep horses pursuits congenial to me. Couv. 

S il convenait de chercher a amasser des richesses, 

I office de valet qui tient le fouet, 1 objet de mes 

desirs. 

CHAPTER XII. SUBJECTS FOR CAUTION. 
& is used for $f C. ffi f jfij ^ :& ffl Jg * $f 
~$ & & 1ft W { ])J -llL \\*hen about to sacrifice he order 
ed what miidit be disorderly in his thoughts, in order to 

o y o 

hold intercourse with the gods, the basis of sincerity and 
acceptable sacrifice. ^ fl] ^ ^ ft t M // t 
Wz ;1J5 War involves tlie life or death of many and the 
preservation or loss of the State. JJi %.!$&, $f J^Jl 
5E -li ~4f- t* ffi Sickness also involves one s own life or 
death, etc. L. The things in reference to which exer 
cised the greatest caution, etc. /. sollicite attendebat, 

castum, bc:llum, et morbus. K thi\e cases in life 

a man called upon to exercise the most mature delib- 

340 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XI, XII, XJIf. 



PI 



ffr f 



R 2Z 

" 



ffr in 



a whip-holding groom, I would do it. As 
one can not (count on) finding it, I will follow 
the quests that I love better." 

CHAPTER XIL The subjects which 
the Master treated with great solicitude 
were ; fasting, war, and disease. 

CHAPTER XIII. --When the Master 

34i 



VII. XII, XIII, XIV. Till; ANALECTS. 

oration, worship, war, sickness. Couv 1 abstinence 

avant unc ceremonic, etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. INTOXICATING MUSIC. For 
im v. III. 25. This probably occurred when Confucius 
fled with his duke to Ch i, where the ffjj is said to have 
been transmitted from of old and specially cultivated. % 
*Jj|J might be performance of music. fii[ Q interprets ^ 
K jt/r -llL by, Had reached this place (Ch i). C. ^ gji 
H Jl _h 4] ^ ^ I" the it gjj before the 

* three months there are the two words * studied it, 

he studied it, ignoring the taste of his food. "- > JJ 
& fifi ^ 2i Ml -III for his mind was absorbed in this 
to the exclusion of everything else. L. Heard the Shaou 
and for three months did not know the taste of flesh. I did 
not think that music could have been made so excellent as 
this. Z. Concordia, tresque menses quin pcrciperet 
carnium saporem, non cogitabam componentem musicam 
I)erver.isse ad hunc gradum. K. Gave himself up to the 
study of it for three months, to the entire neglect of his 

ordinary food. I should never have thought brought 

to such perfection. Couv ne percevait pas la saveur 

des viandes. Jc ne pcnsais pas ([ue 1 auteur de ccs chants 
eut atteint une si grande [)crfeetion. 

CHAPTER NIV.-ATRTUK BKFORK A PRINCK S 
I AVOUR. i. This prince was fjj( grandson of gf Q 
the husband of ]ft ^- vii. 26. jjjjjj |fg son of Duke Ling 
having planned to kill his notorious (step)mother, had to 
flee the country. On Duke Ling s death $|{ son of ^IJ J[ft 
succeeded his grandfather, the State sup[)orting him. Tli-.- 
neighbouring State of -JJ supported the father against the 

342 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XIII, XIV. 



> > "* 

telfiff^WSTrH^ 

o 

H M ^ ifc n n 



It 



o 

^? Yiif A - PI ?5? -^ PI 

-&4. xv ^7\ir 71:1 

^ > 

was in Ch i he heard the Shao and for three 
months was unconscious of the taste of meat. 
" I did not imagine," said he, " that Music 
had reached such perfection as this." 

CHAPTER XIV. i. Jan Yu asked: 
11 Is our Master for the Prince of Wei ? " 
" Ah ! " said Tzu Kung, " I will just ask 
him." 2. On entering he said : " What 
sort of men were Po I and Shuh Ch i ? 
" Worthies of old," was the reply. " Did 

343 



VII. XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

son, who, after a vain resistance, had to flee, hence his 
name [i| Q During this crisis Confucius was living in 
Wei Both father and son were unfilial, the one in schem 
ing to kill his (step) mother, the other in fighting his father, 
so Confucius could support neither. C. 3$ ffi Ujj -\\L 
implies, to assist. L. Is our Master for the Prince of \Yei ? 
Oil ! I will ask him. Z. pro. K. in favour of. Couv. pour. 

2. For f 3 %L 1 ? f sec V. 22. C. The younger 
refused to usurp the elder s position, despite his father s 
will, which the elder refused to ignore, so both became 
exiles. When their nephew J 5E rose against the tyrant 
Chou the two rode out to rebuke him, and on the over 
throw of the dynasty deliberately perished of starvation. 
Hence this parable. %& JQ- ff| ^ like repent. An honour 
able man dwell ing in a country does not put in the wrong 
its ministers much less its prince, hence Tzii Kung s mode 

of enquiry. . L. ancient worthies. Did they have repin- 

ings because of tJicir course ? they sought to act virtu 
ously, and they did so etc. Z antiquitatis sapientes 

piguitne facte ? quaesierant perfectionem et adepti 

sunt perfectionem etc. K did they complain of the 

world ? what they sought in life was to live a high moral 

life etc. Couv deux sages de 1 antiquitc Se sont 

ils repentis (d avoir renonce a la royaute) ? Us out voulu 

etrc parfaits dans leur conduite, ct ils out atteint leur but, etc. 

CIIAPTICR XV. BLISSFUL I OVKRTY AND 
FLI^F/riXG WI^ALTH. ICating coarse food, drinking 
water, bending one s arm and pillowing on it there is joy 
also therein. C. ^ It -llL ftn means to cat. ;f ^ 
says, not that he enjoyed coarse food, etc., but that they 

344 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XIV, XV. 



A 



M $ tt -IK -tit A jiff El 

o 

* 

"* > o 

"**> > > 

they repine? " he asked. " They sought Vir 
tue and they attained to Virtue," answered the 
Master ; " why then should they repine ? " 
Tzu Kung went out and said : " The 
Master is not for the Prince." 

CHAPTER XV. - - The Master said : 
" With coarse food to eat, water for drink, 
and a bent arm for a pillow, even in such 
a state I could be happy, for wealth and 

34* 



VII. XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

could not deprive him of his joy. L. coarse lice to eat, 
with etc., and my bended arm etc. I have still joy in 
the midst of these things. Riches, etc., acquired by un 
righteousness are to me as a floating cloud. Z compli- 

care cubitum ad incumbendum ei, voluptas etiam inest inter 

haec fluctuans nubes. K. Living upon the poorest fare 

with etc. find pleasure in such a life, whereas etc. acquired 
through the sacrifice of what is right would be to me as un 
real as a mirage. Couv. Le sage fut-il reduit, etc., la tete 
appuyee sur son bras, il conservera son joie au milieu de 

ses privations. Les richesses obtenues par de mauvais 

voies nuces qui flottent dans les airs. 

CHAPTER XVI. THE TRANSFORMING POW 
ER OF THE I CHING. C. speaks of an ancient copy 
which had ^ for Jfl and 3f. for 3 ~\~ > an< ^ tn ^ s ^ s the 
accepted interpretation. In the days of the ancient commen 
tator fij J| the 2 + was still in his copy, for he inter 
prets " at fifty I may have learnt " etc. Assuming the text 
to be correct it might read, Add me a few years, at fifty 
I may have mastered, etc., and then I may be, etc. ; or, 
making fifty during which I shall have studied etc. C. 
places the remark in the old age of Confucius, about seventy. 
L. If some years were added to my life I would give fifty 
to the study of the Yih, and then I might come to be with 
out great faults. Z. si adderentur mihi aliquot anni, et 
quinquaginta studerem Mutationibus etc. K. If I could 
hope to live some years more, long enough to complete 
etc., great shortcomings in my life. Couv. Si le CL-1 me 
donnait encore quelques annees de vie, apres avoir etudie 
le Livre de Changements durant cinquant annees etc. 

346 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XV, XVI, 



honour obtained unworthily are to me as a 
fleeting cloud." 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said : 
" Given a few more years of life to finish 
my study of the Book of Changes and I may 
be free from great errors." 



347 



VII. XVII, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. THE SAGE S GREAT TK XT- 
BOOKS. C. #f: ? l!i Common, constant. $fc ~^ -til 
Observe, maintain. jfj J^Jl JJJi tfe fit Poetry wherewith 
to regulate the character. f PJl j# jg( Ifi- History, 
wherewith to direct light policy. T H IK >C The 
Ritual, whereby to carefully iegu!ate one s refinement (The 
Li covers everything from religious observances to mutual 
politeness). These three things are tyj jfft H Jj] Jf 
the substance of one s daily needs, hence were frequently 

discussed. L. Frequent themes of discourse were, 

maintenance of the rules of propriety. Z passim lo 

quebatur, Carmen, Annales, et sen/are ritus. K 

loved to talk were : Poetry, history, and the rules of 
courtesy and good manners. He frequently, etc. Couv. 

roulaient ordinairement stir le Cheu king, sur le Chou 

king, et sur le Li ki, qui enseigne les devoirs a remplir. 
les sujets ordinai res etc. 

CHAPTER XVIII. THE SAGE S WATERS OE 
LETHE. i. Jj| was a very small State in jj^ now i*j| 
R i" IS !i ffi- Honan. C. {gf ffi & the duke had 
arrogated to himself this title. Tzii Lu did not reply, either 
because the duke had asked unsuitable questions, or because 
m A m 9 ft * $, W a * the Sage s lofty 
character was extremely difficult to put into words. L. Z. 
about Confucius. K. to give his opinion of Confucius. 
Couv. ayant interroge sur la personnc de Confucius. 

2. Or, In his eagerness forgetting his food, so happy 
that he forgets his sorrows, not noticing old age to be on 
the point of arriving. 5t ^ A {li see L 2, He lives a 
life. The fl| g* says of ^ g} that they cover the three 

348 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XVII, XVIII. 

+ + 

A -t 

IT * "* 



% m 
m s 



it ^ Hi 

o o 

CHAPTER XVII. --The subjects on 
which the Master most frequently discoursed 
were, the Odes, the History, and the ob 
servances of decorum ; - - on all these he 
constantly dwelt. 

CHAPTER XVIII. i. The Duke of 
She asked Tzu Lu what he thought about 

349 



VII. XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

preceding clauses gjf Jil ffi /^ ^ $J #Q jft indicating 
that ho was simply like this. C. ^ ^ fll] g ffj fffi , 
i Before attainment so zealous as to forget food. E V3t 
fl J ^?l M & M Having attained delighted enough to 
forget his sorrow. L. Simply a man, who in his eager 
pursuit of knowledge forgets his food, who in the joy of its 
attainment etc. and who does not perceive that old age is 

coming on. Z qui enitens scire, obliviscitur comedere, 

reque laetatur ut immemor sit dolorum, nee sentiat senec- 

tutem mox adventuram. K in the efforts he makes to 

overcome the difficulty in acquiring knowledge, neglects his 

food, and, who thus absorbed, becomes oblivious that 

old age is stealing on him? Couv qui s applique (a 

1 etude et a la pratique de la vertu) avec une telle ardeur 
qu il oublie etc., (qui, apres avoir acquis une vertu), eprouve 
une telle joie qu il oublie tout chagrin ; (qui est si absorbe 
etc.) ne sent pas venir la vieillesse. 

CHAPTER XIX. HIS KNOWLEDGE NOT IN 
NATE BUT ACQUIRED. This statement directly con 
tradicts the claim of later ages that Confucius was /[^ ffif 

*D > c. ^B5*i*fiffi m m m 

^ >p $f ^ ffjj ^n ; -#L He who has innate knowledge 
is naturally intelligent, possesses a clear perception of the 
rights and principles of things without having to learn them 
in order to apprehension. L. I am not one who was born 
in the possession of knowledge ; I am one who is fond of 
antiquity, and earnest in seeking it there. Z. ego non sum 
ex nativitate jam doctus sapientiam ; amans antiquitatem 
sategi ad earn exquirendam. K. I am not one born with 
understanding study of Antiquity, and is dilligent in 

350 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XVIII, XIX. 



$ W P t: 

> o 

^ ffe ^ ^ A ^c 

* ^ J^ -til ^ 

dl * & f* ^ 

o > 

ic flff M . ^ it 

Confucius, but Tzu Lu returned him no answer. 
2. " Why did you not say," said the Master, 
" he is simply a man so eager for improve 
ment that he forgets his food, so happy there 
in that he forgets his sorrows, and so does 
not observe that old age is at hand ? " 

CHAPTER XIX. --The Master said: 
" I am not one who has innate knowledge, 
but one who, loving antiquity, is diligent in 
seeking it therein." 

351 



VII. XIX, XX, XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

seeking for understanding in such studies. Couv. La 

connaissance n est pas innce en moi ; mai j aimc 1 anti- 

qtiite, et je m applique a 1 etude avec ardour. 

CHAPTER XX. TABOOED SUBJECTS. Or, 
the supernatural, prodigious deeds, the irregular, or the 
spirits. It is probable that the superstitions which form the 
main features of the Taoist cult were as much in evidence 
in the days of Confucius as now, and that the four words 
here given should be interpreted accordingly. C. *g ^ 
ffl 1l t* SI <MMJ! JH Bizarre things, feats 
of strength and rebellions do not accord with orthodox 
laws- so Confucius did not discuss them. j& jpl|l jg {, 

asK*^ iE8*iiai:^^* % m 

% ft ft # 6 JH 18 A &> And although the evi 
dences of the spirits in the operations of Nature are an 
orthodox subject, yet unless its laws can be exhaustively 
considered there is much that is not readily understood. 
Hence he also would not lightly discourse thereon to others. 
* K says : m A m 1% (the ordinary) jfjj ^ f* g 
(the extraordinary), ^ (morals) jfij ^ |g ^j (ex 
ploits), |g jg (order) JH ^ |g L (disorder), ^ A 
fllJ ^P In jf 1 ^ nc talked of men and not of gods. L. 
The subjects on which the Master did not talk were ex 
traordinary things, feats of strength, disorder, and super- 
rutural beings. Z. de monstris, violentes, turbationibus, et 
spiritibus. K. supernatural phenomena, extraordinary feats 
of strength, crime or unnatural depravity of man, super 
natural beings. Couv. choses extraordinaires, actes de vio 
lences, troubles, esprits. 

CHAPTER XXL TEACHERS EVERYWHERE. 



352 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XX, XXI. 



n 



3 :tl? Fl 

"Tri "J-^v I -I 

ffi SB H 

ft ^ A fS 

H fr ^J 

* - * 4 |L 

CHAPTER XX. The Master would 
not discuss prodigies, provress, lawlessness, 

c 

or the supernatural. 

CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 

" When walking in a party of three, my 

teachers are always present. I can select 

the good qualities of the one and copy them, 

353 



VII. XXI, XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

When three of us are walking together, my masters are al 
ways present. Or, Take the good one and follow him, and 
the not good, and change from him. Cf. IV. 17. C HA. 

fsnr#-4,&r:A:t-*-s m n $ Jt 

^ M KC 3t M 38 Three men walking together, one being 
myself, and of the other two, one good, the other bad, etc. 
L. When I walk along with two others, they may serve as 
my teachers. I will select their good qualities and follow 
them, their bad qualities and avoid them. Z. si tres homin 
es iter facimus, certo erit meus magister ; seligam istius bona 
et prosequar ea, illius non recta et ea emendabo K. 
When three men meet together, one always learn some 
thing of the other two profit by the good example of 

the one and avoid etc. Couv. Si je voyageais avec deux 
compagnons, (1 un vertueux et I autre vicieux), j exami- 
nerais ce que le premier a de bon etc. 

CHAPTER XXII. IMMORTAL TILL HIS WORK 
WAS DONE. Or, Since Heaven begot the character I pos 
sess, this Huan T ui, in regard to me, what (can he do) ? 
The tfjj g says that Confucius was on his way to Sung 
with his disciples. He was giving them a lesson in j$$ un 
der a big tree, which Huan T ui, who hated him, sent men 
to chop down. The disciples were alarmed, but Confucius 
sought to reassure them with this lofty, courageous senti 
ment. C. Huan T ui w r as the Minister of War in Sung 
and a descendant of Duke Huan. L. Heaven produced 
the virtue that is in me etc. Z. Coeluin infudit virtutem in 

me; ille quid me faciet. K. God has given me this 

moral and intellectual power in me etc. Couv. Le Ciel 
m a donne la vertu avec 1 existence etc. 



354 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXI. XXII 



f J ^ ? 

O " 

m B 



ffii 



and the unsatisfactory qualities of the other 
and correct them in myself." 

CHAPTER XXIL The Master said: 
11 Heaven begat the virtue that is in me. 

Huan T ui, what can he do to me ? " 

355 



VII. XXIII, XXIV, XXV. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXIIL NO ESOTERIC TEACHING.- 
H H ~ My Sons ! but ~f~ probably means $J ^f dis- 

cipics. c. $ gg -F # ^ T IB iflf * V &> 
ffic M K # > ffi * 11 a A ft- Jl: BS SK *g ft ?A -& 

The disciples finding their Mister s teaching out of reach 
and difficult to attain, supposed that he possessed some 
occult power, and knew not that whether active or at rest, 
speaking or silent, he had nothing he did not teach them. 
! 38 ?S To point out. L. Do you think, my disciples, 

that I have any concealments nothing which I do that 

is not shewn to you that is my way. Z. putatisne me 

quid celasse ? quod non communicaverim meis filiolis. 

K. Do you think, my friends, that I have some mysterious 

power within me For if there is anyone who shews to 

you everything which he does, I am that person. 

Couv. Pensez-vous, mes enfants, que je vous cache quelque 

chose ? Voila comme je suis. 

CHAPTER XXIV. THE SAGE S THEMES. C. 

lfeABl^fgf?M ~tt & ft & & fS * #- IIc 

taught literature, amendment of life, and the maintenance of 
conscientiousness and veracity and the two last are the 
foundation of all. L. Letters, ethics, devotion of soul, and 
truthfulness. Z. In scientia, moralitate, fidelitate et veracitate. 
K. A knowledge of literature and the arts, conduct, consci 
entiousness and truthfulness. Couv. Les lettres humainea 
et les arts liberaux, la morale, la fidelite et la sincerite. 

CHAPTER XXV. NO PROPHET, NO GOOD 
MAN, NOTHING BUT SHOW. i. ijj A A man di 
vinely inspired. C. ^ A fl 1 $J ~4< 8ll ^ SE The title oi 
one with a spirit of unlimited illumination. ^} -j* % $& jf} 

356 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXIII, XXIV 







* 









CHAPTER XXIII. The Master said: 
" My disciples ! Do you think I possess 
something occult? I have nothing occult 
from you. I do nothing that is not made 
known to you, my disciples, that is the real 
Ch iu." 

CHAPTER XXIV. The Master took 
four subjects for his teaching, culture, con 
duct, conscientiousness, and good faith. 

357 



VII. XXV. XXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

^f< ^1 %i The term for one of extraordinary talents and 
character. L. A sage etc. could I see a man of real talent 
and virtue, that would satisfy me. Z. sanctum virum, ego 

non obtinui ut ilium viderem ; sapientem etc. K. Holy, 

sainted men I do not expect to see ; wise and good men 

etc Couv. II ne m a pas ete donne de voir un hommc 
d une sagesse extraordinaire ; vraiment sage etc. 

2. C. -T Q ^ 1 f f The f EJ are probably 
a gloss, g % $* ^ ; 1| Constant, tenacious of pur 
pose, persevering. g ^ El # fl ^ K >iX # 
A ^ S 2# t ffi) $ B The persevering are single- 
minded ; the good are intent on Virtue and do no evil. L 
A good man etc. possessed of constancy etc. Z. perfec- 
tum virum habentem constantiam. 

3. C. is read as $fc L. Having not etc., empty... 

...full, straitened at ease ; it is difficult with such 

characteristics to have constancy. Z. Non habere et ta- 

men facere possidentem, vacuus plenum, pauper 

magnificum, difficile est ut sit durabile. K. Pretend to pos 
sess what they really do not possess; plenty nothing; 

affluence actual want : in such a state of society, it is 

difficult to be even a scrupulous man. Couv. Celui-la ne 
peut pas etrc constant qui n a rien, et feint d a voir quelque 
chose, vide plein, pen de choses .grande magnifi 
cence. 

CIIAPTICK XXVI. CONFUCIUS A TRUE 
SPORTSMAN. Or, Hooked but did not net. C. f|j 
JSl * a M ffl 85 t ifii ifa X -111 To fish b } - stretching a 
net with a line attached intercepting the stream. -% j^Jt /jr %fc 
^ X" ffij ^ t & Shot with an arrow having a long piece of 

358 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXV. 

/ . - - rj- t . 

. . " " - : . ;. ,. . E 

o >. * j" i 

iff) M n =t~- % ifff 
& jTn tM M ^1 ^ -2. A 

> 

$J >8 ^ ^1 A Sir ^ a 1 
rfff ^ $r ^ n 1 "I 1t ^ 

CHAPTER XXV. - - i. The Master 
said : " An inspired man it is not mine to 
see. Could I behold a noble man I would 
be content." 2. The Master said : " A 
really good man it is not mine to see. Could 
I see a man of constant purpose I would be 
content. 3. Affecting to have when they 
have not, empty yet affecting to be full, in 
straits yet affecting to be prosperous, how 

359 



VII. XXVI, XXVII. THE ANALECTS. 

raw silk attached, ffi ft/ & Roosting, resting, gt JR says 
TL ^ > ft R8 S ^ & L & & T> 5, ffij #) ^ 

\\ lien Confucius was young he was poor and in humble 
circumstances, hence at times he was under the necessity of 
fishing and shooting both for food and for sacrifices, f^ %) 
#D jft f A "T U Since he treated dumb things like 
this his treatment of human beings can be inferred. L. 
Angled but did not use a net. He shot, but not at 
birds perching Z. hamo et non reti piscabatur, jaculans 
non sagittabat quiescentes. K. Sometimes went out fishing 
but always with the rod and angle ; he would never use a 

net shooting except on the. wing. Couv. Pechait 

a la ligne, filet; line tirait pas la nuit sur les oiseaux 

qui etaient au repos. 

CHAPTER XXVII. MECHANICAL v. PHILO 
SOPHICAL RECTITUDE. Note that the " I " in the 
latter half is not in the text, to hear much etc., to see 
much etc. that is the second order of knowledge. C. 

# n K SB fin % ft & Doin s thin & s at mndom 

without knowing their underlying principles. Confucius 
says ^ gf $Z fp he ncvcr acted heedlessly, jgg 7fc ^| 
m ft BT ^ K It FJ? ^ *H Hi kai is an ex 
pression of modesty, nevertheless his omniscience is evident. 
f$ Sfi & read like ;g and means to record, note. He 

who acts thus m * <JB K * K a <n ; l! i J^ & K 

#IJ ^ ^f $L though he may not know the philosophy of 
what he does comes next in order. L. There may be 
those who act without knowing why. I do not do so. 
1 1 earing much and selecting what is good and following it 
second style of knowledge. Z. quod si sunt qui nes- 

360 



THE ANALECTS. VII XXV, XXVI, XXVII 



-b A 

& m ^ * ?- 

-til ft B & m 

& m m 



n 



hard it is for such men to have constancy of 
purpose ! " 

CHAPTER XXVI. The Master fished 
with a line but not with a net ; when shooting 
he did not aim at a resting bird. 

CHAPTER XXVII. The Master said : 

There are men, probably, who do things 

correctly without knowing the reason why, 

but I am not like that : I hear much, select 

the good and follow it ; I see much and 

361 



VII. XXVII, XXVIII. THE ANALECTS 

ciunt ct tamen rcm agant, ego non ita sciendi sccunda 

classis cst. K. There are, perhaps, men who propound 
theories which they themselves do not understand. That 
is a thing I never do. I read and learn everything etc., 
that is, perhaps, next to having a great understanding. 
Couv. II est peut-etre dcs hommes qui tentent des cnti e- 
prises a 1 aveugle Apres avoir beaucoup entcndu j exa 
mine etc. Je suis de ceux qui viennent immediatement 
apres les grands sages, chez qui les connaissances sont 

innees. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. EVEN AS THIS PUBLICAN. 

j c. Ji K $8> & The name of a hamlet, a district, 

3 A H K ^ # m Its people;were */*// 

iii ill doing and it was difficult to talk of the good to them. 
5^ % ^ * : f * S A Doubted whether the 
Sage ought to see him (There is nothing in the text to 
shew what the tense should be whether this was before 
or after the interview. It might read, a young man 
sought an interview, but the disciples hesitated). L. It 
was difficult to talk with etc. a lad of that place having had 
an interview...... disciples- doubted. Z. difficile erat com- 

municare documenta ; puer se praesentavit : discipuli tituba- 

bant. K. Bad character of the people allowed a young 

man to be presented to him, astonished. Couv... 

difficile de leur enseigner a pratiquer la vertu setant 

presente (pour suivre les lemons de Confucius) dou 

tercnt i^s il convenait de 1 admettre). 

2. C. thinks a mistake has been made in copying and 
that the fourteen ^ from A & to & t should come 
first and the rest after ; also that there is some omission be- 

362 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXVII, XXVIII. 



A 

l4 r~~i *"*^ - - 

51 "T" S 

ii s n a 

-a ji A n 

> - 

M ^ T = ^ 



treasure it up. This is the next best thing 
to philosophical knowledge." 

CHAPTER XXVIII. i. The people 
of Hu-hsiang were hard to get on with ; 
hence when a youth from there had an inter 
view with the sage the disciples wondered. 
2. " In sanctioning a man s entry here," said 
the Master, " I sanction nothing he may do 
on his withdrawal. Why, indeed, be so ex- 

363 



VII. XXVIII, XXIX. THE ANALECTS. 

fore or after Pfg^ There seems nothing to prevent the 
whole being taken as preceding the interview and interpret 
ing : Allow him to enter, don t let him go away. Why, 
indeed, be so extreme ! When a man etc. C. $g $ yfj 
& self-discipline; |tl fft -& g rant > concede; ^: $1 H 
$L days gone by. f A 2R El B5 *> ffl B f K ^ 
6 If, # fig 1* 3t ffi H M -111 When 
a man cleanses himself and comes to me I only concede his 
ability to etc. and give no guarantee for his past good or 
evil. ^ ja : Jt m tk ^ & K 3$ * ! Cither bring 
up his past nor hinder his future. L. I admit people s 
approach to me without committing myself as to what they 
may do when they have retired. Why must one be so 
severe ? If a man purify himself I receive him so puri 
fied, without guaranteeing his past conduct. Z. cum quis 

se purificet approbo ilium ingredientem, recedentem : 

porro quid ita severi ? K. Why should one be too severe ? 
When a man reforms and comes to me for advice, I accept 
his present reformation without enquiring what his past life 
has been. lam satisfied for the present really re 
formed without being able to guarantee that he will not re 
lapse again. But too severe? Couv. Lorsque qucl 

qu un vient a moi avcc I intcntion de sc corriger, j approuve 

son intention, sans etc. J approuve sa venue, pas son 

depart futur si severe ? 

CHAPTER XXIX. LO HERE ! LO THERE ! 
-See Luke XVII. 21. C. t ff ,fr ^ f& ^ ff- 
ty\ -tll> t is tllc virtue of the heart and not something ex 
ternal. L. Is virtue a thing remote ? I wiyh to be virtuous 
and lo ! etc. Z. cordis perfectio nunquid longe abest ? Si 

364 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXVIII, XXIX. 



& -T 
ft 

it m 



| 



treme ? When a man cleanses himself and 
comes to me I may accept his present 
cleanness without becoming sponsor for his 
past." 

CHAPTER XXIX. The Master said : 
"Is Virtue indeed afar oft"? I crave for 

Virtue and lo ! Virtue is at hand." 

365 



VII. XXIX, XXX. THE ANALECTS. 

ego volo p., statim p., aclest. K. Is a moral life something 
remote or difficult? If a man will only wish to live a 
moral life there and then his life becomes moral. Couv. 

I^i vertu parfaite Si je veux la trouver, aussitot elle est 

presente a moi. 

CHAPTER XXX. MISTAKES TOO FEW TO 
ESCAPE NOTICE. This incident no doubt occurred in 
B. C. 493 during Confucius stay in Ch en. Duke Chao 
(name Ji]) was the Prince with whom Confucius had gone 
into exile, and what sort of ffig would it have been for 
Confucius to go back on the Prince he had so loyally 
followed now that he w r as dead ! (Sixteen years before). 
As the <& fjH puts it, A minister should speak well and 
not ill of his Prince and how much more so to the Minister 
of an alien State. 

1. knew, recognised. The Minister of Crime was 
7?) [Jfc in Ch en and Ch u, fr) Jig in Lu. C. The Duke 
had acquired note as being well up in decorum, especially 
in the more imposing forms of Court etiquette. L. knew 
propriety. Z. nosceret ritus. K. a man of propriety in his 
life. Couv. connaissait (observait) les convenances. 

2. 3 JRJ was his surname, Jtjj his style, JJj his name, see 
Intro. V. iH ^ There are two interpretations, one, ap 
proached him , the other invited him in . take sides. 
C. %\] JJ/J [f ^P II n To assist in hiding a man s errors 
is partisanship, jfft ^ |g| it BB ft & l ^ ft K 
^ ^ was against the rules to marry one of the same sur 
name, and both Lu and Wu (being of the House of Jf]) 
were of the same surname Ch i. The same law exists to 
day, and no two persons of the same surname, even if un- 

366 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXX. 



m m 






s 



ffn 



[pi] 



CHAPTER XXX. i. The Minister 
of Justice of the State of Ch en asked whether 
Duke Chao knew the Regulations. " He 
knew them," replied Confucius. 2. When 
Confucius had withdrawn the Minister bowed 
to Wu-ma Ch i to come forward and said : 
" I have heard that a man of noble parts is 
not a partisan. May then a noble man be 
also a partisan ? Prince Chao took his wife 
from the house of Wu, of the same surname 
as himself, and spoke of her as the elder 

36; 



VII. XXX. THE ANALECTS. 

related, may many, though marriages between first cousins 
of different surnames are only too common, fift 1 ; j/J ^ 

-? n ?v * & ? *t * $ He called hcr 

^ the elder daughter of the Tzu clan of \Vu, passing her 
off as if she were of the Sung clan of Tzu. The {$ g 
says, In ancient times J was used for the male surname 
and # for the female they are now reversed. -^ is the 

present Kiangsu and neighbourhood. L. Bowed to to 

come forward May the superior man be a partisan also ? 

The Prince married a daughter etc. The elder lady, Tszc 

of Woo etc. Z. salutavit Ou et introducto eo an 

sapiens etiam facit coitionsm ? et dixit earn Ou mong 

tse : si princeps vero noscit ritus etc. K. Beckoned to 

approach I have always been taught to believe that a 

good and wise man is imparti.il in his judgment and, to 

conceal the impropriety, your prince changed her surname in 

the title given to hcr at Court. Couv le sage serait-il 

aussi partial ? Le prince a epouse une femme 

nom de Ki a appcle sa femme Ou ma Tzeu etc. 

3. Probably behind Confucius reply lurked the idea 
"This also is // " (iii. 15), but C. takes it seriously: 

?L T * ^ nil n ~B 2. ^ A ^ ^ & H 
fii) *i ft n 85, i& 5 M ft Bn ^f 8f Confucius 

could not explain that duty compelled him to cover his 
Prince s faults, nor could he assent to marriage in the same 
clan being //, so he did not shirk the burden of blame. L. 
If I have any errors etc. Z. si habeo culpam. K. I am 
glad that whenever I make a mistake, people always know 
it. Couv. Par un bonheur singulicr, si je commets une 
faute, elle ne manque jamais d etre connuc. 

368 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXX, 



If ^f II ffij fl 

o 

B M 3 frl 2. 

> > 

A &. & II ^ 



Lady Tzu of Wu. If the duke knew the 
Regulations who does not know them ? " 
3. Wu-ma Ch i reported this, whereupon 
the Master remarked : " I am fortunate. If 
I m?ke a mistake people are sure to know 

of it" 

369 



VII. xxxf, -xxxiii. TFTF: ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXXI. HIS LOVE OF MUSIC 
Or, If Confucius were singing with others and heard 
anything good etc. C. From this is seen Confucius 
good nature, sincerity, and attention to detail, as well 
as his humility, discrimination and /fC ff A 5J readi 
ness to acknowledge merit in others. L. If he sang well 
he would make him repeat the song, while he accompani 
ed it with his own voice. Z certi jubebat repetere 

illud et postea concinebat illis. K. \\*hen Confucius asked 
a man to sing,- if he sang well, etc. Couv. Lorsque 
Confucius se trouvait avec d habiles chantcurs qui execu- 
taient un chant, il le leur faisait repeter, et chantait avec 
eux. 

CHAPTER XXXII. HIS UNATTAINED IDEAL. 
~%& ff S "F personally acting the model man. C. ^V 
|i fft A particle of doubt. #! A IT ^ fig S A fin 
t"I ^1 &> R A yu i ?ii means unable to surpass otheis, 
but nevertheless equal to them. ^ ^ /fj ^ -gf fj ^ 

, Jj5 all words of self- depreciation. L equal to other 

men, but the character of the superior man, carrying out i i 
his conduct what he professes is what I have not yet attained 
to. Z. in litteris forte ego sicut ceteri : at quod ipse agam 
sapientem etc. K. In the knowledge of letters and the arts 
as for the character of a good and wise man who car 
ries out in his personal conduct what he professes etc 

Couv. J ai peut-etre autant d erudition etc pas encore 

arrive a faire les actions d un sage. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. UNWEARIED ON THE 
UPWARD PATH. Or, If it be the life of the inspired 
man or of perfect Virtue, then how dare I ? Vet as to 

370 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXXI r XXXIir. 



it * 

% R A 

n z W( 

B 1 ffff tfn 



CHAPTER XXXL When the Master 
was in company with any one who was sing 
ing and the piece was good, he always had 
it repeated, joining in the melody himself. 

CHAPTER XXXIL The master said : 
" In letters perhaps I may compare with 
others, but as to my living the noble life, to 
that I have not yet attained." 

CHAPTER XXXIII. The Master said : 
371 



VII. XXXIII, XXXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

striving for it, and teaching others without satiety etc. The 
jjg fi- takes ^ as fft and gf as in jjfc, but C. as $| 
fiii nothing else, i.e , all that can be said about me, see VU. 
1 8. C. Another instance of Confucius humility. i! ^ 
^ [fij ft i, A sa g c i s one who i s great in transforming 
power, f- fllj ,fr i& Z & \ft X & Z tf$ & AYv/ 
is the perfect virtue of the heart and the whole duty of 
man. $ nfj tl S? ; jj To do it means the way 
of Virtue and the Sages. f$ A ^ nfi J3 jft & A to 
teach others therein. L. The sage and the man of per 
fect virtue how dare I rank myself with them ? It may 
simply be said of me that I strive to become such without 

satiety etc cannot imitate you in. Z. si agatur dc 

sanctitate atque perfectione, tune ego qui ausim ? Si e con 
tra quod ea agendo non fastidiam, id vero potest 

afflrmari, et nihil aliud addiscere. K. Confucius then 

went on to say, " And as for the character of a holy, or a 

sainted, man or even a moral character dare even to 

pretend etc. That I spare no pains in striving after it 

that, perhaps, may be said of me. follow you. Couv. 

Oserais-je penser quc je possede la sagesse ou la vertu ? 
Mais, pour ce qui est de cultiver la vertu sans jamais en 

eprouver de degout, on peut dire que je le fais, et voila 

tout. 

CIIAPTKR XXXIV. CONFUCIUS AND PRAY 
I^R. ^ This was a Litany or Eulogy of the Dead, 
wherein his merits were set forth, as is still done. C. ^" 
SS P^ fa ft- 3F-5-! S asks, Is there such a rule? _h f 
SVi ^ Wi ^ M W 1 flfi H ffi, _h T means heaven and 
earth, the celestial called jju|l the terrestrial jjjg^ Jg ft jg 

372 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXXIII, XXXIV. 



IE B til 

m (f fl J 



T> ^ ^ A 

- 



- m 



" As to being a Sage, or a man of Virtue, 
how dare I presume to such a claim ! But 
as to striving thereafter unwearyingly, and 
teaching others therein without flagging, 
that can be said of me, and that is all." " And 
that," said Kung-hsi Hua, " is just what we 
disciples cannot learn." 

CHAPTER XXXIV. Once when the 
Master was seriously ill Tzu Lu asked leave 
to have prayers offered. " Is there authority 

373 



VI J. XXXIV, XXXV. THE ANALECTS. 

M, & M if W ffi -III Prayer is repentance and 
reformation in order to seek the protection of the gods. IJ3 

A * g- # a * *i > K % ff B & K 

BJK $C H E IS A , The Sage had done no 
wrong nor had he any reformation to make, for his life had 
been pleasing to the gods, hence he said Ch iu has been 

praying all along. L. Asked leave to pray for him 

May such a thing be done? In the Prayers it is said, 

Prayer has been made to the spirits of the upper and lower 

worlds My praying has been for a long time. Z. 

petiit fieri deprecationes fit ne hoc? euchologium ait: 

precamur vos in superis et inferis, coeli terraeque Spiritus, 

deprecor jamdiu. K Is it the custom? 

Rituals for the Dead Pray to the Powers above and 

pray to below. Cou v cle faire des prieres 

Cela convient-il ? oraisons funebres Nous vous sup- 

plions, esprits du ciel et de la terrc il y a longtemps 

que je prie. 



CHAPTER XXXV. PRODIGALITY AND FRU 
GALITY. C. J j|g ^ Compliant (^ ffi wilful) pS| 
Wi ^L narrow, mean ([] is hemmed in ). L. Extrava 
gance insubordination, parsimony, meanness. Z. pro- 

cligus, tune non es obsequens ; pracparcus, tenax. 

K. extravagance, excess ; thrift, meanness. Couv. l^\ 
prodigalite conduit a 1 arrogance ; parcimonie avarice. 



574 



THE ANALECTS. VII. XXXIV, XXXV. 



=? m 

S 

g 7- ^ 

" 



for such a step ? " asked the Master. " There 
is," Tzu Lu replied. " In the litanies it is 
said, We pray to you, spirits celestial and 
terrestrial. The Master answered, " My 
praying has been for long." 

CHAPTER XXXV. The Master said : 
1 If prodigal then uncontrolled ; if frugal then 
narrow: but better be narrow than beyond 
control." 



375 



VII. XXXVI, XXXVII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. SERENITY v. WORRY. 
C. a ^ m Even, gj $ .; ift "A heart at 
leisure from itself." jg -f p /J* A % fit ^ ff 

j[$ The lower man is the slave of circumstances, hence his 
many worries. L. Superior man is satisfied and composed 
the mean man is always full of distress. Z. tranquillus 
dilatato est animo, vulgaris homo semper moerenti est corde. 

K composed and happy, a fool is always worried and 

full of distress Couv calme, ii a le coeur dilate 

toujours accable de soucis. 

CHAPTER XXX VII. THE SAGE S NOBLE 
BEARING. C. J$ jg| jiU ,{![, respect inspiring, impres 
sive. L. Mild, dignified, majestic, not fierce ; respectful, 
easy, Z. comis cum gravitate, severus sine aspcritate, 
officiosus cum maturitate. K. Gracious, serious, awe-inspir 
ing, austere, earnest, affected. Couv. Affable avec gravite, 
severe sans durete ; (dans les ceremonies) son maintien etait 
respectueux, sans avoir rien cle force. 



376 



THE ANALECTS. VIL XXXVI, XXXVII. 



-t 



> 

^ rfff A. ^ 

i~^"> tzri n*|^* 4*n 

o 

o 

CHAPTER XXXVI. The Master said : 
" The nobler man is calm and serene, the 
inferior man is continually worried and 
anxious." 

CHAPTER XXXVII. --The Master 
was affable yet dignified, commanding yet 
not overbearing, courteous yet easy. 



377 



VIII. I. THE ANALECTS. 

VOLUME IV. 
BOOK VIII. 



T AI PO. 

CIIIEFEY CONCERNING CERTAIN ANCIENT 
WORTHIES. 

1 ITLE. The book opens \vith T ai Po and ends with 
Yao, Shun, Yii, Wen and Wu, with miscellaneous sayings 
by Confucius and Tseng Tzii in the middle. 

CHAPTER I. NOBILITY INDEPENDENT OE 
APPEAUSE. T ai Po renounced the possibility of be 
coming Emperor because his views on loyalty to the Shang 
emperors differed from his father s, and the pith of the 
Sage s praise is that T ai Po preferred to give no reason for 
withdrawing, thereby losing popular approval, rather than 
be disloyal to his father s aims, however much he disap 
proved thereof, c. H m si 1 ! tq ffi .-at, By H a 

firmly renounced is meant. 4$ ffl jfij Jj$ ^ >g > Jg 
Wi fe * "T 1J llL, He secretly withdrew leaving no 
trace behind. H ~T> K ffl, # fl , A" 

*K>i:3EKFfifat|3BB^ N 8! ;*> ^ 

M x & : t i\.y(i m fiu 3: g ^i M * 

ffi * ffi ^> ^, * I & a ft ti ^ M M R H , 

fft *u ;> BB RL W m ai ^ JM > S ->k 

5t jfc ^ M ffKfiSk ^: /^ rfn H ft ^ T\ ^ J IL 

& X 3E, E fl -f 4,- & jfe S fM -ff ^c 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. I. 



VOLUME IV. 



BOOK VIII. 







s mi ^ Si 



CHAPTER I. The Master said : u T ai 
Po may be described as possessing a charac 
ter of the noblest. He resolutely renornced 

379 



VIII. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

T> & $ JS 3E> King T ai (of Chou) had three sons, 
the eldest T ai To, the next Chung Yung, the next Chi Li. 
In King T ai s days the influence of the Shang dynasty svas 
gradually decaying, while that of Chou was daily increas 
ing. Chi Li had a son, Cli ang (l\), of sagelike character. 
King T ai conceived the idea of cutting off the Shang 
dynasty, but T ai Po was unwilling, which led the king to 
desire to pass on his throne through Chi Li to Ch ang. 
T ai Po, becoming aware of this, lied with his brother 
Chung Yung to the southern barbarians, whereupon the 
king appointed Chi I .i to the succession. In the days of 
Ch ang, (i. e. Wen Wang) the Empire was divided into 
.hree parts, two of which were for King Wen, and when 
he died, his son Fa succeeded, overthrew Sham;, and 

o 

icigned over the Empire as King Wu. L to have 

reached the highest point of virtuous action. Thrice 
he declined the Empire, and the people in ignorance 
of his motives could not express their approbation of his 
conduct. Z. summae virtutis sane. Iterum iterumque 
imperium cessit, et populo nee datum ut laudibus cele- 

braret. K of the highest moral greatness. lie three 

times refused the government of the Empire ; although the 
world, not knowing this, does not speak much of him. 

Couv un homme d une vertu tres parfaite. II a cede 

resolument 1 empire, et il n a pas laisse au pjuple la possi- 
bilite de celebrcr son desinterressement. 

CHAPTER IL BREEDING TELLS, AND Cl IARI- 
TY BEGINS AT HOME. i. C. S flg f& Aspect 
of fear, nervousness, fifc ~i; -jjJJ j\i^ Urgency, insistence. 
Sll jjfi H J M > Unregulated and unpolished. The 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. I, I! 



I"J -f- 4ffi H 
^ $ 4 

ffil ffi) M T 



the Imperial Throne, leaving people no 
ground for appreciating his conduct." 

CHAPTER II. i. The Master said : 
" Courtesy uncontrolled by the laws of good 
taste becomes laboured effort, caution un 
controlled becomes timidity, boldness un 
controlled becomes recklessness, and frank- 

38 1 



VIII. II. THE ANALECTS. 

f/ffi E? - sa y s ?j & fit A H" Respect refers to one s 
meeting with others, ffi ^ ^ ?j ^\ Caution to deal 
ing with affairs. [j J ^ jf M p^ 67///; is out 
spokenness without reserve. ft $1) g j }$| ;> 7//rf<> 
is like the son who testified against his father for stealing a 
sheep. L. Respectfulness without the rules of propriety, 
becomes laborious bustle ; carefulness, timidity ; boldness, 
insubordination ; straightforwardness, rudeness. Z. offi- 
ciosus at sine modo, tune molestus ; attentus sine regula, 
tune meticulosus ; strenuus sine moderatione, tune pertur- 
bator ; rcctus sine cliscretione, tune anxius. K. Karnest- 
ness without judgment becomes pedantry ; caution, timidity ; 
courage, crime ; uprightness, tyrannical. Couv. Celui 
qui fait des politesses outre mesure, est fatigant ; circonspcct, 
craintif; courageux, clesorclre ; franc, offense par des avis 
trop pressants. 

2. C. considers this should be a separate chapter. 
^ -T nfi ffi Ji il A HU By Chnn-tzu is meant those 
in high places. fl jf -\\i^ stirred up. ff $ ^^ 
mean, stingy, fj {=f, says fij fi Jn Jr[ Jg ^ ^ g 
;, 3t> ^ means generosity, i.e. with the utmost affection 
and respect, gc ^ jn W Rl ffi : ^C> means old ser 
vants and friends L. When those who are in high 
stations perform well all their duties to their relations, the 
people are aroused to virtue. \Yhcn old friends are not 

neglected preserved from meanness. V, sapiens prin- 

ceps studiosus sit erga parentes, ad virtutem ; \ r eteram 

et antiquorcs non negligantur non parvip.-ndet. K. 

When the gentlemen of a country are attached to 

family improve in their moral character not discard 

382 



THE ANALECTS. VIII II. 



flij fliJ fl J 



fr 



W rfn 



ness uncontrolled becomes effrontery. 2. 
"When the highly placed pay generous 
regard to their own families, the people are 
stirred to mutual kindness. When they do 

383 



VIII. ii, 



TIM-: AiNALKCTS. 



their old connections not become grasping in their 

character. Couv. Si le prince rcniplit avcc zele scs 

Parents ancctrcs, la piete fllialc flcurit 

^n abandonnc pas scs ancicns servitcurs amis suit 

son example. 

CHAPTER III. TSKNG TZU S LAST ILLNKSS.- 
Al or legs and arms. |iq $ ^ disciples of his school. 
C; ff ^ ^ [J ja S ft US 5 /# X -I* * JR 31 

fe> He had been in the habit of looking on his body as 
the gift of his parents, and therefore not to be injured,- 
hence he called on his disciples to lift the coverlet and see 
for themselves. The ode (j$ |g II. 5. T .) represents the, 
care lie had taken and the relief on knowing that his 
anxiety was ended, f jgjj ^ ,, f Fcaring> & - ^ ^ 

gg Anxiety. L. being sick disciples of his school 

hands - !t is said in the Hook of Poetry, We should 

be apprehensive and cautious as if on the brink etc., and so 
have I been. Now and hereafter, I know my escape from 
all injury to my person, O yc, my little children 

Z. habens morbum, vocavit scholae discipulos 

l )cdcs manus - Carmen ait: sis pavidus, sis cautus 

ego agnoscam me servatum, o filioli. K. feet, 
hands. The Psalm says, Walk with fear and with 
trembling, As on the brink of a gulf, For the ground you 
are treading, Is with thin ice covered above/ Couv. stir 

le point de mourir, pieds, mains, (et voyez que j ai 

conserve tons mcs mcnibrcs dans leur integrite) etc. etc., je 

voic avecplaisir que j ai pu preserver mon corps de toute 
lesion, o mes enfants. 

384 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. II, III 



iffi 



o " >- 



not discard old dependents, neither will the 

people deal meanly with theirs." 

CHAPTER III. When the philosopher 

Tseng was taken ill, he called his disciples 

and said : " Uncover my feet, uncover my 

arms. The Ode says : 

Be anxious, be cautious, 
As when near a deep gulf, 
As when treading thin ice/ 

From now henceforth I know I shall escape 

all injury. My disciples." 

385 



VIII. iv. 



TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 



CHAPTKR IV. TSKXG TZU S DYING AD 
VICE,-!. C. 3- T ft * *, fli ft K> 

A He was a Minister of Lu (son of jfc ift fft II. vi). 
P3 > IS] 31- & &> to enquire about his health, L., 

being- sick, ask how he was. Z. aegrotante 

obsalutavit cum. K. a young noble of the court came to 
see him. Cotiv. mourant rec.u la visite de etc. 

2. c. u s JE & IK j^ A ffi /* * Sc H , 

As a bird apprehending death sings a mournful song, so 
man at his end, on returning whence he came, utters good 
words (gives good advice). L. its notes are mourn- 

ful his words are good. /. ej us vox cst 1 ugubrus, 

ejus sermo quiclem bonus. K. its song is sad his 

words are true. Couv. crie d un voix plaintive donne 

cle bon avis. 

3. The advice is deemed specially applicable to the 
hearer. C. ft- ^ JJ ^ places weight. H ffl /g ^L 
coarse, fg Jjjr ]$ ^ reckless, remiss, ffi g f& words. 
M 9? ^ tones. g-|5 /.L fjiy ,[lL About like low, vulgar., 
& 1$ m & improper. & ft 3, 5*3 Vessels 
of bamboo and of wood. ^ S T fff Jf <& Not 
things for a prince to waste time over. L. three principles 

of conduct specially important : deportment 

and manner he keep from violence and heedlessness ; 

regulating his countenance near to sincerity ; words 

and tones lowness and impropriety. As to such 

matters as attending to the sacrificial vessels, there are the 
proper officers for them. Z. ut efferenclo corporis ha 
bitum, in hoc removeat arrogantiam et dissolutionem ; 
componendoris speciem, tune accedat ad sinceritatem ; 

386 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. IV. 



5E ill 



^ ^ -til A $F 1h 3 
if it ^ 5E -T S: 

" 



CHAPTER IV. i. During Tseng Tzus 
illness Meng Ching Tzu called to make 
enquiries. 2. Tseng Tzu spoke to him say 
ing : " When a bird is dying its song is sad. 
When a man is dying, what he says is worth 
listening to. 3. The three rules of conduct 
upon which a man of high rank should place 
value are, in his bearing to avoid rudeness 
and remissness, in ordering his looks to aim 

387 



VJII. IV, V. THE ANALKCTS. 

ct profercndo verborum sonum, jam absit ab indecoro ct 

absono ; res vcro liabcnt administros qui scrvcnt. 

K. throe things as essential. In his manners free 

from excitement and familiarity expression of his 

countenance inspire confidence choice of his 

language freedom from vulgarity and unreasonable- 

n ^s knowledge of the technical detail of the arts and 

sciences, he leaves that to professional men. Couv 

d eviter la raideur ct le laisse-allez dans la tenue du corps, 
la simulation dans 1 air du visage, la grossierete et 1 incon- 

venance dans le ton de la voix il a des officiers qui en 

prennent soin. 

CHAPTER V. -WISDOM LEARNING FROM 
IGNORANCE. Or, Seeking knowledge from the less 
competent in that wherein he was competent. C. quotes 
til, K approvingly, inferring that the friend was Yen Hui. 
L. gifted with ability, yet putting questions to those who 

were not so ; posessed of much little ; having as though 

he had not ; full and yet counting himself as empty ; 

offended against no altercation: formerly who 

pursued this line of conduct. Z. ut instructus peritia 

sciscitaretur ab imperito ; instructus multis a tenuiore ; 

habcns non habens ; plenus vacuus ; offensus 

controversaretur ; olim etc. K. Gifted himself yet seek 
ing to learn from the ungifted ; much information less ; 

rich treasures of his mind, yet appearing poor; 

profound superficial ;) I once etc. Couv. ^Ktre habile, 

et interroger ceux qui ne le sont pas ; avoir beaucoup 

pcu ; avoir n ayant lien; i.-tre rich depourvu de 

tout ; recevoir des offenses, et ne pas contester, voila ce 
qu etait condisciple. 

388 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. IV, V. 



3B *f 68 aS IS 

ffii 3? 1 ia * US IE 

i > 

T> lift fig Ii] fgf tfj 

K IK] Fr9 ^ H 



at sincerity, and in the tone of his conversa 
tion to keep aloof from vulgarity and 
impropriety. As to the details of temple 
vessels, there are proper officers for looking 
after them." 

CHAPTER V. Tseng Tzu said : Ta 
lented, yet seeking knowledge from the 
untalented, of many attainments yet seeking 
knowledge from those with few, having, as 
though he had not, full yet bearing himself 
as if empty, offended against yet not retali 
ating, once upon a time I had a friend who 
lived after this manner." 

389 



VIII. VJ, VII. THI-: ANAI ICTS. 

CI I A1TKR VI. \VI K )M \f ) TEMPTATION 
SHARKS. C. takes ^" ability, as the text, other com 
mentators include both ~Jf and fj(ji \\ hich, when above the 
ordinar\ , connote a ^| j* ^ Re >\ J^ , ffi the ancient 
/^ is said to be only 7.4 of the present foot, so >^ /^ 
would be 4.44 feet at the present day, representing fifteen 
years of age, every /^ making a difference of five years in 
age. A hundred // was the dominion of a Tfe or {: 
Men. V. 2.2. Re Eg * C. says iff: ?g J 
5E i ^ l^i! iM ^ Tl l $> An emergency involving 
his life, and yet unshaken from his devotion. L. Suppose 
that here is an individual who can be etc. and can be 

commissioned with authority etc. no emergency drive 

from his principles, superior man? Z. cui possit 

committi sex palmorum pupillus, et subeunti magnum 

discrimen adhuc non possit cripi, is sapiens vir ? K. A 
man who could be depended on when the life of an orphan 

prince or the safety of a kingdom, not in any great 

emergency betray his trust, such a man I would a 11 a 

gentleman. Couv pent eonfier la tutelle cl un jeune 

prince, et le gouvernement d un Etat, au moment 

d un grande trouble ou d une revolution, reste fidele a son 
devoir ; un sage. 

CHAITI^R VII.- A HKAVY LOAD AND A 
LONG WAY. Cf. Ars longa, vita brcvis. i, C. ? 
fi $( -tli breadth, capaciousness. -%!% <]$ >Q, ^L Kndur- 
ance, fortitude. ^ /, ^ gg ffi Jf: Iff etc. without 

capacity he cannot bear the burden. L. The Scholar 

breadth of mind and vigorous endurance. His burden is 
heavy and his course is long. Z. litterati nequeunt, quin 

39 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. VI, VII. 



-T A m In 5" X 

-ffi, ^ M M Z 

- o 

A ^ ^ m 

^ ^ I ^ "T 



CHAPTER VI --Tseng Tzu said : 
u The man to whom one could entrust a 
young orphan prince and delegate the com 
mand over a hundred //, yet whom the 
advent of no emergency, however great, 
could shake, would he be a man of the 
nobler order ? Of the nobler order he would 
certainly be." 

CHAPTER VII. i. Tseng Tzu said :- 
" The scholar may not be without capacity 

391 



VIII. VII, VIII. THE 

magnanimi ct fortes sint ; onus grave et via longa. K. 

An educated gentleman strength and resoluteness of 

character. His responsibility in life etc. Couv. disciple 
de la sagesse ait le coeur grand et courageux. Le fardeau 
est lourd, et le voyage long. 

2. L. Perfect virtue is the burden, which he considers 

it his to sustain, only with death cou rse stop etc 

Z. Cordis perfectionem susceperunt in proprium onus 

Mortui tune demum cessabunt etc. K. He is responsible 
to himself for living a moral life etc. Couv c est la pra 
tique de toutes les vertus ne finera qu apres la mort etc. 

CHAPTER VIII.THK PROCESS OF EDUCA 
TION, Or, Start (lay the foundation) with the Odes, 
establish (build up) with the Regulations for right be 
haviour, and complete (finish) with Music. C. $ fa ^Ij 

+ a * r fi> + H * jH II 8*. - + m & 

^P fllsK According to the Li, section pJ fllj at ten th> 
scholars learnt the duties of youth, at thirteen, music and 
poetry, and at twenty, the Li. 

i. c. 39 jig & ikgin. $ % z w m & m ^ 

3t- ^ gg M >JX The Poets should be tlu 
learner s primary study, \\ hereby his mind may be aroused 
to love good and hate evil. 

2. c. S5iaS*aigS#, Hn ~4\ i & 

Wi ^ > ^^ nas Aspect and modesty for its base, but 
its rules and regulations are also given in detail \hi the jfig 

la). * *? ! > p/r u m 4i f& i -tr- m ^ 

& fyl Z ffi %& 3& ^ The scholar s middle school 
wherein he may surpass in strengthening himself so as not 
to be at the mercy of circumstances. 

392 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. VII, VIII. 



A 

=r at ?E a 

rfiii ft 



B 



and fortitude, for his load is heavy and the 
road is long. 2. He takes Virtue for his 
loa^, and is not that heavy? Only with 
death does his course end, and is not that 
long?" 

CHAPTER VIII. i. The Master 
said: "Let the character be formed by 
ths Poets; 2. established by the Laws 

393 



VIII. VIII, IX. THE ANAL.F.CTS. 

3- c. SB S A tt *, fin ffi * -JC 



nourishes 

the spirit and purges away depravity and corruption, 
scattering its very dregs, so that it is the climax of educa 
tion. I,. It is by the Odes that the mind is aroused. It 
is by the Rules of propriety that the character is estab 
lished. It is from Music that the finish is received. 
Z. exordiae a Carmine, confirmaberis per Ritus, peif.cieris 
per Musicam. K. In education sentiment is called out 
by the study of Poetry ; judgment is formed by the study 
of the arts; and education of the character ...... music. 

Couv. Lc disciple de la sagesse excite en son coeur des 
sentiments honnetcs par la lecture dcs Vcrs (du Cheu 
King) ; il affermit sa volcnte ...... Li Ki ; il perfcctionne sa 

vertu ...... musique (du lo Ki). 

CHAPTER IX. NOT THEIRS TO REASON 
WHY.-C. Rprffi|fj]KjaiE^@ ^ ffi 

^ fig 1 2. n 3t 0r Ji t -Ou You ma y makc thc 

people follow the right line of a rule but you cannot make 
them understand its philosophy. Not that Confucius did 
not wish everybody to understand, g "& fl5 ^ ^ , but 
it was impossible. As to the Sage wanting to keep the 
people in ignorance this was thc jugglery of men in 
after ages. L ....... a path of action, but they may not be 

made to understand it. Z. populus potest fieri ut sc- 
quatur aliquid, ...... comprehendat illucl. K. The common 

people should be educated in what they ought to do, not 
to ask why they should do i:. Couv. On pent amcner 
le pcuple a pratiquer la vcrt u ...... lui en dormer une con- 

naissance raisonnee. 

394 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. VIII, IX 



T-T 



of Decorum; 3. and perfected by 
Music." 

CHAPTER IX. The Master said : 
The people may be made to follow a course, 
but not to understand the reason why." 

395 



VIII. X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER X. DRIVEN TO DESPERATION.- 
C. & JQ, BB * 3K M & ft SU The daring 
who arc not content with their lot will rebel, gjl /p fc 

A> fin ffi H 0? , M & S U They ho 

push their dislike of illdocrs so as to leave no place for 
them, drive them to rebel. L. The man who is fond etc. 
dissatisfied with poverty, will proceed to insubordination. 
So will the man who is not virtuous, when you carry your 
dislike of him to an extreme. Z. amator fortitudinis 
aegre ferens paupertatem, pcrturbator erit ; si quis etc. et 
adverseris illi jam nimis etc. K. A man of courage who 
hates to be poor will be sure to commit crime. A man 
without moral character, if too much hated etc. Couv. 

Celui qui aime a montrer de la bravoure desordre. 

Si se voit trop deteste, il tombcra etc. 

CHAPTER XL PRIDE AND PARSIMONY CO 
VER A MULTITUDE OE VIRTUES. Or, His other 
qualities are not enough to look at. C. ^ 0$ f,| j ^j /Jb 
fe ISv ^ 3$ means the excellence of his wisdom, ability 
and skill, f* Jfr ^ l^oastful. ^f g]5 ^} & Mean, 
stingy, {riil U takes f^ as \& ^ if, supposing. ^ f- 
says: If he have Duke Chun s fi\ he could neither be 
vain nor mean, but if he only had Chou s ^ etc. And 

again, |T M $L^ 3f M, 1\ clliao is cxccss of s P irit lin 
deficiency. But Chu Tzu notes their connection ,l|g b^ng 
the fruit ot the tree ^ ^ Hence too ^ /f/ gg ifij ^ 

^f> ^f iffi ^P 85 # -tii> thc y are ahva > s found to - 

gether. L. Though a man have abilities yet if he be 

proud and niggardly, those other things arc really not 
woith bein looked at. Z. si habeas dotum splen- 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. X, XI. 







^ > 

in e A iff 

~ - ^* 

1 JH SL ^ j 
& -til t K 

^ 

CHAPTER X. The Master said :- 
14 Love of daring and resentment of poverty 
drive men to desperate deeds ; and men who 
lack moral character will be driven to similar 
deeds it resentment of them be carried too 
far." 

CHAPTER XL The Master said :- 
" If a man have gifts as admirable as those 

397 



VIII. XI, XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

dorum, casu quo superbias ct avaritis sordescas, etc. K. 

A man may have abilities as proud and mean, you 

need not consider the other qualities etc. Couv. Un 
homme cut-il etc. s il cst orgueilleux ct avare etc. 

CHAPTER XII. DISINTERESTED STUDENTS 
SCARCE.-f$ ^ jj$ Jtt #> Seekers of place, not 
of truth. The translation given follows the authorized 
version, to which version it is always important the student, 
whatever may be his own private interpretation, should 
give full value, always remembering that he will find it 
difficult to present any new view to the Chinese on their 
own Classics, which they know better than he does, or is 
ever likely to do. C. j$ , jfr$ .& Stipend, (cf. VI. 3 
ctal.) 3* ^ ffc iU thinks 3* should be ^ And 
m K, ^ys m -f ijft Z K m &. =f m & M> Even 
a man of Tzii Chang s worth put questions about stipend. 
L learned for three years without coming to be good. 

Z quin intenclat in stipcndium etc. K. educates 

himself without improvement. Couv se livre 

a 1 etude cle la sagesse, sans avoir en vue les appointments 
de la magistrature. 

CHAPTER XIII. LOYALTY TO PRINCIPLE. 
1. Or, He who is truly sincere, loves to learn, holds firm 
to the death, and perfects his ways, will not etc. C. ^ % 
/- fin ~Jj &^ Thick and strong, stable, solid. ^ $5 
IB IVJ ^ fib % r fK Without solid sincerity there can 
be no love of moral training. ^ Vj : J \\\] xf> fib J^Jl $ 
Jl: $[ ^ If he does not maintain it to the death he cannot 
perfect his ways. (The |fe is generally taken as a verb). 

as -} ye. *," a is ^ ft, at *?> ^ ^ ^ *, 

398 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XI, XII, XIII. 

. 

o 

^ -tli ^ 



of Duke Chou, yet be vain and mean, his 
other gifts are unworthy of notice." 

CHAPTER XII. The Master said : 
" It is not easy to find a man who has studied 
for three years without aiming at pay." 

CHAPTER XIII. i. The Master said: 
" The man of unwavering sincerity and love 

399 



VIII, XII I. THK ANAI.KCTS. 

Steadfastness to the death is the outcome of unshaken 
sincerity, as the perfection of \irtue is of love of learning. 
L. With sincere faith he unites the love of learning ; 
holding firm to death, he is perfecting the excellence of 
his course. Z. fin-niter adhaerens ama sapicntiac studium, 
ad mortem tenax proba virtutis viam. K. A man who is 
scrupulously truthful, cultured and steadfast to the death 
in the path of honesty. Couv. Le sage s attache aux 

preceptes aime a les ctudicr. 11 les observe fidelement 

jusqu a la mort, et par 1 etude il se convainc de leur 
excellence. 

2. C. ;g j|, / $ fc> HO fi & n # ft I 

^ ^ ijjfc^ The man of honour offers his life in times of 
clanger, hence when in the service of a falling State he has 
no right to leave it, but he has no call to enter such a 
service from without. When his State has its laws all 
disorganised ({JL 3T>) he washes his hands of it (-jg ;!(: % 
fifi ,)> before its debacle takes place. Only the 
$J fff etc. are capable of this. L. Such an one will not 

enter etc. When right principles of government shew 

himself ; prostrated, he will keep concealed. Z. peri- 

clitans rcgnum ne ingrcdiaris, turbatum etc. si imperium 
sevet ordinem etc. K. such a man should not serve in a 

country when the government revolution, nor live 

actual state of anarchy. Couv menace d un revolu 
tion ; trouble par cles dissensions. Si bicn gou- 

verne, il se montrc se cache. 

3. L. When a country is well governed, poverty and 

a mean condition are things to be ashamed of riches 

and honour etc. Z. cum regno constat lex, pauperem 

400 



THE ANALECTS. VIII XIII. 



o 

m m m n m. 

o o 



. 

of moral discipline, will keep to the death his 
excellent principles. 2. He will not enter a 
tottering State nor dwell in a rebellious one. 
When law and order prevail in the Empire, 
he is in evidence. When it is without law 
and order, he withdraws. 3. When law and 
order prevail in his State, he is ashamed to 

be needy and of no account. When law 

401 



VIII. XIII, XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

cssc atque ignobilem, probosuni est ; clivitcm. . . 

nobilcm etc. K. justice and order he should be 

ashamed to be poor and without honour; rich and 

honoured. Couv aurait honte den avoir ni richcsses 

ni honneur etc. 

CHAPTER xiv. COBBEER STICK TO YOUR 

LAST. Or, Me who docs not occupy the post does not 
(or does not have to) plan its policy ; but. the usual render 
ing is, does not meddle with, jjjg g* says f fa & 
^ As!\ vwu Has the meaning of usurp, interfere. 
C * ffi 3C f* M ^ ft :ft ifK Has not the re 
sponsibility of its affairs ; % 31- -fc , ffl ft} % flij 
W ^> except when questioned by prince or minister. 
L. suggests that this remark has " doubtless operated to 
prevent the spread of right notions about political liberty in 
Ch na." L. He who is not in any particular office, has 
nothing to do with plans for the administration of its duties. 

Z ne moliaris illius administrationem. K should 

never give advice as to its policy. Couv. Ne cherchez 
pas a vous immiscer dans les affaires d une charge publiquc 
qui n cst pas confiee a vos soins. 

CHAITI^R XV. THE POWER OE SOUND.- 
Cf. III. 20. This remark is placed after Confucius return 
to, and reorganization of, the music of Eu. gL was inter 
preted by the earlier commentators as (< When Chili first 
corrected the confusion of the Kuan Clui." C. says ^ 
means $fc . ? .ft> the closing passage in a piece of 
music ; and also says the ^ f states |$] []f| , HL Jt^l 
^j M, iu> that the close of the Kuan Chii was taken as 
the beginning of the national ballads, i.e., in the last of the 

402 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XIII, XIV, XV. 

ea 



o o 

/C* ->"%. 

- " 

and order fail, he is ashamed to be in 
affluence and honour." 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said :- 
11 He who does not occupy the office does not 
discuss its policy." 

CHAPTER XV. The Master said :- 

" When the Band-master Chih entered on 

403 



VIII. XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

four parts of which the performance consisted. L 

first entered on his office, the finish with the Kwan Ts eu 
was magnificent ; how it filled the ears. Z. in magisti i 
Tehe initio, odic Concinens Casarca fnalis stropha proh 
quam plenc implebat aurcs ! K. The volume of sound 
at the commencement and the clash and commine r line r of 

O O 

harmony at the end magnificent. I low it seemed, etc. 

Couv. Lorsque le chef commenc,a a exercer sa 

charge comme la chant La Mouctte chantant charmait 

et satisfait 1 oreille ! 

CHAPTER XVI. NO REDEEMING FEA 
TURES. The fault of impetuosity is generally balanced 
by fearless honesty, simplicity by ingenuousness, and lack 
of ability by truthfulness. Otherwise the case is hopeless. 
ffff S* takes } as $f ^ ambitious, and ^ [g[ as fo 
^ c flfi of a warped mind. C. ffl^ f{i fa | Seem 
ingly ignorant ; M > H J? -& cautious and honest ; f 
j ^^ Jl| f/g DJ seemingly incapable. ^ ^< fa , ^^ 

entirely and would not condescend to teach them. L. 

Ardent and yet not upright; stupid attentive; 

simple sincere: such persons I do not understand. 

Z. fervidum nee vero rectum, rudem sedulem, 

ineptum sincerum, hujusmodi ego non agnosco. 

K. Appearance of high spirit without integrity, dull 
ness humility, simplicity honesty: of such men 

I really do not know what to say. Couv. Je n ac- 
cepte pas pour disciple un homme ambitieux et sans 
droiture, on ignorant et leger, on pen intelligent et peu 
sincere. 

404 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XV, XVI, 

Jk, 
XX 

m =?- m 
M & m 






his duties, how the closing strains of the 
Kuan Chu filled the ear with the grandeur of 
their volume ! " 

CHAPTER XVL The Master said :- 
" The impulsive and not straight-forward, the 
simple and not honest, the stupid and not 
truthful, with such I hold no acquaintance." 

405 



VIII. XVII, XVJII, XIX, THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XVII. TI IK MARK OF TIIK HIGH 
CALLING.-??. T- says Jft ft |JJ jl flf ^ T,J ^ 
There is no putting-off till tomorrow about learning. 
I- could not reach your object and were always fear 
ing also lest you should lose it. Z. disce quasi non fueris 

assecutus, et adhuc time nc illud amittas. K not yet 

reached your goal and as though apprehensive of losing it. 

Couv. Travaillez sans relache comme si vous avicz 

toujours a acquerir ; dc plus, craignez de perdrc ce que 
vous avez acquis. 

CHAPTER XVIII. TIIK SUBLIMITY OF SHUN 
AND YU. Shun see 20. Yu see 21. $jJ gf, jgf ^ 
Mi, Lofty and great. ^ gl, $fo ^ flj g^ ^ in; 
^f* W fi S |?| -ilL^ Of no importance, i.e., no matter 

for gratification. L. How majestic was the manner 

held possession as if etc. Z. proh sublimitas : 

tenebant imperium, et tamen nulli intererant. K. How 
toweringly high and surpassingly great in moral grand- 

eur came to the government unconscious uf 

it. Couv. Oh! quelle grandeur d ame out possede 

1 empirc, et leur coeur ne s y est pas attache. 

CIIAITKR XIX.- THE M- JKSTY OF YAO. 
I. Yao, the founder of the Chinese nation ; see Introduc 
tion. C. Pf, ffi gj ^^ Only; H^ jft ^ ^ ex 
actly tally; $ W, JK JS li r K far and wide, i.e. ^ 

ifS ^c Si ^ *J ^ > ffij ^ ffi fig |u 

; /^> In vastness nothing surpasses Heaven and only 
Yao s moral character can correspond with it, hence his 
character is like ^ ; ^ uj J^ |f gn ^ ^ ^ that 
of Heaven, beyond words or portrayal. E. Great indeed 
was Yaou as a sovereign ! I low majestic was he ! It is 

406 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XVII, XVIII, XIX. 

+ +. + : 

ft A -fc 



T 



CHAPTER XVIL The Master said : 
"Learn as if you were not reaching your 
goal, and as though you were afraid of 
missing it." 

CHAPTER XVIII. The Master said : 
" How sublime the way Shun and Yii under 
took the Empire, and yet as if it were 
nothing to them ! " 

CHAPTER XIX. i. The Master said : 
" Great indeed was the sovereignty of Yao ! 
How sublime he was ! Only Heaven is 

407 



VIII. XIX, XX. THE ANALECTS. 

only Heaven that is grand corresponded to it. Hem- 
vast was his virtue. The people could find no name for 
it Z. Oh quam magnus Yao tenons principatum ! proh 

sublimitas! acmulatus illud. Proh immensitatem ! 

populus non valuit verbus asscqui. K. Oh ! how great 

as a ruler of men toweringly high and surpassingly 

great : Yao s moral greatness is comparable only to the 
greatness of God. How vast and infinite ; the people had 
no name for such moral greatness. Couv. Quc Yao a 

etc un grand prince ! qu il a fait de grancles choses ! 

lui a ete semblable. L influence de sa vertu a etc sans 
limites de terme pour la nommer. 

2- C. JJH, ft PJ 8^ brightness, glory. ^ 
J@S $1 ?i i -&, WcH-chang means Religion, music 

and law. L. How majestic works he accomplished. 

How glorious in the elegant regulations instituted. 

Z. O quam splendidum ille habuit decori apparatum. 

K how glorious arts he established. Couv 

Que ses ceremonies, sa musique et scs lois out ete belles ! 

CHAPTER XX. AND ONE WAS A WOMAN.- 
See ft |5, Shun, i.e. J-Ji successor of Yao, v. In 
troduction, c. 31 A, s, m, m, m M> ra &. 

Ministers of Works, Agriculture, Education, Justice, 
Woods and marshes. L. well governed. Z. bcne 
administrabatur. K. five great Public Servants and the 
Empire had peace. Couv. bien gouvcrne. 

2. Sec |& g vi. i, Sec. 2. C. SI ft &, Lmm 
means to administer, control. (This is its primary mean 
ing.) Another supposition is that it should be g^ an old 
form of ^ The ten men were %\ Tfe named JJ^ ^ 

408 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XIX, XX, 



3*C IT * ^ tl I J 
T W ill 



!fc= 3f. W E Ji ^ ^C 

o 

3 A X = ^ P 
M ^ -ffi, jfl S ^ 

> o 

great, and only Yao responds to its standard. 
How vast he was ! Beyond the power of 
the people to express. 2. How sublime 
were his achievements ! How brilliant his 
civilising regulations ! " 

CHAPTER XX. i. Shun had five Minis 
ters and the Empire was well ruled. 2. 
King Wu remarked : " I have ten adjutants, 

409 



VIII. XX. THE ANALECTS. 

ft named fa * fc named gg, ft , & , 

m, [33 ^> fft it 4> S $fi> -:! - A Bl J X -ft, 

The one specially mentioned in next clause was Wen Mu, 
but whether Wen s \vife or mother is unknown. She is 
called the Q, j- as she ruled the interior (of the palace). 
The jl A JlS ^f> & }g Jft ft> I- 1 hive ten able 
ministers. Z. bcnc administrates praefcctos. K. I had 
etc. assorted men in restoring order etc. Couv. J ai qui 
m aident a bien gouverner. 

3. C. He is called Confucius instead of the greater 
^f out of respect to King Wu. ^ ||| is a fg an 
ancient saying. JJ ^ ^ is taken by C. as & JJ- 
]J^ more abundant than in this, but the ancient commenta 
tors take the opposite interpretation. L talents are 

difficult to find, true? Only when the dynasties of 

met, were they more abundant yet there was a woman 

amoner them. T/ic able ministers were no more than nine 

t> 

men. Z Dotes rarae sunt, imperil concursus, 

solus prae hoc nostro fuit florentior : et tamen una 

mulier, novem sunt viri et nil amplius. K men of 

great ability are difficult to find. The great men who lived 

etc. never been equalled. Among above, there was 

one \voman; so only nine great men. Couv 

homines de talent sont rarcs L epoque de a etc 

plus florissante quc la not re. ( ccpcndant Chouenn 

n a trouve que cinq ministrcs capables ; ou Wang) a trouve 
une femmc de talent, et netif homines, mais pas davantage. 
4. C. In the ^ ^C {^ it is Kiid : King \\\"n led 
the revolting empire of Siring submissive to Chou (fa$) ; 
for six of the nine divisions had accepted Wen as leader. 

410 



THE ANALECTS. VIII. XX. 



*0 

# M SJr = ; B 11 
3c -A ft JS 3f E 

W rfif ^f < ^ A 

able administrators." 3. Confucius said : 
" Is it not a true saying that talent is hard to 
find? Yet only at the transition of the 
Tang Dynasty into the Yii was it more 
replete than in the founding of this of Chou, 
when indeed one of its Ministers was a 
woman, so that in reality there were only 
nine men. 4. Possessor of two of the 
Empire s three parts, with which he sub- 

411 



VIII. XX, XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

?LL K says ^ $L , A K > 75 ^ IR> Heaven 
had given him the empire, its people had accepted him, 
and yet lie did not take it but served $-j\ the summit of 

nobleness. E. King YYan possessed empire, and with 

those he served Yin. The virtue of the house of 

Chow highest point indeed. 7 habcntem duas, 

cum his subjccte serviisse Yu, Tscheou nostri virtus 

summa virtus. K. in two kinds under them, while 

still acknowledging Yin. The moral greatness of the 

early Emperors perfect. Couv. Posseder les deux 

tiers et employer sa puissance au service cle In ce 

fut le merite cle la famille des Tscheou ce merite a etc 

tres grand. 

CHAPTER XXL THE CHARACTER OF YU. 
^ 3$ successor of Shun (v. last section) and founder of 
the Hsia Dynasty. C. [jj]^ |$ gg ^ crevice, flaw, 
(In] # semblance of a flaw). ^ $1 -t!l> thin, poor. 2< 
m. ft BE IT S ordinary clothes, f^ ^ fl|5 -tit H # 
S ^ ap^n made of leather. & ^ i& tfc & & lt 
^L^ whether unstinted or sparing all accorded with what 
was light. L. I can find no flaw in the character of 

Yu coarse food and drink but displayed the utmost 

filial piety etc. His ordinary garments were poor, 

utmost elegance in his sacrificial cap and apron. lie lived 
in a low, mean house, but expended all his strength on the 
ditches and water channels etc. 7.. ego nullo defecto 
nolo. Pa re us potui et eibi, at vakle plus erga manes et 
spiritus ; vulgaris ordin.irio vestitu etc. humilis palatio et 

aedibus in agrariis aquacductibus. K a flaw. 

He was extremely simple, etc. but lavish in what he offered 

412 



THE ANALECTS. VIIL XX, XXI. 



m 



M IP ^ {ft, g ia 

a * tit w B . 



^ & tfn P1 fi IS 

missively served the Dynasty of Yin the 
virtue of the Founder of the Chou may 
indeed be called perfect virtue." 

CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 
" In Yii I can find no room for criticism. 
Simple in his own food and drink, he was 
unsparing in his filial offerings to the spirits. 
Shabby in his workaday clothes he was most 
scrupulous as to the elegance of his kneeling 

413 



VIII. XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

in sacrifice. Mis ordinary clothing was coarse and poor, 
but when lie whent to worship he appeared in rich and 

appropriate robes palace humble and mean, 

spared no expense in useful public works etc. Couv. 

aucun defaut Sa nouniture fort simple; of- 

frandes aux csprits splendides. Vetements ordin- 

aircs grossiers ; mais sa rode et son bonnet be cere- 

nionie magnifiques. Son haditation et son chambres 

basses; tous ses soins aux canaux d irrigation. 



414 



THE ANALECTS. Vlll. XXI. 



ZET. 



apron and sacrificial crown. Humble sa to 
the character of his palace, he spent his 
strength in the draining and ditching of the 
country. In Yii I find no room for criticism." 

415 



IX. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

VOLUME V, 



BOOK IX. 



TZU HAN 
CHIEFLY PKRSONAT.. 

TITLE. f ?^ "The Master seldom." The first half 
of the book chiefly relates to Confucius himself; the latter, 
consists of various sayings, mostly urging to diligence. 

CHAPTER I. GAIN, FATE, PERFECTION. 
5flK or, what would pay. Cf. Menc. Li. C. g ~f- > 

it m HI w m^ ^ a a, t m *> etc. 

Calculating whether it will pay is derogatory to rectitude ; 
the laws underlying the divine ordinances are abstruse ; 
and the principles and practice of noble virtue cover a 
great area. L. The subjects of which the Master seldom 
spoke were, profitableness, and also the appointments of 
Heaven, and perfect virtue. Z. cle lucro, atque Provi- 

dcntia, atque perfections natuia. K his conversation 

seldom spoke of interests, or religion or of morality. 

Couv du gain, de la providence celeste, cle la vertu 

parfaite. 

CHAPTER II. THE BUBBLE REPUTATION.- 
I. Or, in no one thing docs he make his name. C. }j| 
1 *> K A #S * f*. The name of a village, 
the man s name is unrecorded. ^ ^11- ^ . tl J- M f/f 
-JC ^P BE - ffi % -l!l> Braised his wide learning, 
but lamented that in no one subject did he make a name 

416 



THE ANALECTS. IX. I, II. 

VOLUME V. 



BOOK IX. 



TZU HAN 
CHIEFLY PERSONAL. 



dlf 1^~ ^ -f 

li\ *s -^> J 



?L ^ . t 

o 

~r m a 

tt A, ^0 



f(n 






CHAPTER I. - The Master seldom 
spoke on profit, on the orderings of Provid 
ence, and on perfection. 

CHAPTER II. T. A man of the village 
of Ta-hsiang remarked : " What a great 



417 



IX. II, III. THE ANALECTS. 

foi- himself. L. Great indeed is the philosopher K ung ! 

Ilis learning- is extensive not render his name famous 

by any particular tiling. /. mngnus vere at caret 

quo fiat famosus. K is certninly a great man 

very extensive acquirements, not distinguished himself 

l n anything, ete. Couv. Le philosophe ccrtaincment 

un grand homme. II a beaucoup de science; pas ee 

qu il faut pour se faire un nom. 

2. Conf. evidently takes the remark humorously, but 
the Comm s take him very seriously and infer his deep 
humility. C. -:$ jtlf ^/^ Specially devote myself to. 

w m -st - m BB m A $u w\ m #., Ar- 

chery and driving, each was one of the six arts, but driving 
was an underling s work, so that his choice was of the 

humblest. L. heard the observation What shall I 

practice ? charioteering. Z. id audens, ego quam 

tractabo ? aurigationem. K. take up to distinguish 

myself? archery. Couv. ete informe. Quel art 

exercerai-je ? conducteur de voiture. 

CHAPTER III. ONLY SINGULAR WHERE 
PRINCIPLE INVOLVED. The cap was worn at the 
Ancestral sacrifices, i. C. The prescribed cap was of 
the very finest linen and of a dark colour. Its warp had 
2400 strands. L. The linen cap is that prescribed by the 

rules of ceremony, but now a silk one is worn follow 

the common practice. 7. c ritu est minus dispen- 

diosus ; ego sequar multitudinem. K good taste 

less expensive follow the general practice. Couv. 

Conforme a Fancier! usage coute moms cher a 

1 usage general. 

418 



THE ANALECTS. IX. II, III. 



351 -X 

PI 



m m fi IP? 

M Hi fl 11 /J 

> * " 

r ^ ?^ $L ^ 4 

^ II KL f P ^ ^ 

fc Hi f P ^ B 



man is K ung, the Philosopher. Yet though 
his learning is vast, in nothing does he 
acquire a reputation." 2. The Master on 
hearing it, addressing his disciples, said : 
" What shall I take up ? Shall I take to 
driving ? Or shall I take to archery ? I 
will take to driving." 

CHAPTER III. i. The Master said: 
" A linen cap is the prescribed form, but 
nowadays silk is worn. This saves expense 

419 



IX. XII, IV. THE ANALECTS. 

2. Cf. {ft economical, fc excess. C. fg -^ flj > 

?r ^ lit, w- M # K sg #, $g is < i &> 

W J* 3> Jl J ^P Rf -f# liL^ The Chuntzu in his clay 
and generation, when any custom is harmless, may follow 

it; when injurious to principle, he may not. I 

prescribe the bowing below the hull, after ascending it. 

I continue to bow below though I oppose the common 

practice. Z ab imo in summo, ct arrogantia est ; 

licet contradicam multitudini etc. K lower part of 

the room upper end, etc. The latter practice presumes 

too much ; therefore I continue to make my bow from etc. 

Couv au bas, au haut cles degres, c est de 1 orgueil. 

Contrairement a tout le monde, je, etc. 

CHAPTER IV. AN OPEN MIND. Or, The 
Master banned four things, There must be no wants/ 
musts, shalls and I s. But this is contrary to the 
accepted rendering, which takes ^ as the indicative fjrt^ 
and reads the whole as descriptive of Confucius, who, being 
naturally free from these faults, did not need to prohibit 
himself! C. ^f^ ^ ;y\ Private notions or wishes; 
-&> 3W &> prefixed certainties; fj^| ^ $fc f^ unyielding 

obstinacy; 5ft > %L El> for self. I entirely free. 

lie had no foregone conclusions, no arbitrary predetermin 
ations, no obstinacy and no egoism. Z. Philosophus 
exuerat quatuor : non habebat privates sensus, absolutas 

determinationes, pervicaciam, cgoismum. K entirely 

free self-interest, prepossessions, bigotry, egoism. 

Couv evitait desir desordonne, determination ir 
revocable, opinionatrete, egoisme. 

420 



THE ANALECTS. IX. Ill, IV 

eg 



m m ^ T 

> > 

Of # f ^ S 



Sc T -ft -m 

o o 



and I follow the general usage. 2. Saluta 
tion below (the Audience Hall) is the 
prescribed form, but now they salute above. 
This is going too far, and therefore, though 
infringing the general usage, I follow the 
rule of bowing below." 

CHAPTER IV. The Master was entire 
ly free from four things: he had no 
preconceptions, no pre-determinations, no 
obduracy, and no egoism. 

421 



IX. V. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER V. A DIVINE TRUST. This incident 
may be placed in B. C. 495. Conf. here claims to be the 
Elisha of King Wen. As Dr. Legge remarks: "he here 
identifies himself with the line of the great sages, to whom 
Heaven has intrusted the instruction of men. In all the six 
centuries between himself and King Wan he does not 
admit of such another." Note the play on the word 3^ 
Little or nothing is known of K uang, but it is said to have 
been in modern Kaifengfu in Honan. 

1. See VII. 22. C. quoting the $, fii^ says pJJ JJ 

^ n K ts> * ^ ifi ra n IE> ft is A m ^ 

Yang llu (of Lu) had recently ravaged K uang. Confu 
cius resembled him in appearance, that is why the people 
of K uang surrounded him, and kept him prisoner five 
days. L. was put in fear etc. Z. angebatur. K. in 
fear for his personal safety. Couv. se trouvait en peril. 

2. Or, Though King Wen is dead, is not ^ \Vcn (civili 
zation) still here? King ^ the cultured. See VIII, 20. 
3 refinement, cultivation, civilization etc. C. ^ , M 
ft Hi ! X. l&mm W & Z fK The external 
manifestation of Tao is called Wen, i.e. religion, music and 
law. His use of Wen instead of Tao is put clown to his 
modesty. $fc ^ JL -f f] fin\ Tzu is this, i.e. Con 
fucius speaks of himself. L. Ai\cr the death of etc. was not 
the cause of truth lodged here in me ? Z. Wen rex cum 
obicrit, doctrinae apparatus nunquid non est hie ? K. Since 
the death of etc. the cause of this civilization with us here 
now? Couv. ...rtant inort, la doctrine. ..pas ici (en moi) ? 

3. C. Having spoken of King W r en as dead he calls 
himself the dying one. If I leaven had meant to end this 

422 



THE ANALECTS. IX. V. 



z n -in 



IE 



CHAPTER V. i. When the Master 
was intimidated in K uang, 2. he said, 
" Since King Wen is no longer alive, does 
not (the mantle of) enlightenment (Wen) rest 
here on me ? 3. If Heaven were going to 
destroy this enlightenment, a mortal like me 
would not have obtained such a connection 
with it. Since Heaven is not ready to 

433 



IX. V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

enlightenment I should not have been associated with it ; 
since I am associated therewith it is evident it is not to he 
ended, and since etc. the K uang people cannot go against 
the will of Heaven. L. If I leaven had wished to let the 
cause of truth perish, then I, a future mortal, should not 
have got such a relation etc. Z. Si coelum deleturum 
fuisset hunc apparatum, poster us mortalis non obtinuissem 
participate etc. illi ad me quid ? K. If God is going to 
destroy all civilization in the world, it would not have been 
given to a mortal of this late generation to understand this 
civilization etc. Couv. Si le ciel avait voulu quo la 
doctrine disparut de la terre, il no 1 aurait pas connee aprcs 
la mort de Wenn wang etc. 

CHAPTER VI. NOBLENESS INDEPENDENT 
OE VARIED TAEE.NTS.--i", A sage, or man divine 
ly inspired. 

1. C. The -fc ^ was the Chief Minister of i/| or 

*o * $ m &. & n n m &, H C thought a V a- 

riety of ability necessary to sagehood. L. May we not 
say that your Master is a Sage ? How various is his 
ability ! Z. Summus gubernator etc. magister nonne 
sanctus? Guam ille multa callet ! K. ...he is a holy man, 
s he not ? What a variety of acquirements he seems to 

possess. Couv. EC premier ministre est-il un sage 

parfait? Otic d arts lui sont familiers ! 

2. c. ^ tft j$ du Prodigal, n >r; S BJ & 

^ it means without limit, ff ${j 4^ J|g Jf ^ ^ |j 
^ SK On the verge of, as if modvsly forbade him to 
recognise it E. Certainly Heaven has endowed him 
unlimitcdly. He is about a sage. And, moreover, his 

424 



THE ANALECTS. IX. V, VI. 

yv 

X M XT X 

^ o > 

3 ^ m & A 

It -Hi ^P 

o 
-V ~V - <i*M :ri-.. 

<1 "r 51 S #H 

> 

destroy this enlightenment, what can the 
men of K uang do to me ? " 

CHAPTER VI. i. A great Minister 
enquired of Tzu Kung, saying, "Your 
Master, he is surely inspired? What 
varied acquirements he has ! " 2. Tzu 
Kung answered, " Of a truth Heaven has 
lavishly endowed him, to the point of inspi- 

425 



IX. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

ability is various. Z. ccrtc coclum late promovit ilium 
acccdcrc sactitatc ; ct insupcr nuilta callct. K. God has 
certainly been bountiful to him to make him a holy man. 
Besides, he lias himself acquired knowledge in many things. 

Couv lui a prodigue ses dons sans nicsurc ; il possede 

a pen pres la plus haute sagcsse possible, ct de phis tine 
grande habilete clans beaucoup d arts. 

3. C. A variety of qualifications arc not necessary to 
leadership, hence they are not even necessary to a Chiin 

Tzii. L my condition was low and therefore I 

acquired my ability in main things, but they were mean 
matters. Must the superior man have such variety of 

ability? etc. Z conditionc humilis, viliores res. 

At num sapiens multes habcbit ? K low position in 

life: had to acquire etc. ordinary matters of routine. 

You think much knowledge to make him so; no, etc. 

Couv condition humble, j ai appris plusieurs arts, 

pen d imporlancc. Le sage en apprend-il beaucoup ? Pas 
beaucoup. 

4. i-j*^ was the disciple -jr fjE> See Introduction 
VIII. C. jf, JJJ -{if^ Tried, i.e. employed. L. Lao 
said, The Master said, Having no official employment, I 
acquired many arts. Z. Lao addidit : Confucius di- 
cebat : ego nullo muncre functus, ideo artitus. K. once 

remarked, I have heard the Master say not been called 

to act in public life had time to acquaint myself etc. 

Couv. J ai cultive les aits, parce que je n ai pas ete 
employe etc. 

CHAPTKK VII. NOT A GKNTUS, PUT PAINS 
TAKING. Probably a comment on some remark made 

426 



THE ANALECTS. IX. VI, VII. 



s * -tii T- t& & fi 



8 B 



tr> ^ ^ ^ ^ m -^- m 

> - o 

ration, and his acquirements are also many." 

3. When the Master heard of it he said: 
" Does the Minister really know me ? In 
my youth I was in humble circumstances, 
and for that reason gained a variety of 
acquirements, : in common matters : but 
does nobleness of character depend on va 
riety ! It does not depend on variety." 

4. Lao says, " The Master used to say, I 
have not been occupied with an official life, 
and so became acquainted with the Arts ! 

CHAPTER VII. The Master said : 
" Am I indeed a man with (innate) knovv- 

427 



IX. VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

about him. C. ?L r jMi!fc t? t! $S n 3SU Confucius 
modestly proclaims himself unlearned. P|K $ JiJ > 
Educe, bring out. ffi S fi ffi SU Vi" * #N * ^ 

Jl T"> $/ #IU $ $? ^ ^ ^ ""i r "tf" incans thc 
two ends, i.e. last and first, root and branch, above and 
below, fne and coarse, to the utmost degree. L. Am I 
indeed possessed of knowledge ? I am not knowing. But 
if a mean person, who appears quite empty like, ask any 
thing of me, I set it forth from one end to the other, and 

exhaust it. Z non habeo scienias. At si quid vilis 

homunicio vel summe hebes ; ego discutio duo 

extrema, atque exhaurio. K I have no great under 
standing at all my opinion on a subject, I myself have- 
no opinion whatever of the subject, but by asking questions 
on the pros and cons, I get to the bottom of it. 
Couv Je n ai pas de science le plus humble con 
dition fut-tl tres ignorant, je discute la question d un 

bout a 1 autre, sans rien omettre. 

CHAPTKK VIII. THERE WAS- NO OPEN VI 
SION. The ]f is the Chinese Phoenix, its mate being 
the HU C. a, & B, 2$ H* * fS, B* ^ 
K K llK Tllc ft n S was tllc - su P cl natural 1)ilxl ^ ^i cn 
appeared in his hall in the days of Shun, and which cried 
on Mt. Ch i (twin pealo in the days of King Wen. iJ 

IWK M i[ m ^ i\ p, ^ as us m> ^ a 

S} -liL> The diagram (;\ $\>) shewn on its back by the 
dragon horse (horse s body, dragon s head), when it arose 
from the River and appeared to Fu-hsi ;--both the above 
were auspicious omens granted to inspired rulers of old. 
H lh -l!L> ended. L. The Peng bird does not come, 

428 



THE ANALECTS. IX. VII, VIII. 

A 

* m im * 

[Tri -til BU 



ledge ? I have no such knowledge, but 
when an uncultivated person, in all simpli 
city, comes to me with a question, I thrash 
out its pros and cons until I get to the 
bottom of it." 

CHAPTER VIII. The Master said : 
429 



IX. VII I, IX, X. THE ANALECTS. 

the river sends forth no map, it is all over with me. 

/ cle me actum est. K. Ah woe s me. I do not 

see any signs that \vc are near the end of the pre 
sent anarchy and about to inaugurate a new order 

of things etc. Couv C en est fait cle moi (do ma 

doctrine^. 

CHAPTER IX. SYMPA iHV \VITII AFFLIC 
TION AND RKSPKCT FOR RANK. ,, TO quick 
en one s steps is still a sign of respect, sometimes 
misunderstood by foreigners. C. ^ J^ -jig J$U 
Mourning dress. ^\ ^ R|K g i\ T 8Ik /the upper, 
shang the lower garments. lS f|fc Q ^ Without 
eyes. & EK *? S" fj-: ^ Someone suggests that 
/J? should be /^ ? K EK ife! A >6, J ^ 5lS^ 
tj ^fl" > ?^ ^ J& A> He mourned with the mourn 
er, honoured rank, and pitied the afflicted. L. \\~hen 

the Master in a mourning dress, cap a "d upper 

and lower garments of full dress, on observing them 

approaching , younger than himself, he would rise up 

and if he had to etc. hastily. Z. Philosophus cum etc. 
solebat assurgcre, eosque nraetericns solcbat accelerare 
graclum. K. \\ T hcn ete. deep mourning, an officer in full 

uniform stand up, and when walking p i^t them,.., 

respectfully quicken his steps. Coir/. Ouand le Mnitre 
vovait un homme en cleuil, ou un magistrat en costume 
officiel etc. 

CIIA1TICR X. IT IS HIGH, I CANNOT ATTAIN 

UNT< ) IT. I. Yen Yuan, see Intro. Section 

C. n| j, \ty, $t sound of sighing, jjfc gfl ^| gK ^!J ^ 
-f ^i ?IS if J w te // iKK Yen Yiinn thus cxpres- 



THE ANALECTS. IX. VIII- IX, X. 



n m- m %&=?-&. m 



z ilia 



iwi gfc & 

> o 



Z it- ^ E 

^ > 

" The phoenix comes not, the river gives 
forth no chart, it is all over with me." 

CHAPTER IX. Whenever he saw a 
person in mourning, or in official cap and 
robes, or one who was blind, the Master on 
noticing him, even though the man were his 
own junior, always arose ; or, if he were 
passing such a one, he always quickened his 
steps. 

CHAPTER X. i. Yen Yuan heaved a 
deep sigh and said : " The more I look up 

431 



IX. X. Till . ANAI.KCTS. 

ses his recognition of the fathomless and uncircumscribcd 
nature of the Master s teaching. (Was it not the Truth 
that Confucius was aspiring after, rather than that which 
he had acquired, to which Yen Hui here refers ? There 

is not enough in what we possess of Confucius actual 
teaching, valuable though it is, to call forth such an 

o o 

utterance). L. I looked up to them (the Master s 
doctrines) , and they seemed to become more high; I tried 

to penetrate them more firm ; I looked at them before 

me, behind. Z. si suspicio illam, magis clevatur ; 

effodio, solidatur ; in conspectu, a tergo. K. The more 

I have looked up to it, the higher it appears pencil ate 

impenetrable laid hold of it here, lo it is there. 

Couv. Plus je considere la doctrine du Maitre, plus je la 

trouve elevee ; scrute impossible de la comprendre 

entierement ; devant moi, derniere nioi. 

2. w-> &K cf. vi. 25. c. ts IQ\ -ft ^ ft m. 

In order, by degrees, gf /j| jjg^ To L-ad forward. 
L, by orderly method, skilfully, etc. lie enlarged my 
mind with learning, and taught me the restraints of pro 
priety. Z. ordinatim belle ducit hominis : ampliat me 
scientiis, coercet me ritibus. K. knows admirably how 

to lead people step by step enlarged my mind with an 

extensive knowledge of the arts, while guiding and correct 
ing my judgment and taste. Couv. Ilereusement 

enseigne avec ordre ct methode, et dirige les homines avec 
habiletc. II augment mes connaissances en m expliquant 
les raisons des choses, et il regie ma conduite en m cnseign- 
ment mes devoirs. 

3- C. -% M 4iL^ L. When I wish to give over 

432 



THE ANALECTS. IX. X 



&. n m & 3i 
ffe m n m 



z 



-*l- -ff t ~7* - At * 

B| ft A f B J 

at it the higher it rises. The more I probe 
it the more impenetrable it becomes. I 
catch a glimpse of it in front, and it is 
instantly behind. 2. But our Master step 
by step skilfully lures men on. He has 
broadened me by culture, and restrained me 
by reverence. 3. If I wished to stop I could 
not, and when at times I have exhausted all 

433 



THE ANALECTS. 

etc. cannot do so, having excited all my ability, 

something to stand right up before me ; but though I wish 
to follow and lay hold of it, I really find no way to do so. 

Z prostaret aliquid erectum et valde eminens ; 

persequi illud, non cst medium. K. Thus I could not 

stop even if I would the goal would still stand 

clear and distinct away from me, r.o means of reaching 

it, make what efforts I will. Conv apres j ai epuisse 

toutcs mes forces, quclque chose clevant moi 

comme une montagne, qu il m est impossible dc gravir. 

CHAPTER XL-CAN A MAX DECEIVE GOD ? 
Cf. VII, 34. This, and that, may have been one and the 
same sickness. I. C. ^ "f HJ CL -- fi, f gc fc\ 
Confucius, being at that time out of office, had no official 
retainers. Tzii Lu desired J^l ^ \[\ ;fj :H: Jlg^ to 
arrange for a funeral with official retainers (i.e. a public 
funeral). His intention to honour the Sage was good, but 
yfc #fl 0f 1 5$ lil> 1^ did not know the right way of 

doing it. E. being very ill wished the disciples to 

act as ministers to him. Z. aecrotante, incfravescente... 

o o 

misit discipulos qui cssent administii. K. seriously 

sick, made arrangements in case of the decease of 

the sick man, should assume the functions of an 

officer, of a great noble. Cou v. gravcment malade, 

engagea a lui scrvir d intendants (comme preparer 

de pompeuses funerailles, etc.). 

2. Or, What a time Yu has carried on this imposture ! 
But the commentators not unreasonably consider the 
remark as applying to TzCi Lu s character, rather than the 
particular circumstance. C. ffi [JJ] ^ /j? -^ Slight 



THE ANALECTS. IX. X, XI. 



H ^ & Jfr 

x m z A 



ft ^i = Bfr & Si JP 
^ BJ ffi E*. ^ ^ 

my powers, something seems to stand ma 
jestically before me, .yet though I seek to 
pursue my path towards it, I find never a 
way." 

CHAPTER XL i. Once when the 
Master was seriously ill, Tzu Lu set the 
disciples to act as if they were a Statesman s 
officers. 2. During a remission of the attack 
Confucius observed : " For what a long 

435 



IX. XI, XII. Till-: ANALECTS. 

improvement. #| i# ^ ^ [& - JJ ^ /& ^\ 
While very ill he was unaware of what Txii I ,u had done, 
hnt when etc. A BB JR ^ & * 3IU <J1 & B 

1?$^ A nun can commit no graver sin than that of deceiv 
ing Heaven, for it returns on his own head. L. Long 
has the conduct of Yu been deceitful ! By pretending etc. 

whom should I impose upon? Heaven? Z. proh ! 

quamdudum istius Yeou agendi Kitio fallax est : non habco 
ministros etc. fallamne coelum ? K. I have for this long 

while observed practices self-deception in his actions 

impose upon God ? Couv. II y a long temps que 

lou use de faux semblants trompcr le Ciel ? 

3. Rather than die in your arms in style as retainers, 
would I not rather die in your arms as affectionate 
disciples, jjjjfc is |{J f^i > T .ct it go at that, suppose. 
C. :fc ^ m ^ \\\ 88 ^ The ceremonial funeral 
of a prince, or Minister. % K & K, ii fl %& f[[j ^ 
^^ Means be left unburied. L. than that I should die 
in the hands of ministers, is it not better that I should die 
in the hands of you, my disciples? And though I may 

not get shall I die upon the road? / potius 

quam mori in administrorum manibus, nonne praeo|)tassern 

mori inter duorum triumve filiolorum manus ? an ego 

mortuus essem in via ? K in the arms of you, my 

friends, mere unsympathetic officers? public funer 
al, unburied 011 the public road-? Couv entre les 

mains denies disciples d intendants pompeux enterrc- 

ment, comme tin liomme qui nieurt dans tin chemin ? 

CHAITI:R xii. \\ Am\G I^OR A RISK IN 

THE MARKET. g# is interrogative Jt is interpreted 

436 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XI, XII 





El t * K" ^ B 5 - ifc 

" 



time has Yu carried on his impositions ! In 
pretending to have retainers when I have 
none, whom do I deceive? Do I deceive 
Heaven ? 3. Moreover, would I not sooner 
die in the arms of you my disciples than in 
the arms of officials ? And, even if I did 
not have a grand funeral, should I be dying 
by the roadside ? " 

CHAPTER XII. Tzii Kung asked: 
" If I had a lovely jewel here, should I shut 

437 



IX. XII, XIII. THE ANALECT?. 

as fg\ but the last clause might be interpreted, I myself 
am awaiting a buyer. C. J-g^ |/J3J 4L> To put away, 

keep. ;Vi\ i i -to, To sell, -r- "IT a ^L : f ft 

*tt >F f:L% & iSc Jfc ftS Ja IU]> Could not under 
stand why Confucius with his wisdom did not take office, 
so stated the two propositions by way of interrogation. 
L. There is a beautiful gem here. Should I lay it. up in 

a case etc., or should I etc. ? Sell it.. , ...But I would 

wait for one to offer the price. Z. sit pulchra gemma in 
loco ; an recondes etc. an vcro quaeres bonum pretium et 

vendes? at ego expecto pretium. K. There is a 

beautiful gem here seek for etc. Sell it by all means, 

but if I were you. I should wait until the price were offered. 

Couv. S il y avait ici, ou bicn cheieheriez-vous un 

achcteur qui en donnat un prix eleve? mais j attendrais 

qu on m en offrit un prix convenablc. 

CHAPTER XIII. CONFUCIUS A MISSIONARY 
TO THE HEATHEN. ;/ L K The 9 tribes in the east. 
I. His meaning is deemed the same as in the f[e f f/: 
fi}^ of V. 6. L. was wishing to go and live among the 

nine wild tribes, etc. Z. volebat baibaris. K 

said he would go and live among the barbarous tribes, etc. 
Couv aurait voulti de barbarcs. 

2. C. 2f -Y- ff r Jjf} )|ij ^ Where a chun-tzu lives 
there is transformation. L. They are rude. I low can you 
do such a thing? If a superior man dwelt etc., what 
rudeness would there be ? Z. abjecti sunt ; quo niodo 

erit hoc? quidnani abjectionis supererit ? K. You 

will there feel the want of refinement. \Yhere a good and 
wise man lives there will be no want of refinement. Couv. 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XII, Mil. 



Bqi- HA jfc -5# 5% 
J ILl ip jrll irH 

"* O " 

" o 

y/n K3. ^*K I f ~]i 

XU /S fIX a 

/2l ^L ?JC ^ ^ 

M "^ ft flff 

O > 

"^ 

it up in a casket and keep it, or seek a good 
price and sell it ?" " By all means sell it! 
sell it ! " answered the Master, " But I my 
self would wait for a good offer." 

CHAPTHR XIII i. The Master pro 
posed to go and dwell among the nine 
uncivilized tribes of the east ; 2. whereupon 
some one remarked : " But they are so 

439 



IX. xnr, xiv, xv. THE ANALECTS. 

Us sont grossiers ; convient-il dc vivrc parmi cux ? Si un 
homme sage qu auront ils encore de grossier ? 

CHAPTER XIV. THE REXAISSAXCE OF 
MUSIC. It was in the first year of Duke Ai that Confu 
cius returned from his long exile, to end his days five years 
later in I, u. C. At this time the J] jgj the fj.J and $fe 
were all decadent, but Confucius in his wanderings abroad 
had made careful research, and now lij ^jj j|t $ ^f> ^fj\ 
$C Mi flB JE ; late in life, perceiving that his ideas 
would not be adopted, returned and corrected these 
matters, fjg ft says, J(g ^ f &, /$ 3 ^ 
/j^ The Ya were performed in the Palace, the Sung in 
the temple ; as Dr. Legge explains : they are " the names 
of two, or rather three of the divisions of the jfj g the 
former being the elegant or correct odes to be used 
with music at imperial festivals, and the latter, the praise 
songs, celebrating principally the founders of the different 

dynasties, to be used in the ancestral temple." L. I 

returned from etc. and then the music was reformed, 

Royal songs and Praise songs etc. Z musica re for- 

mata, atque Decorum ct Praeconia etc. K I complet 
ed my work of reforming the State Music, and arranging 
the Songs and Psalms, in the Book of Ballads, Songs and 
Psalms, etc. Couv. Depuis, etc. la musique a ete cor- 
rigee ; les la et Soung etc. 

CHAPTER XV. A SENSE OF IMPERFEC- 
TION. This sounds like a remark made early in his career. 
C. has only the briefest note on this. The {jjfj ft of course 
says that he made this remark in modesty and to teach 
others. j[jg ^L ji iij J\^^ E. ^Vbroad, to serve the high 

440 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XIII, XIV, XV 



m 



fli] K ^ 
-fr IE 



uncivilized, how can you do that?" The 
Master responded, " Were a man of noble 
character to dwell among them, what lack of 
civilization would there be ? " 

CHAPTER XIV. The Master said ;. 
u It was only after my return from Wei to 
Lu that Music was revised, and that the 
secular and sacred pieces were properly 
discriminated." 

CHAPTER XV. The Master said: 
" In public life to do my duty to my Prince 

441 



IX. XV, XVI XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

ministers and nobles ; ...... in all duties to the dead, not to 

dare not to exert one s self, and not to be overcome of wine ; 
which one do I attain to? Z ....... non fieri vino obrutus ; 

ista qui existunt in me ? K. In public life etc. in private 
life ...... to the members of one s family ; in performing the 

last offices to the dead etc. ; and in using wine, ...... resist 

the temptation of taking it to excess, which ...... been able 

to do? Couv. Hors de la maison, remplir mes devoirs 
etc., a la maison etc ....... eviter 1 ivresse ; ces quatres 

merites se trouvent-ils en moi ? 

CHAPTER XVI. SIC TRANSIT. Cf. Menc. IV. 

ii. 18. C. ^ W Z ffc> tt * , * ft 38, IS 
Jj, ;, fe^ The revolutions of Nature are unbroken 
and unceasing in their progressive changes, they are the 
external phenomena of Tao, and their simplest illustration 
is that of a flowing stream. The moral is that ^ ^ Jljp 
B W ^> ^ ie l earner should be constantly alert, never 
breaking down for a hairs-breadth of time, jg -^ says 
this is the nature of Tao, ...... the days go and the months 

come, the cold goes and the heat comes, the water flows 
unceasing and things are brought into existence unex- 
haustcdly. C. says this and the rest of the Book are an 
incentive to diligence. L. It passes on just like this, not 
ceasing etc. Z. transeuntcs ita ! non cessant etc. K. 
How all things in nature are passing away even like this 
etc. Couv. Tant passe comme cette eau, rien ne s arrete 
etc. 

CHAPTER XVII. THE GRAND PASSION. & 
a pretty face, the fair sex, sensual desire. C. quoting 
from Ssu Ma Ch ien s | |S > attributes this remark to 



442 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XV, XVI, XVII. 



JH $ 





or Minister ; in private life to do my duty to 
my fathers and brethren ; in my duties to the 
departed never daring to be otherwise than 
diligent ; and never to be overcome with 
wine, in which of these am I successful ? " 

CHAPTER XVI. Once when the 
Master was standing by a stream he obser 
ved : " All is transient, like this ! Unceas 
ing day and night ! " 

CHAPTER XVIL The Master said: 

443 



IX. XVII, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

Confucius chagrin after being compelled to ride behind 
Duke Ling of Wei and his notorious and beautiful wife 
Nan Tzu. & g2 ?L r f J& $K & * * A IRJ 

i|i> ffc ?L * fi # fH IS fli % > ?L : F SB 

;^ fe fj & H* > L. I have not seen one who loves 
virtue as he loves beauty. Z. qui aniet virtutem sicut 

amat pulchram speciem. K. I do not now see love 

moral worth beauty in woman. Couv. qui aimat la 

vertu autant que 1 eclat exterieuie. 

CHAPTER XVIII. PERSONAL RESPONSIBI 
LITY FOR PROGRESS.- ffi Ol ^ iiii> The anti 
thesis suggests : Make a hill, level the ground ; but the 
translation given is the accepted version. It is difficult to 
know whether the emphasis is on the ^ or the jh > ^- 
emphasises the 3T-^ the moral of which should therefore 
be individual responsibility, but the moral he draws is the 
duty of unceasing progress. C. ^> i IIS ^> A 
basket for earth. The parable urging perseverance in 
virtue is taken from the |& g V. v. o, where it says 
n llj ^L W #J 15 - K> In niaking a hill of nine 

fathoms etc. J(l jh ^> S Q .lh 5, & *M%* 

^ Q H : 5- ^ nc stopping is my own stopping, etc. 
Hence the student, by unremitting perseverance fg ^7 Jjjc 
^ multiplies his littles into much, whereas by stopping half 
way he throws away his past labours. L. 7 he prosecu 
tion of learning may be compared to what happens in etc. 
If there want but one basket of earth to complete the work 

and I stop, the stopping is my own work throiving 

down the earth on the level ground. Though but one 
basketful thrown at a time, the advancing my own 

444 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XVII, XVIII 

" A -- - ::.;: 

"* 

/ifify *^\ 

~ 

ilil ^ U4 {& 

o 

" I have never yet seen a man whose love of 
virtue equalled his love of woman." 

CHAPTER XVIIL The Master said: 
" Suppose I am raising a mound, and, while 
it is still unfinished by a basketful, I stop 
short, it is I that stops short. Or, suppose I 
begin on the level ground, although I throw 

445 



IX. XVIII, XIX, XX. THE ANALECTS. 

going forward. Z. exempli gratia, facio monticulum, 

sisto, ego sisto : sit e.g. plana terra ; si progcdior, ego 

progreclivi. K suppose he were suddenly to stop: 

the Stopping depends entirely upon himself. Suppose a 
man wants to level a road, although, etc. to proceed with 
etc. Couv. Si, apres avoir entrepris etc. j abandonne 

mon travail, il sera vrai de dire quc j ai abandonne mon 

entrepris. Si, a faire un remblai, je continue etc. 

quand meme je ne mettrais qu un panier de terrc, mon 
entrepris avancera. 

CHAPTER XIX.-NO LESSON WASTED ON 
HUI.Hui, Intro. VIII. C. tff . W E ^> Remiss, 
inattentive, negligent. v R H . M ^ ft! & jj <^ 

S\ fin >b K JJ ft- & & * ^ * ^ ^ ; 

When he heard the Master s teaching he always thought i 
out and carried it into practice unfailingly, and in whatever 
emergency. L. Never flagging when I set forth anything 
to him : ah ! that is Hui. Z. qui cdoctus non pigrabatur, 
is nonne Hoei erat? K. He was the only man who was 
never tired and inattentive while I talked with him. Couv. 
Un homme, des qu il avait recu un enseignment utile, le 
mettait en pratique avec ardeur, c etait Houei. 

CHAPTER XX. HUI S UNFALTERING PRO 
GRESS. L. Alas! I saw his constant advance. I 
never saw him stop in his progress. Z. cleflendus io ! 
Ego vidi ilium progrcdi, nondum vidi ilium sistere. K. 
Alas ! he is dead. I have observed his constant advance ; 
I never saw him stop in his progress. Couv. < )h ! que 
sa perte cst regrettable ! Je 1 ai toujours vu progresser, 
jamais s arreter. 

446 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XVIIf, XIX, XX 

- + 

* ^ ? til =? ft Sffi 

IE ^ IB * B -ffl, a 



ill *t -iii ffn ji 



rft *a M yfN s: 

down but one basketful, and continue to do 
so, then it is I that makes progress." 

CHAPTER XIX. The Master said: 
" Ah ! Hui was the one to whom I could 
tell things and who never failed to attend to 
them." 

CHAPTER XX. The Master, referring 
to Yen Yuan, said : " Alas ! I ever saw 
him make progress, and never saw him 
stand still." 

447 



IX. XXI, XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXL SOME UNFLOWERING, SOME, 
UNFRUITFUL. Coming after the last this sounds like a 
lament over Hui, but the epigram is taken in a general 
sense. C. fj *& > B ffi> Hi: ^ ^> $ f5 
PI JJ, Newly shooting grain is called ;///<?<>, its flowering 
is called /isi?i, and its earing shih. So is it with students ot 
moral philosophy. L. There are cases in which the 

blade springs, but the plant does not go on to flower ! 

flowers, but no fruit is subsequently produced ! Z. gcr- 

minans quod non florescat, oh datur ! non fructificct, 

clatur heu! K. Some only sprout up, but do not 

flower; ripen into fruit. Couv. II cst parfois des 

moissons qui n arrivent pas a fleurir; n ont pas de 

grain. 

CHAPTER XXII. AWE-INSPIRING YOUTIL- 

Dr. Legge quotes the remark of Luther s schoolmaster, 

who used to raise his hat to his boys. Awe, deep 

respect. H -J- etc. Has he no repute at forty or fifty ? 

Then he indeed etc. C. ?L r f ti> ^ ^ *E f &* Jj 

55K & i fi i ^> Confucius says that a youth has a 

wealth of years and a fund of strength to enable him to lay 

up knowledge. <& ^ L U 3L + IB ^ M & l"fl > M 

^P Url ^> Tseng Tzu said, If a man have no reputation 

at fifty, he will have none. L. A youth is to be regarded 

with respect. How etc. be equal to our present ? If he 

reach etc. and has not made himself heard of, then indeed 

he will not be worth being regarded with respect. Z. 

Minores natu sunt verendi ; qui enim scies illus futuros 

minus quam tu nunc es? At si non sunt digni quas 

verearis. K. Youths should be respected. How etc. as 

448 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXI, XXfJ. 



^ ^ rfil 



-t 



Z 



CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 
" There are blades that spring up and never 
flower, and there are others that flower but 
never fruit." 

CHAPTER XXII. The Master said: 
" The young should inspire one with respect. 
How do we know that their future will not 
equal qur present ? But if a man. has reach- 

449 



IX. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

good as we are now ? Only when a man is forty or fifty 
without having done anything to distinguish himself, docs 
he then cease to command respect. Couv. Nous clevons 

(nous efforcer de faire progres ... ct) prcndrc garde 

que les jeuncs gens n arrivent a nous surpasses Oui sail 

si ils ne parviendront pas a egaler les homm. s de notrc 

temps etc ? A 1 age de etc. s ils ne sont pas encore signales 
par leur vertu etc. 

CHAPTER XXIII. PROMISE WAITING ON 
PERFORMANCE. ? gj g\ Words of judicial 
(or judicious) counsel. C. interprets by JE Q" ;> {jf^ 
Corrective. $g 4n| -^ Can there be a non- 
acceding? ^ Jil |f\ || is the name of the fifth 
trigram, with which wind is associated, hence it is described 
by iQ S ^ A> like the entry of the wind, insinuating, 
indirect ; just as & is gj straight, so || is j$i round 
about. C. says || %^ ftft Bff ^ > Leading 
aright by roundabout, and 4il J5/f ^E [^ ^ There is no 
provocation in them. jfj| ^ refers to Mcncius I. ii, 5, 4, 
as an example of Jg B\ ^ : - ^> S 3C S ^iL> To 
find the end of the thread. /[$j g* says |0 -g. ff ^ ||jj 
Si ^> JSIH S; ffi 0f ff.> To accede to what I say 
and examine the thread in order to find out where its end 
may be, unravel, disentangle. L. Can men refuse to 
assent to strict admonition ? But it is the reforming the 

o 

conduct because of them, which is valuable pleased 

gentle advice ? unfolding their aim, etc. If a man be 

pleased with these words, but etc. and assents to those, but 
etc. I can really do nothing with him. Z. legitimae 
admonitionis sermo at emendari est potius. Blande 

450 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXII, XXIII. 



f& jft f$ ^ ffij 

R R * ft tt ft 

M * IS H HJ 



ed forty or fifty without being heard of, he, 
indeed, is incapable of commanding respect ! " 
CHAPTER XXIIL The Master said: 
" To words of just admonition can anyone 
refuse assent ? But it is amendment that is 
of value. With advice persuasively offered 
can anyone be otherwise- than pleased ? 
But it is the application that is of value. 
Mere interest without application, mere 



IX. XXIII-XXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

compellantis vcrba, at perpcndere etc. K. If you 

speak to a man in the strict words of the law, he will pro 
bably agree with you, change his conduct. If you 

speak to a man in parables, he will probably be pleased 

with your story, ^PP y tne moral to himself. Couv. 

Peut-on fermer Toreille a un avis juste et sincere. Mais 
1 essential c est de se corriger. Un avis donne doucement 
et adroitement etc. ? Mais il faut surtout le mediter. Je 
n ai rien a faire d un homme qui aime les avis etc. 

CHAPTER XXIV. Vide I. viii. 

CHAPTER XXV. THE INVIOLABILITY OF 
THE WILL. Convince a man against his will, He s of 
the same opinion still. For ^ 5| see VII, 10; ^r can*} 
off, rob ; [7C ^ one of the commonalty ; ;g Will, con 
victions. L. The commander of the forces of a large 
State may be carried off, but the will etc. cannot be taken 

from him. Z eripi dux; private cuilibet non potest 

auferri mentis propositum. K. The general of an army 

may be carried off, robbed of his free will. Couv. 

On peut enlever de force general en chef; il est im 
possible d arracher cle force an moindre particulier sa 
determination de pratiquer la vertu. 

CHAPTER XXVI. TZU LU S NOXCHAL- 
ANCE. I. ax verb, Clad in. C. ftt, ^ ^ Worn 
out. jf,"^ ^ ^| liL> Wadded with hemp. A gj is a 
wadded robe, and a hemp wadded robe was # ^ ({^ ^f ^ 
of the commonest kind, while furs of fox and badger were 
& Z u ;/?, of the costlier kind, ft jg ^ fj :]!: ^^ 
He was indifferent both to proverty and wealth. L. 
Dressed himself in a tattered robe quilted with hemp, yet 

452 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXIII-XXV1. 



/v s m 

=?- m en ^ m & ? *n 

& -a #i * B & 

> > -. 

3c m EG H t ^n i M 

o 

t * fc B Jfe -Hi 

o 

lis T^ nr it a 



assent without amendment,- for such men I 
can do nothing whatever." 

CHAPTER XXIV. The Master said: 
u Make conscientiousness and sincerity 
your leading principles. Have no friends 
inferior to yourself. And when in the 
wrong, do not hesitate to amend." 

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said : 
"You may rob a three corps army of its 
commander-in-chief, but you cannot rob 
even a common man of his will." 

CHAPTER XXVI. i. The Master said : 
" Wearing a shabby, hemp-quilted robe, and 
standing by others dressed in fox and 

453 



IX. XXVI, XXVII. THE ANALECTS, 

standing by the side of men dressed in furs, and not 
ashamed : all ! it is Yu who is equal to this ! Z. qui 

indutus laceram cannabinam diploidem, quin erubescat 

etc. K. Dressed in an old shabby suit standing 

among a crowd costly furs without being ashamed. 

Couv. lou est homme a ne pas rougir de se trouver vetu 
d une tunique de toile usee au milieu etc. 

2. This is a quotation from the fr $g I. iii, 8. 
- 13U W -&> Harmful, obnoxious ; jj^ j| ^ self- 
seeking; jf$, H ^ excellent. Jfl = = ^ The * f 
says 3S *? ifc 1S> IS # & *U The strong are ag 
gressive, the weak solicitous. It adds, J^ jjg ^ jjfc J^ 

2.%, m * * *, x m A ^\ ifn dfe 

t * &, fl J ^ <% - m m ^^ I- He dislikes 

none, he covets nothing : what can he do but what is 
good ? Z. Non laedens nee cupidus, ubinam adhibebitur 
quin bonus ? K. Without envy, without greed, What he 
does is good indeed. Couv. Celui qui ne fait tort a 
personne, et n est pas cupide, ne sera-t-il pas bon envers 
tout le mondc ? 

3- H Ef -^y )K % ^ fif $ M^ continually, al 
ways. L. kept continually repeating etc Those 

things are by no means sufficient to constitute perfect 
excellence. Z. toto tempore etc. ; ea virtus qui sufficiet 
ut bonus sis? K. kept repeating etc. That alone is 
not good indeed. Couv. sans cessc etc. Ces deux 
choses, suffjscnt-elles pour etre parfaitement bon? 

CHAPTER XXVII. LOYALTY REVEALED BY 
ADVERSITY.^ J^ aftcr-fadcrs = evergreens, ff ft 
says 3$ f& means ^ ^ C. /J> A ffi fa ffi> 

454 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXVI, XXVII. 



badger, yet in no way abashed, Yu would 
be the one for that, eh ? 2. Unfriendly to 
none, and courting none, what does he do 
not excellent ? 3. As Tzu Lu afterwards 
was perpetually intoning this, the Master 
observed : " How can those two points be 
sufficient for excellence ! " 

CHAPTER XXVII The Master said : 
" Only when the year grows cold do we 

455 



IX XXVI 1, XXVIII, XXIX THE ANALECTS. 

* * ft -f- m -w, ffi K 5pj w* a , $ 

ft -f 2. W\ -$ T T Ji &> In times of peace the /J> 

X niay not differ from the ft ^-^ but \\lun danger and 
trouble arises the virtue of the chun-tzii is revealed. L. 

When the year becomes cold, then ..last to lose their 

leaves. Z. anno frigiscente, tune demum serius 

flaccescere. K. When the cold of winter conies last 

to lose their green. Couv le froid cle 1 hiver 

perdent leurs feuilles apres tous.les autr.es arbres. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE WISE, THE VIRTU 
OUS, THE BRAVE. C. |l)j , & & ft) Jjj!, The 
enlightened are able to illuminate principles. JflK J^. PJ, 
J}f fJU The principles of the virtuous enable them to 
overcome self. SU J5L J^ gfi j|| g|, The brave have 
spirit to enable them to live up to truth and righteousness. 

L. The wise are free from perplexities ; the bold from 

fear. Z. prudens non ambigit, perfectus etc. fortes etc. 
K. Men of intelligence are free from doubts, moral men 
etc., men of courage etc. Couv. Un homme eclaire et 
prudent n hesite pas ; un homme parfait etc., courageux etc. 

CHAPTER XXIX. THEORY, PRACTICE, JUDG 
MENT. The "SJ \l is taken in the sense of may with/ 
not may allow/ which latter might give, You may allow 
some to share in your teaching whom you may not yet 
permit to proceed to etc/ C. pf .g(L ;ft\ yfj jf nj |a 
:lh ffi $fc Jj}.^ Me can associate with the other in doing 
this matter, ft. ^ says nf gj. Jh ^, fa 8i &> & 
, -liL . n understanding the method of study ; TiJ \l jg 
^i> %l\ 0? M liL , in understanding the objective. TiJ 
etc. $J ^5 f^l $1 ITlJ ^ $ $L>. m fi rm anc ^ unwavering 

456 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXVII, XXVIII, XXIX. 



ft A 

7 ^ t T- til 

o 

If ^ 



dfc 



realise that the pine and the cypress are the 
last to fade." 

CHAPTER XXVIII. The Master said : 
"The enlightened are free from doubt, 
the Virtuous from anxiety, and the brave 
from fear." 

CHAPTER XXIX. The Master said: 
" There are some with whom one can asso- 

457 



IX. XXIX. THE ANALECTS. 

resolve, ft $ & ^ ffi & ffl} ^ jffi ft, Q ;$ 
liL^ A weight wherewith to weigh things and know their 
difference. The Han Scholars took $g as rule and fj| 
as exception ; g ^ says f* IS JSl Lc 15 ^ ^ S 
, ft ff " ft tit ft f&> # 41, R 
g^ The Han scholars (deeming the next clause to be 
part of this) considered $j| to mean deciding exceptions to 
the rule, (reversing a rule, $g^ in order to be consistent 
with the right; as in Mencius IV 7 , i, xvii, i); but this is 
not so ; it means merely judging by rule. L. There are 
some with whom we may study in common, but we shall 
find them unable to go along with us to principles. Per 
haps etc. but unable to get established in those along 

with us. Or etc. unable to weigh occurring events along 
with us. Z. datur capacitas simul stuclendi sapientiae, 
quin detur capacitas adcundi pcifcctioncm ; datur etc. 
capacitas persistendi ; datur etc. capacitas res trutinandi. 

K. Some with whom you can share your knowledge 

of facts, but who cannot follow you in arriving at principles. 

Some to particular principles cannot... ...general 

principles. Some etc. but cannot apply the general 
principles under exceptional circumstances. Couv. (On 
doit faire avancer son disciple graduellement) ; a celui a 
qui Ton doit permcttrc sculemcnt d etudier avec le niaitre, 
on ne doit pas encore permettre d cntier dans le voie de la 
vcrtu ; a celui etc. on ne doit [>as encore permettre de s y 
fixer solidement ; a celui etc. on ne doit pas encore per 
mettre de decider si une loi gencrale oljlige on non dans tcl 
cas particulier. 

458 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXIX. 



SI 



j ;3c 5M 



ciate in study, but who are not yet able to 
make common advance towards the Truth : 
there are others who can make common 
advance towards the Truth, but who are not 
yet able to take with you a like firm stand ; 
and there are others with whom you can 
take such a firm stand, but with whom you 
cannot associate in judgment." 

459 



IX. XXX. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXX. THOUGHT ANNIHILATE 
DISTANCE- 1. C. (g ft f ^ jj f& H ij K # 
* W 8 IS # * B& -fll, The Chin ver 
sion has |x gjj so /j should he read as fjj the move: 
ment of flowers. fljj jf f fl/j .{jj, , Tlu- jfij a; e auxiliaries, 
euphonies. This is from one of the gfc fj/p or uncanonieal 
poems. I,. How the flowers of the aspen-plum flutter 
and turn! .Do I not think of you ? ISut your house is 
distant. Z. Sylvestris eeras: flos fluctuans iile nutat ! 
Qui noil tc cogitcm ? Domus at longc distat. K. How 
they are waving, The blossoming myrtles gay, Do I not 
think of you, love? Your home is far away. Couv. Le 
cerisier sauvage lui-meme agite ses fleurs, (comme s il avail 
du sentiment). Comment etc. Mais vous demeurez loin 
d ici. 

2. C. refers to VII. 29 l ^ ^^ L. It. is the 
want of thought about it. How is it distant ? Z. nondum 
rem cogitat seiiicet : eequicl distantia ncgotii foret. 1\. 
That is because men do not think. Why is it far away ? 
Couv. Les hommes ne pensent pas a la vertu. Ontils a 
surmonter la difficulte de la distance ? 



400 



THE ANALECTS. IX. XXX. 



2* Jl rfn 
-ill ffif >P 



PB 

- 



CHAPTER XXX. i. "The blossoms 



on the cherry tree 
Are changing and quivering, 
Can I do aught but think of thee 
In thy far-distant dwelling ? " 
2. The Master said : " He had never 
really bestowed a thought. If he had, what 
distance would have existed ? " 

461 



X. I. TMK ANALECTS. 



VOLUME V. 



BOOK X. 



HSIANG TANG. 

CONCERNING THE SAGE IN I IIS DAILY LIFE. 

CONTENTS. With this book ends the first half 
of the Analects, the J^ gj^ This chapter is valuable for 
the detail it presents of the habits and customs not only of 
Confucius but of the period in which he lived. Even an 
" inspired man " must eat, drink, sleep, and wear clothes, 
and this chapter pictures for us the man perhaps more 
faithfully than any other. Possibly his ceremoniousness is 
exaggerated by the affectionate admiration of the compiler, 
but the Sage, both by nature and training, was undoubted 
ly precise and punctilious, ffi J says ; What the Sage 
calls Tao is not something removed from daily life, there 
fore his disciples carefully observed and recorded his daily 
habits, jpl J says, How great was the disciples love of 
learning ; they even noted the Sage s appearance, speech 
and actions and handed them down so that he stands, as it 
were, before our very eyes. But Dr. Legge remarks, 
" perhaps to Western minds, after being viewed in his bed 
chamber, his undress, and at his meals, he becomes divest 
ed of a good ilcal of his dignity and reputation." The old 
versions did not divide the book into sections, ^ : gj J>L 
- JL 3* ft 3$ -] -fc Sl io Note the frequent use of 
^L ^f- and 3* : f- instead of the usual ^ o 

CHAPTER I. IN VILLAGE AND AT COURT. 
Cf. III. 15- ffi is enclitic, i. C. .[ft )?,], fS ff ffio 

462 



THE ANALECTS. X. I. 

VOLUME V. 
BOOK X. 



to flr 

#n =f- 

ft /j* 

iilt //> 



CHAPTER I. i. Confucius in his native 
village bore himself with simplicity, as if he 
had no gifts of speech. 2. But when in the 

463 



THE ANALECTS. 



\Vith a sincere demeanour. f! etc. ,1 ]3jl , *g. ||[f|\ ^ 
^ K #U ^t A -{-Lc Modest, agreeable, and unpreten 
tious of his character or learning. L. looked simple and 
sincere, and as if he were not able to speak. Z. simplex 
erat, et videbatur non posse loqui. K. in his life at 
home was shy and diffident, as if he were not a good 
speaker. Couv. etait tres simple ; il semblait ne pas savoir 
parler. 

S i$S 3$ $L discriminately. The Temple 
is the place of worship; jjjj J f# , The Court 
is the j y ^ |?f Hi source of law and order. So 
he could not but discriminate clearly, question closely 
and explain to the full, but circumspectly and not at 
random. L. prince s ancestral temple, or in the Court, 
he spoke minutely on every point, but cautiously. Z. 
explicate loquebatur, quamquam cum revcrentia. K. In 

public life he spoke readily, but with deliberation. 

Couv il s cxprimait clairemcnt, mais avec une attention 

respect ueuse. 

CHAPTER II. AT COURT BEFORE THE AU 
DIENCE. i. The Court was that of the Duke of Lu. 
Then, as now, the Audience hour was nominally day-break, 
and these conversations are referred to the period pending 
the Prince s entry. The Imperial Court had three orders 
_t, t\i, and ~]\ A Baron s Court had only two, J^ 
and f The J^ were the jijl|J the noble families, (in Lu 
three in number), together with five ~f ~}^ ^ > amongst 
whom ranked Confucius. C. {} j^} % JSSjlJ If .$l Straight 
out, firm and direct, [j] ["] > f[j ffi [Jjj f j? .]\i affably 
and quietly. L. \Vhen he \\as waiting at Court, in speak- 

464 



THE ANALECTS. X. I, II. 



Temple or. at Court, he expressed himself 
readily and clearly, yet with a measure of 
reserve. 

. *- r . V v " 

CHAPTER II. i. At Court, when con 
versing with Ministers of his own rank, he 

spoke out boldly; when conversing with the 

465 



X. II, III. THK ANALECTS. 

ing with the great officers of the lower grade, lie spoke 

freely, but in a straight-forward manner blandly, but 

precisely. Z. loquens valde firmus affabili erat libertute. 

K. junior officers frankness selfpossession. Couv. 

avec fermete et sans detours affabilite et franchise. 

2- C. 1$ K, ? $C ^ * &, A movement of 
the feet, showing respectful uneasiness. $L J& % J^S, f^ *ft 
3J ; Ifi> Awed to the right degree. L. in his manner 
displayed respectful uneasiness ; it was grave but self- 
possessed. Z anxie venerabundus erat, et cum 

gravi decoro. K. looked diffident, awe-inspired, but 

composed. Couv une crainte respectueuse, une noble 

gravite. 

CHAPTER III. AS ESCORT. The visitor was a 
prince who brought with him nuncios to the full number of 
his rank ; i.e. a duke brought nine ; but a host had 
only half the number of his rank ; i.e. a ducal host 
had five, the head of whom was the _fc. }|[\ the second 
jjt Jg^ and the rest |g Jg iO Along this line of escorts, 
each man thirty-six feet from the other, messages were 
transmitted between guest and host, the guest outside the 
gate and the host standing inside, until the admission of 
the guest. C. ^ m 2. ?f ft ft W ffi L *, 
One sent by a prince to receive visitors; ^jFf^ ^ i JjJ 
change countenance; $$,. M W Sft as ^ bowed, bent; 
i^ SC 3] fa SC l!L all out of respect to his lord s com 
mands. L. When the prince called him to employ him in 
the reception of a visitor, his countenance appeared to 
change, and his legs to move forward with difficulty. Z. 
hospites excipere, color mutari videbatur, pedesque 

466 



THE ANALECi S. X. II, III. 



tii =a J* m* 

& m a #: i 

a g in % .1 

in fe til fft 1 



higher Ministers he spoke respectfully; 
2. but when the Prince was present, his 
movements were nervous, though self- 
possessed. 

CHAPTER III. i. When the Prince 
summoned him to receive a visitor, his 

expression seemed to change, and his legs 

467 



X. II F, IV. THE ANALECTS. 

erant veluti impediti. K. When to see a visitor out, 

he would start up with attention. Couv. 1 avi do son 
visage semblait change ct sa demarche embarrassee. 

2. It is difficult to decide whether Confucius was acting 
as middle nuncio ^^ or as doyen J^ See Legge s note 
hereon. C. 0f &l ^ f>fi IP] $ g[ tf -&, His co- 
nuncios. Jif. S: A B J Si 3t T- etc - When bowing to 
those on the left he left-handed his bow, etc. |Q % ^ jjj 
Straight. I.. He inclined himself to the 6V/^v officers 
among whom he stood, moving his left or right arm etc. 
but keeping the skirt of his robe before and behind evenly 
adjusted. Z. Obsalutans quibuscum stabat, sinistrabat 
dextrabatne manus, etc. K. make obeisance to receive the 
command ; then bowing right and left to officers in atten 
dance and adjusting etc. Couv. Pour saluer les hotes a 

leur arrivee, il joignait les mains, tournait seulcnicnt les 

mains jointes a droite etc. (vers les hotes ) etc. 

3. L. hastened forward, with his arms like the wings of 
a bird. Z. citato gradu introducebat, alas pandentis instar. 
K. he would quicken his step, or walk out, not stiffly, but 
with dignity and ease. Couv. Kn introduisant les hotes, il 
marchait comme les ailes d un oiseau. 

4- fli $$ Returned his commission. C. |-J ~J\ ^ ]\L 
To release the Prince from his attitude of respect. L. Tho 
visitor not turning round any more. 

CHAPTER IV. - HIS BEARING AT AN AU- 
DIKNCK. i. C. $3 /$, [{[] ,& To stoop, bow. 
& P r J, iff ^^ rfli ^ : * &.1&2.3. & His action 
in so high a gate was the acme of respect. L. bend his 
body, as if it were not sufficient to admit him. Z. inclinato 

468 



THE ANAUCCTS. X. Ill, IV. 



tli A" It K ill ff = 

> o 

-*ii & * il S 3 ffr 

* H W # 3l it m 



W ii ^ 






o 



B -tH *n 



as it were bent under him. 2. As he saluted 
those who stood with him, on the right hand 
or the left as occasion required, his robe in 
front and behind hung straight and undis 
turbed ; 3. and, as he hastened forward, it 
was as if with outstretched wings. 4. When 
the visitor had departed he always reported, 
saying, " The Guest is p_p longer looking 
back." 

CHAPTER IV. i. On entering the pal 
ace gate he appeared to stoop, as though 
the gate were not high enough to admit him. 
2. He never stood in the middle of the gate- 

469 



X. IV. Till-: AN.M.KCTS. 

corpore. K. In entering the rooms of the palace, bend 

low his body at the door etc. Couv se courbait 

trop basse pour le laisser passer. The Imperial palace had 
5 courts \vith 5 gates, a Prince s had 3 courts and gates, 
MU ^ and KK the & [j was the J [J , 

2. c. * i"j, rf, K n -&, ni i s m 2. ra , s 

Hi A ^ J^ -tiLo i- c - i" tnc cen tre between the side post 
and the central post, this being the Prince s privilege. The 
rule was that officers should keep to the right of the central 
post but not tread on the threshholcl. I >. When stand 
ing, not occupy the etc., when he passed in and out, 

threshhold. Z. stans non tenebat medium portae, 

incedens etc. K. In the room he would never stand right 
before the door, nor in entering etc. Couv. Au milieu de 
1 entrec ; en rnarchant, il evitait seuil. 

3. c. (ft, % %,& &, m p j & z. m* A & 

^ jt , $iL^ ^ nc unoccupied place (or throne) of the 
prince, i.e. a place between the door and the screen where 
the prince stood to receive homage on his way to the dais, 
and which Confucius had to pass on his \vay to the Throne 
room. (There is nothing in the text -itself to justify this 
interpretation though probably it is the correct one.) L. 

the vacant place of the prince and his words came as if 

he had hardly breath to utter them. Z. regiam sedem, 

etc. K. passing into the Presence Chamber speak only 

in whispers. Couv. du siege du prince. 

4. C. The rule for ascending the dais was to hold up 
the skirt a foot high with both hands ^ {{$ ;. jjjj ftfi 
!&\ ^ & -& for fear of tripping and losing face. L. He 
ascended the reception hall etc. holding in his breath also 

470 



THE ANALECTS. X. IV. 



ft D ft ff 
I? til UJ # 



til If "B -tH Rl 

% o 

way, nor in going through did he step on 
the sill. 3. As he passed the Throne he 
wore a constrained expression, his legs ap 
peared to bend, and words seemed to fail 
him. 4. As he ascended the Audience Hall, 

holding up his skirt, he appeared to stoop, 

47 



X. IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

etc. Z ascendebat aulum, quasi non rcspirer. K. 

the steps leading to the throne afi aid to breathe. Couv. 

a la salle ne pouvait plus rcspirer. 

5. C, The $ here is believed to be a gloss. % ^ \ft 
& %i A step. J % ft liL Relax <|fi in\ 3=11 tt & 
Tranquil and pleased. E. When he came out etc. relax his 

countenance and had a satisfied look arms like wings, 

still showed respectful uneasiness. Z. Egressu-, 

laetoque fiebat ore; venerabundus erat. K. relax his 

countenance and assume his ordinary look walk with 

ease and dignity to resume his place among the courtiers, 
looking diffident, with awe and attention. Couv. En sort- 
ant, son air accoutume ; il paraissait altable et joyeux 

une crainte respectueuse. 

CHAPTER V.-AS ENVOY. The was a jade 
sceptre or mace, possibly a link with the Stone Age. 
C. says there is no evidence that Confucius ever acted in 
this capacity, which was a noble s duty, and that this 
clause is a summary of his teaching on the matter. i. C. 

Jlfj |3 A baron s emblem of authority carried by a minis 
ter when acting as envoy to a neighbouring State. [ etc. 
on a level with the heart. #|j >fj" ||ff etc,, gf\ %J ^ $(| 
illK ill i|8 f $}* Without . lifting his feet, as if something 
were attached to them. E. When he was carrying the 

scptre not able to bear its weight. He did not hold it 

higher than the position of the hands in making a bow, etc. 

His countenance look apprehensive, and he dragged 

his feet along held by something to the ground. Z. 

Tenens sceptrum etc. mutabat quasi praelians colorem, 

4/2 



THE ANALECTS. X. IV, V. 





$r -Hi 



m m . m ^ - n 
m m n t\\ ^ ^ 



in 5n ^ ^n -tii ?! ,i 
Jl til to -di S M ^ 

. ; 

and he held his breath as if he dare not 
breathe. 5. On coming forth from his 
Audience, after descending the first step his 
expression relaxed into one of relief; at the 
bottom of the steps he hastened forward as 
with outstretched wings, and on regaining 
his place he maintained an attitude of ner 
vous respect. 

CHAPTER V. i. He carried the ducal 
mace with bent back, as if unequal to its 
weight, neither higher than when making a 

473 



THE ANALECTS. 

pedesquc vix attolebat quasi habcret impcdimentum. K. 
When he had to carry the sceptre etc. not higher than his 

forehead or lower than his chest, slow, measured steps. 

Couv. la tablette comme s il avait salue (c-a-d. a la 

hauteur dc la tete), 1 air d un homme qui tremble de 

peur. II Icvait a peine les pieds , comnic s il avait 

cherche a suivre les trace de quelqu un. 

2. C. :$ JR <& To offer. # fi, Jil -]\l Tranquil. 
L. a placid appearance. Z. comcm vultum. K. At a 
public reception in the foreign courts etc. he behaved with 
great dignity. Couv un air affable et joyeux. 

.3- C. ft lt> H J X ? & Increased serenity. L. 
highly pleased. Z, laetabundus erat. K. genial and en 
gaging in his manners. Couv. encore plus affiiblc. 
" CHAPTKR VI HIS DRESS. i. C. takes ft -^ 
to ir.ean Confucius, but here again it has been suggested 
that 3J ^f means : The princely man does not etc., and 
that we have here a summary of Confucius teaching 
rather than his o\vn action. ~||\ f ]1j- -fg fjj; ^^ ^f 
)j|i l\L A dark blue blended with carnation ; the colour ot 
fasting garments ; $1^ * -IJI* a lighter purple, the third 
year s mourning colour, frft^ {jfj ^ lll> . The facings or 

borders of the collar. I,. I he superior man .a deep 

purple or a puce colour, in the ornaments of his dress. Z. 

sapiens noster violaceum colossinumque limbum. K. 

A gentleman j-liould never permit anything crimson or 

scarlet etc. Couv. Ce grand sage rouge tirant sur le 

bleu rouge tirant sur le noir. 

2. C. If. and ^ are ||S] & , ^ .1H intermediate, not 
primary colours ;i.e. ^ J^ 7/f> ^ f.l) ; moreover j JJ 

474 



THE ANALECTS. X. V, VI. 



*P - */r ff ft T 

IT ^ ffi ;r JE, *P 



it 



a f *n to in 
ft . IR m ft W tt 

o o 

bow, nor lower than when offering a gift: 
his expression, too, was perturbed and anxi 
ous, and he dragged his feet as if something 
were trailing behind. 2. While offering the 
presents (with which he was commissioned) 
he wore an easy look ; 3. and at the sub 
sequent private audience he bore himself 
with amiability. 

CHAPTER VI. i. He did not wear 
facings of purple or mauve, 2. nor even in 

475 



X. VI. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

M A It T- m -l!L too feminine. TR )j|^ ^ ft jjft 

mufti. L. Even in his undress red or reddish colours. 

Z. rubro et purpureo colore ordinariis vcstibus. K. 

underclothing red or reddish. Couv. vetcments or- 

dinaires rouge tirant sur le bleu, violette. 

3- C. *, S & Unlinxl. j ftj #, p , 
H :??> M $&: l "i"c loose woven diner,) was called 
S, coarser ^ # jfif }[} ^ g f , ^ ^ g ^^ ^ 

S IS BB Hi ^ K v ^f> Over his inner garment he wore 

as an outer garment etc. L. single garment either of 

coarse or fine texture displayed over an inner garment. 

Z. exteriorem, et supcrinducere illam. K. gauze or grass- 
cloth something underneath worn next to the skin. 

Couv. Sous une tunique de chanvre d un tissu pen serre. 

4. Black for Court dress, white for embassies, yellow for 
certain sacrifices. C. $g % m ^^ ^ j^ )\) ^ ^ fc o 
Black, and the lambskin was also black. C. says the $ 
^ was white. L. Over lamb s fur he wore a garment of 
black etc. Z. Nigra vestri agnina pelle subsuta erat, etc. 
K. line a black suit with lambskin etc. Couv. unelunicjue 
noire sur une tunicjue doublee de etc. 

5- C. j, ^ ;]\ ffi, ffifc fa, W\ &. f ft >|K 
Long for warmth, with u short right sleeve for convenience 
in working. L. The fur robe of his undress was long, 
with etc. short. Z. contracta dextera manica. K. a little 
short. Couv. plus courte que la gauche. 

6. This sleeping dress is said to be one used during 
fasting, and the clause is supposed to have got here by 
mistake instead of after the first clause in Ch ipter VII. 
The length and a half was in order to |g j cover the 

476 



THE ANALECTS. 



X. vi. 



>&* 



m 



it m 



undress did he use red or crimson. 3. In 
the hot weather he wore an unlined gown of 
fine or loose-woven material, but always 
outside and over another. 4. With a black 

robe he wore black lambskin, with a light 

^ 
robe fawn, and with a yellow robe fox. 

5. His undress fur gown was long, with the 
right sleeve cut short. 6. He always had 

477 



X. VI. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

fc:t. L. lie required bis sleeping dress etc. Z. and 

Couv. put it with Cap. 7. K. change of nightdress as 

long again as the trunk of his body. 

/ C. ^A //} At h >ir,e. L. \\ hen staying at home 
ete. Z. domi. K. When at home in winter. Couv. a la 
maison. 

s. c. M /& Hi * -- &. nm z t& ft ft n 

-{l|, Did not unnecessarily reject ornaments and also wore 
all the usual girdle appendages, bodkin, sharpener, etc. 

L. put off mourning all the appendages of the girdle. 

Z. nihil quod omitteret zonae suspendere. K, any orna 
ments or appendages on the girdle etc. Couv. divers 
objets suspendus a la ceinture. 

9. The Court or curtain skirt was as wide at the top as 

the bottom. L. His undergarment, except required 

curtain shape, was made of silk cut narrow above and 

wide below. Z. Nisi esset sinuosus limus, utique suturis 

distinguebatur. K. His undergarment, except worn 

as an apron (Like the Free Masons now) on State oc 
casions, cut pointed on the upper part. Couv 

moins large a la ceinture q Va etc. 

10. c. $ --|: -$-, v/ :4: :, MJ ^ HR, 19? ^ 

& ^E > Mourning colour was a natural undyed colour, 
festi\ r e was black, etc. L. lie did not wear etc. on a visit 
of condolence. Z. ad lugubre officium. K. on a visit 
etc. dark blue hat. Couv. Tleurer les niorts. 

II- Vl JJ> JJ ^J, The first of the month : said to 
refer to when he was in office in Lu. L. On the first etc. 
he put on etc. Z. Nova luna omnino etc. K. On the first 
ete. be should always put on bis full uniform when he goes 

478 



THE ANALECTS. X. VI. 



& $3 & n 

$ * $ * 

m pa m 

ffij ^ 



O O O O 



his sleeping garment made half as long 
again as his body. 7. He had thick fox or 
badger for home wear. 8. When out of 
mourning he omitted none of the usual 
ornaments. 9 His skirts, all save his Court 
skirt, he always shaped toward the waist. 
10. He did not pay visits of condolence in 
dark lamb s fur or a dark hat. u. At the 
new moon he always put on his Court robes 
and presented himself at Court. 

479 



X. VI, VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

to Court. Couv. Le premier jour etc. il no manquait 

CiC. 

CHAPTER VII. WHKN FASTING. Cf. Mt. VI. 
16-18. The sixtli clause of the last chapter is said to 
belong to the end of this clause. ,J>? idem jfjlf^ C Jf ^ 
i* JS> ft* j> HI ^? IjJJ #U Bathing preceded fasting, 
and after the bath clean clothes were put on. L. he 
thought it necessary to have his clothes brightly clean and 

made etc. Z. omnino nitida veste, ex tela. K. when 

he fasts and gives himself up to prayer, he should 

bright clean suit of plain cloth. Couv. une tunique de 
toile reservee pour les jours de purification. 

2. C. Abstained from wine and meat, (or strongly 

flavoured edibles). ^ i }g\ ^ J// < Q L to 

change his food, place where he commonly sat etc. 

Z. mutabat victum, sedem. K. should always change 

the ordinary articles of food, and move out of his usual 
sitting room. Couv. II changeait de nourriture et d ap- 
partement. 

CHAPTER VIII. HIS FOOD. i. C. ^ fg ,& 
Cooked rice; $ ,[,% fg ,\\i milled white. ^ //|J^ -f J^ 
S 3$ 3^ ft iil" ^ SI ill S No dislike to means 
he counted it best so, but did not demand it. L. did not 

dislike rice finely cleaned, ...minced meat cut quite 

small. Z. Oryzam non respuebat numdatam, minutalia 

minutissime. K. rice finely cleaned meat, when stew 
ed, cut in small pieces. Couv. que sa bouiliie fut faire 

d un riz tres pur, et son hachis tres fin. 

2- C. fri\ f)i f|J ^ ttt -III, Affected by heat and 
damp. @}^ ufc $ & turning bad. Jft flj \ : \ fg^ ^| 

480 



THE ANALECTS. X. VII, VIII. 

A -b 



M Jit 



CHAPTER VII. i. When fasting he 
always wore a spotless suit of linen cloth. 
2. When fasting, too, he always altered his 
diet, and in his dwelling always changed his 
seat. 

CHAPTER VIII. i. He had no objec 
tion to his rice being of the finest, nor to 
having his meat finely minced. 2. Rice 
affected by the weather, or turned, he would 
not eat, nor fish that was unsound, nor flesh 

4 8. 



X. VIII. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

.$ H Bfc, Decaying, putrid, ft, jjjg /]: JJ g? K 
Under or overcooked, ;?< [j.^ 3 f ^ f#, -3R ft * 
tf& ^ So Immature. L. injured by heat and damp 

and turned sour, nor fish or flesh gone. He did not 

eat what was discoloured, bad flavour, ill-cooked, 

not in season. Z. Oryzam mucidam etc. pisccm put- 

rescentem etc. vitiosc preparata etc. nondum matura non 

edebat. K. unwholesome colour flavour; spoilt in 

cooking out of its season. Couv un mets qui 

n etait pas cuit convenablement, ni un fruit pas assez 

mur. 

3- L meat not cut properly without its 

proper sauce. Z non instructa suo cmbammate etc. 

K. not properly cut proper sauces. Couv. coupe 

d une maniere reguliere pas etc assaisonne avec la 

sauce convenable. 

4. Note IX. 15. C. ^ a SJ ^ , & ^ ffi ft 
ffi HZ M* Grain being man s staple food etc j g J^ ^ 

A ^ , & * fi M, {a Ja * fi t&\ BB ^ & 

$L 5 o Wine is for man s exhilaration so he did not stint 
it, barring only intoxication and confusion. L. Though 

o 

there might be a large quantity of meat, not allow 

exceed the due proportion of the rice laid down no 

limit for himself, not confused by it. Z ut 

excedcrent oryzae succuin ; quin deviniret ad turba- 

tionem. K exceed a due proportion to the rice he 

took limit, excess. Couv pas plus de viande 

que de nourriture vegetale pas determinee jusqu a 

lui troubler la raison. 

5- C. 3g -^ jf,5 ?JB, & ^ A <&, Lest they should 

482 



THE ANALECTS. X. VIII. 



B, tt . . 3v *. * fc ; ft 

o > 

a&ft *3* 3 ; i$& ft .ii!i 



ffi 



that was gone. Neither would he eat any 
thing discoloured, nor that smelt, nor that 
was under or over-cooked, or not in season. 
3. He would not eat anything improperly 
cut, nor anything served without its proper 
seasoning. 4. However much meat there 
might be he did not allow what he took to 
exceed the flavour of the rice ; only in wine 
he had no set limit, short of mental con 
fusion. 5. Bought wine or dried meat from 

483 



X. VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

not be good in quality or clean, and perhaps harmful. L. 

wine and dried meat bought in the market. A. mer- 

catum vinum etc. K. bought where exposed for sale. 

Couv. qui cussent etc achetees. 

6. Or, Did not reject ginger when eating ; from which, 
and other evidence in this chapter, it might be inferred that 
he had a student s indifferent digestion. C. 1 J )f,i|i flJJ ^ 
^ HI Mo Ginger brightens the spirits and purges away 
unpleasant secretions. L. He was never without ginger 
when he ate. Z. Non abstruebat gingiberis esu. K. He 
would always have ginger served on the table. Couv. 
similar. 

/. C. jg pj fin jl^ & jj fo ,tjj^ Stopping at the 
right point, and without gluttony. L. He did not eat 
much. Z. Hand nimius comedebet. K. never ate much 
Couv. pas avec exces. 

s. cf. cap. xin. c. jj$ & &> m i$ ;r^ m 

ffl ffi JISo When assisting etc. on returning home he 
promptly shared his allowance of flesh with others, sfi (^ 
I? tit :#> <& fif # ; &<3 Ify not keeping it over 
night he did not delay the favour of the gods. After three 
days the meat would go bad vfc J[ jfjj J^ ^ f //^ 
& fi & fl 1 , fij; ^. ^d men would refuse to cut 
it, which would be a .-light O n what- the gculs had left over. 
(Cf. The Ritualist s postcucharislic solicitude). L. When 

a t the Prince s sacrifice, he did not keep etc. overnight. 

If kept over three days, people could nut cat it. Z 

nee per noctem servabat carnes ; excessissent tres dies, 

nemo comederet eas. K. After a public sacrifice etc 

if kept over three days he would not allow it to be eaten 

484 



THE ANALECTS. X. VIII. 



0. 
ffl 

B 



the market he would not eat. 6. He was 
never without ginger at his meals ; 7. but 
he was not a great eater. 8. After the 
sacrifices in the ducal temple he never kept 
his share of the flesh overnight, nor the flesh 
of his ancestral sacrifices more than three 

days, lest after three days it might not be 

485- 



X. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

Couv une oblation dans Ic palais offerte a ses 

parents defunts. Au-dela de trois jours, il ne 1 aurait pas 
niangee. 

9- C. 4g < ft fs g H If, To narrate in 
reply is Iff; to talk spontaneously is ff\ ? j > ife 
A ft & * fi!i> IS ft JH ft, & S! M $?, He kept 
his mind single ; when eating was in order, he ate, when 
sleeping he slept. Another far-fetched reason approvingly 
quoted is that the lungs are the lord of the breath, whence 
also the voice proceeds, sleeping and eating block the 
passage and talking might be injurious : L. When eating, 
he did not converse. When in bed he did not speak. Z. 

Comcclens non confabulating loquebatur. K. would 

not speak, talk. Couv ne discutait aucune discus 
sion. 

10. The JfJx is read as if & but the oldest commentator 
JL 3c SI makes the stop after JR. and not after 1^ C. 

A fK ft, n m & m & , n s na z 

W, & & ft ft ^ S tfc ft ^ A> ^ S * dio 

The ancients placed a little of each dish between the other 
dishes, in sacrifice to the inventor of cooked food, so that 
he might not be forgotten, ft^ jfg $jr f , l j L> Grave, 
solemn. L. Although etc. coarse rice and vegetable soup, 

grave, respectful air. Z. omnino litabat, et certe cum 

reverentia. K. plainest fare \vould always say grace 

before he ate. Couv. ne manquait pas d offrir quelque 

chose a ses parents defunts, respect. 

CHAPTER IX. STRAIGHT EVEN WITH HIS 
MAT.-C. ffi K S A * % K JE> & ft fi 
. ^ JE 3** $ /h ^f> ^3 His mind found no rest 

486 



THE ANALECTS. X. VIII, IX. 



o > 

J-Tl /J\ t3 ^C 

o o 



eaten. 9. He did not converse while 
eating, nor talk when in bed. 10. Though 
his food were only coarse rice and vegetable 
broth he invariably offered a little in sacrifice, 
and always with solemnity. 

CHAPTER IX. He would not sit on 

his mat unless it were straight. 

487 



X. IX, X. THK ANAI.KCTS. 

away from rectitude etc. L. If liis mat was not straight, 
he did not sit on it. Z. Storea non recta, non sedebat. 

K properly and squarely laid etc. Couv. II nc s as- 

seyait pas pas placee scion les regies. 

CHAPTER X. RESPECT FOR ELDERS, AND 
SPIRITS. i. C. a #, A *., A" + tt K 
$$ The ciders, who became so at sixty. ^ \\\ ^ 
t ^t> fi [ft ^P 3ft HL 1)id not presume to precede 
them, nor to delay afterwards. L. When the villagers 
were drinking together, on those who carried staffs going 

out, he went out immediately after. Z convivabantur, 

scipione utentibus egressis, tune etc. K. public din 
ner as soon as the old people left. Couv. Quand 

reunion avaient bu ensemble, apres les vieillards a 

baton etc. 

2. There were three $f in a year in the 3, 8, and 12 
moons, of which the first was the nobles , the second the 
Emperor s, and the third universal. The ceremony at the 
popular one was a kind of " mumming," distantly related 
to that which was common until a few years ago in the 
north of England at the New Year. The Chinese modern 
form of the winter f| is the Feast of Lanterns, now held 
in the first moon. The ancient, like the modern, was for 
the expulsion of demons. Although a -f jjjj it was ac 
companied with much buffoonery and uproar JjJJ: - jjj3 
M ffi K JffiJb Yet Confucius ^ & ^ JJ jjjj |gf ^ 
felt it his duty to receive it on to his promises in full style 
and with all respect, as the people receive and worship 
the Dragon nowadays at the Feast of Lanterns. Another 
view C. quotes approvingly is, that he did so lest his lares 

488 



THE ANALECTS, X. X- 



A 



CHAPTER X. i. When his fellow vil 



lagers had a feast he only left after the elders 



had departed. 2. When his fellow villagers 



489 



X. X, XI. THE ANAIF.CTS. 

ct pcnatcs should be alarmed * Ji; jj* ^ jjj]]_ 7, jjjji ; 
jjilj^ and to induce them $; jl: f/c jj, [ft] ^ |llU to 
trust in him and be at ease. The [JJ- [^f\ were the jj? 
[^ but whether of his house or ancestral temple is disput 
ed. L. When the villagers were going through their 

ceremonies to etc eastern steps. /. Vicanis con- 

civibus supplicationem habcntibus etc. K Purification 

Festival, when the procession.. ...passed his house, 

he standing on the left hand side of his house. (Mr. 

Ku adds a note " In old China and in most Eastern coun 
tries, sanitation forms a part of religion, not enforced by 
police or gens d armes," which probably accounts for the 

prevailing balminess of the atmosphere!) Couv 

supplications pour ecarter les maladies pestilentielles etc. 
CHAPTER XL ETIQUETTE AND MEDICINE. - 

i. c. n m f %\ iii m & z m -&> showed 

as much respect as if seeing his friend and not merely his 

messenger. L. When etc. Z iterate salutabat tum- 

quc dcducabat missum. K. enquiring after the health of 
a friend etc. make obeisance twice and see him to the door. 
Couv. puis il conduisait I envo} e jusqu a la porte. 

^ )& -f , see II, 20. C. -^ K P, )L m ft 
& ft &> /r ,. ^i- s custom was to acknowledge edible 
[)resents by tasting them immediately on their arrival, see 
13 ; and that seems to be the key to this. L. I do not 
kn<Av it, I dare not taste it. /. ego K ieou nondum 
sco, non audeo degustare. K. Tell } r our Master I 
do not know 7 the nature of the drugs, therefore I shall be 
afraid to use it. Couv. Je ne connais pas ce remcdc ; je 
n oserai pas le prendre. 

49 



THE ANALECTS. X. X, XI. 

+ 



B9 A 



ffi) fife ffi 



1: 



held a procession to expel the pestilential 
influences, he put on his Court robes and 
stood on the eastern steps. 

CHAPTER XL i. When sending com 
plimentary enquiries to anyone in another 
State, he bowed twice as he escorted his 
messenger forth. 2. On K ang Tzu sending 
him a present of medicine he bowed and 
accepted it, but said : " As I am not well 
acquainted with it I do not dare to taste it." 

491 



X. XII, XIII. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

CHAPTER XII. HOW MUCH MORE IS A MAN 
THAN SWINE, OR HORSES ! Cf. Matt. VIII. 
28-32. The )l% may have been the ducal stable which is 
said to have had accommodation for 216 horses. C. ^[a 
^ E JJ> ^ ot because he hid no sympathy for horses, 
but human beings were more important, -j j; \ jjj* Jf{ Jjg 
m" ill jlfc.3 ^ is n^ ht that man should be valued above 
horses. L. When he was at Court, on his return he said, 
Has any man been hurt ? etc. Z. idem. K. as he was 
returning from etc. he heard... -...on fire etc. Couv. a son 
retour clu palais, dit, Pcnonne n a-t-il etc attcint pir le feu ? 
etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. HIS ATTITUDE TO HIS 
PRINCE.- It was and is the custom to share sacrificial flesh 
with others, the partakers thereby sharing the food of the 

"gods." C. ^ ss & $ fjt, ffc ^ a 2ij\ JE ft 

$t ft\ iU fj- ?.V -HL, Lest it had already been offered 
he did not present it (to his ancestors), but straightened his 
mat etc. as if he were facing the Prince. f| Jfc L^ j||j 
n ffi" J^Jl ffi JIS ^, i.e. first tasted it and then shared it 
out to others, /j^ /[: |^.j > Uncooked. ^ j/jj fV ^ 
II *?> 5c ^.V )!^} -tlLc Cooked and offered it to his an 
cestors, to honour the Prince s present. : ,f, : , ^> A 
ft 2, M^ $& {& ~4* % t # -ll o Showed kindness to 
the 1 rincc s favour, not darirg to kill it without cause. 

E. When the Prince sent him cooked meat, first 

taste it and then give it ir^ay to others .undressed 

meat, offer it to the spirits of Jiis ancestors. When etc. 

/ priu.sque iilud degustabnt : litarc majores : 

alebat illud. K. taste it before he allowed others to taste 



492 



THE ANALECTS. X. XII, XIII. 



m 



ft f JB A 

\ft Z & 



m 



z m IE 



o 

CHAPTER XII When his stable was 
burnt down, on coming forth from the Au 
dience he asked, "Is anyone hurt?" He 
did not ask about the horses. 

CHAPTER XIII- -i. When the Prince 
sent him a present of food, he always adjust 
ed his mat and first tasted it himself; but if 
the Prince s present were fresh meat, he 
always had it cooked, and set it before his 

493 



X. XIII. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

it offer it first in sacrifice before his ancestors etc. 

Couv. il le goutait sur une natte convenablement disposee 

(sans I offrir aux defunts) 1 offrait aux defunts le 

nourrissait. 

2. C. According to the JJ] ifi the King had one 
great daily dinner, whereat the chief cook handed him the 
articles for sacrifice, and also tasted every dish before the 
King partook. I lost and guests were accustomed to join 
in the sacrifice ; Confucius however refused to consider 
hiirsdf as a guest, but merely as a subordinate. L. in 
attendance on the Prince and joining in the entertainment, 
the Prince only sacrificed. 1 le first tasted everything. 
Z. Si assidens etc. principe litante, ipse ante gustabat. 
K. after the prince had said grace he would first taste 
the dishes. Couv. an moment ou celui-ci offrait des mets 
au defunts, Confucius goutait les mets, (par un sentiment 
de modest ie etc.). 

3- C. jft -ft JL^. 51* & M, Olo He laid his head 
to the east to obtain the life-giving influences, (said to be 
the proper position of a sick person, but one would think 
he did so to face the Prince seated on the north). L. 
When he was ill and the Prince came to visit him, he had 
his head to the east, made his court robes etc. Z. 
Aegrotans, si princeps etc. oriente obvertebat caput etc. 
K. lie with his head to the east etc. Couv. Quand etc. 

annonc.ait sa visite, vers I orient, (apres avoir fait mettre 

son lit aupres de la fenetre (]ui regardait le midi) ; etc. 

4- c. ftffiKfo ft II 1 , ifri M J|t m , i" 

haste, his carriage following after. L. When the Prince s 
order called him, without waiting etc. he went at once 



494 



THE ANALECTS. X. XIH. 



J> 

o 



ancestors. Were the Prince s present living 
he always kept it alive. 2. When in attend 
ance on the Prince at a State dinner, while 
the Prince sacrificed he (acted the subor 
dinate part of) first tasting the dishes. 
3. When he was ill and the Prince came to 
see him, he had his head laid to the east, 
and his Court robes thrown over him, with 

495 



X. XIII, XIV, XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

Z. Non cxpcctato curru ibat. K. immediately go on 
foot without waiting etc. Couv. il s y rcndait a pied, 
sans attendrc quc sa voiture fut attclee. 

CHAPTER XIV. IN THE TEMPEE. Cf. III. 15: 
X. i. 

CHAPTER XV. TOWARDS HIS FRIENDS. 
I. Or, With me is his cncoffinment. C. jjj] j^ g| 
-fK 5E tf $t fcjK ^ ffi ^ %i Friendship is for 
mutual aid, so when one dies without means to bury him, 
his interment becomes a duty. gjf is taken as f^ N no 
relatives to rely upon. L. When any of etc., if he had 
no relations who could be expended on for the necessary 
offices,... ... I will bury him. 7,. si 11011 esset ad quam 

confugeretur, in me sit funeris cura. K. no one to 

perform the last offices Leave it to me. I ivill bury 

him. Couv. A la niort etc. s il n y avait aucun parent 
pour prendre charge des func rallies,... ...Je me charge cles 

obseques. 

2. C. C ;tt II ^ [Pj n lL m, He bowed, re 
specting his friend s ancestors as if they were his own. 
L. carriages and horses, he did not bow. The only 
present for which etc. flesh of sacrifice. Z. currus et 
equi, si non erant litatac carnes, non reeldebat prostra- 
tionem. K. carriages and horses etc. The only present 
which he received \\itli an obeisance etc. Couv. et des 

chevaux, il ne faisait [>as de salutation, a moins quo ce 

ne fut dc la viande etc. 

CIIAITI-:K xvi. IN HKD AND r:ESEWHr:RE. 

c - J\ .i fi fig i^A \tt ^ A lllo I >yi"g like some 
one dead. W, Jg %, ${, ft ^ At home; form- 

496 



THE ANALECTS. X. XIII, XIV, XV, XVI. 



n- A ff 



his sash drawn across. 4. When his Prince 
commanded his presence, he did not wait 
while his carriage was being yoked, but 
started on foot. 

CHAPTER XIV. On entering the Im 
perial Ancestral Temple, he asked about 
every detail. 

CHAPTER XV. i. When a friend died, 
with no one to fall back upon, he would say, 
" I will see to his funeral." 2. On receiving 
a present from a friend, unless it were sacrifi 
cial flesh, he never made obeisance, not even 
if it w r ere a carriage and horses. 

CHAPTER XVI. I. In bed he did not 



497 



X. XVI. . THE ANALECTS. 

ality. ffi *^R^B, 8H iff ft 3t- P9 

95 B5 efl> * &* Ht If o Kven physically he would not 
be remiss, for, though he spread out his limbs, it was never 
in uncontrolled fashion. I did not put on any form 
al deportment. Z. dormi non adducebat vultum. K. 
straight on his back like etc. never use formality. Couv. 

il ne s etendait pas comnie etc. ......son maintien 

n avait rien de trop grave. 

2. Cf. IX, 9. C, }lp> 8| j * iH<r\ An old and 
near friend. fji^ $E jjl^ See in private. f^ fft 1 jjg 
ffj^ Respect. L. in a morning dress, an acquaint 
ance, change countenance; cap of full dress etc. 

though he might be in undress,... ...salute them in a cere 
monious manner. Z licet familiaritate conjunct- 
urn, . ...licet privato loco, profecto adhibebat honorem. 

K familiar acquaintance look grave and serious 

himself might be in undress with ceremony and 

punctiliousness. Couv fut-ce un . ami intime, il 

prenait un air de compassion aveugle, meme en particu- 

lier, une marque de respect. 

3. c. 5t, jji Hu ffi *> # jfr jw m m M 

; The ^ was the crossbar (armrest") in the carriage, 
whereon to bow the head to shew respect when called for. 
(As in sedan chairs today). Jj& JK }g ?|5 [$ M IS ^?o 
The )K shewed the census of the counln\ /^ 4 If^ , i!j $fj) 
M M 3E ft fjTf ^ -til. Hie people are the 
soul of creation, whom kings look up to as to heaven. 
According to the |5] jf$ \vhen the census was presented 
to the king he made obeisance in receiving it. ill: ~p ;Jf 
ift ^P C -?o ^- bowed forward to the crossbar etc. 

498 



THE ANALECTS. X. XVI. 



IE 



lie like a corpse. At home he wore no 
formal air. 2 Whenever he saw anyone in 
mourning, even though it were an intimate 
acquaintance, his expression always changed, 
and when he saw anyone in a cap of state, 
or a blind man, even though not in public, 
he always showed respect. 3. On meeting- 
anyone in deep mourning, he would bow to 
the crossbar of his carriage, as he did 

499 



X. XVI, XVII. Till.: ANALECTS. 

...... tables of population. V.. seque inclinabat portanti 

census tabulas. K. his head forward out of the carriage, 
to bow ...... procession carrying the mortality retu-ns of 

the population. Couv. il mettait-les mains sur lappui de 
la voiture, et saluait par une inclination de la tcte ...... les 

tablettes du cens etc. 

4- c. gjt ^ A gjK ft & jc m .&:> Out of 

respect to his host s courtesy, not for the sake of the 
abundance. L. at an enteitainmcnt ...... abundance of 

provisions set before him, ...... change countenance and rise 

up. Z. opiparum convivium. profecto mutabat vultum 
et assurgebat. K. whenever a dish en grand tcnuc was 
brought to the table, ...... look serious and rise up to thank 

the host. Couv. il se levait et remerciait etc. 

5- C. $, & <{iU Severe. ], J- , { | Lj Fierce. 
&ft*<0fJa:^ &G To shew respect to 
the anger of I leaven. The ^ \& saj s, Even if it were 
in the night he arose, attired him.sclf in cap and gown and 
sat there. L, violent wind, ......... change countenance. 

Z. Ad repentinum tonitru etc. K ....... look grave and 

serious. Couv. ou quc le vent se dechainait, 1 air de son 
visage (temoignait son respect etc.). 

CIIAPTKR XVII. IN HIS CARRIAGRi. C. 
~1\ f Jfc M ffi A- ^ J\ Jji JM Ji 1ft Jlbo The 
ideal man is staid evviyu here, as may be seen even in 
mounting a cart. L. nbout to n;ount etc. Z. Conscen- 
clens currum, solebat recte stans etc. K. stand in a 
proper position etc. Couv. luiait le corps droii:. 

2 - C - P3 Mfl> I"I li llL^ To look back. This also 
was the law and commandment; see j [^ 



500 



THK ANALKCTS. X. XVI, XVII. 

; j ; -b . ; 

* IE 81 fe % 

o 

ft ft i& ffn ^ H 

D 

)S fl II f^ $. 

> o o 

also to anyone carrying the census boards. 
4. When entertained at a rich repast, he 
always expressed his appreciation with an 
altered look and by standing up, 5. On a 
sudden clap of thunder, or a violent storm 
of wind, he always changed countenance. 

CHAPTER XVII. i. When mounting 
his carriage he always stood correctly, hold 
ing the mounting cord in his hand. 2. In 

501 



X. XVII, XVIII. THK ANALECTS. 

iJ> ne should not look back beyond the hub. L. did 

not turn his head quite round, talk hastily, point 

etc. Z. non retro aspiciebat, etc. K. look straight 

before without turning his head talk fast or point with 

his fingers. Couv. ne regardait pas en arriere etc. 

CHAPTER XVIII. MEN THE PHEASANT 
KNOWS ITS SEASON. A passage of acknowledged 
difficulty, i. C. |T & M A Z M fi # ^ fllj 

fft 5fe. < 8J, Ii> rfn & T Jh ; A H SS Hii 

ff^ 3? S 0T &\ # 15 in Jfto A bird on seenj 
unkindly man flies, soars searching, and afterwards 
settles, an example to man. ^jifcJtT*^^!^^ 
^^ But there are lacunae in both clauses. L. Seeing 
the countenance, it instantly rises. It flies round, etc. 
Z. Ad aspectum statim evolat volando circuit etc. K. 
As they turned to look at it, it instantly arose, and hovering 
about etc. Couv. Lorsq un oiseau voit un hommc a 1 air 
mena^ant, il s en vole etc. 

2. There are several explanations given of this fragment, 
none of them satisfactory. The most usual is that Tzu Lu 
caught and cooked the pheasant, Confucius smell it thrice 
and rose, not eating it. ig, jg ^ A bridge. L. 
There is the hen-pheasant on the hill bridge. At its 
season! At etc. Tsze-lu made a motion to it, etc. Z.. 
montano ponte ilia phasania, quam tempori ! ut opportune ! 
T-l. converse ad earn etc. K. Somebody said, Ah ! 
pheasant on the hill ! etc. You know the times ! (Tzu 
Lu) conned it over three times ; then suddenly understand 
ing the meaning made an excbnrition, rose and went 

away. Couv. One cette faisane snit bien choisir son 

502 



THE ANALECTS. X. XVII, XVIII. 

A 



tic 



III 



* m m % 

the carriage he did not look behind, nor 
speak hastily, nor point with his hands. 

CHAPTER X VIII. i. Seeing their 
faces it rose, hovered about and settled 
again. 2. (The Master) remarked : " Ah ! 
hen-pheasant on the hill bridge, you know 

your time ! You know your time ! " Tzu 

503 



X. XVIII, THE ANALECTS. 

temps (pour s envoler et pour se reposer) ? Tzcu-lou 
s etant tourne vers cllc pour la prendre. 



504 



THE ANALECTS. X. XVIII. 



A 

M 



Lu motioned towards it, whereupon it smelt 
at him three times and rose. 



505 



XI. I. THE ANALECTS. 

VOLUME VI. 
BOOK XI. 

HSIEN CHIN. 
CHIEFLY CONCERNING THE DISCIPLES. 

CONTENTS. We here begin the "p ^ the latter 
half of the Analects. This book XI, is attributed to the 
disciples of gj -f- $g because it four times refers to his 
sayings and doings, once styling him directly The Philoso 
pher Min (at - - iff ?B KI -TK The book ff j :f 
!H , discusses the merits of the disciples. 

CHAPTER I. -MARBLE, NOT STUCCO. ft 3I> 
Those who first (or formerly) advanced, i.e. led the van of 
progress.- 1. C. ft jffc f ^ ^ f? jft fg ^ f f | > 
Former and later generations, jgf A iifi 5!> .^f , R> 
Men from the wilds. With the ancients nature and art 
(Jt S) wcre properly blended, now people refer to that 
period as -Jf J^ simple, and consider it uncultivated, but 
in this later period ^ ,l :JC r f{^ art has got the better of 
nature, and now the}- call their period elegant ffi fj^ and 
its representatives cultured gentlemen $* T* % /"] M , ^f% 
{& HJ A ; ? ill Jlt> Refinement had become domin 
ant at the end of the ft] dynasty and this is how they 
talked not lecognising that they Ir.icl become artificial. 
; f ft lJ 3E S it >C -!JL> L. The men of former 

506 



THE ANALECTS. XL I. 



VOLUME VI. 



BOOK XI. 



il Sf B 

I Lit -I J | I 

pW A 7L 

S "til it 

"f ^ ^ 

ift | 



CHAPTER I i. The Master observed : 
In the arts of civilization our forerunners are 
esteemed uncultivated, while in those arts, 
their successors are looked upon as cultured 

$0.7 



XI. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

f imes, in the matters of ceremonies and music, were rustics, 
it is sii/f/, these latter times accomplished gentle 
men. Z. Majorca natu quoad civilitatem et harmoniam, 

rustic! habcntur homines, postcriores sapientiores ex- 

istimantur. 1C. Men of the last generation, arts and 

refinements rule; present generation polite. 

Couv. En ce qui conccrnc 1 urbanite et la musique, les 

anciens passent pour des homines peu civilises, 

mode rues, sages. 

?. c. ;u JH is n, The 2 rcfers to *a ^> 

E. If I have occasion to use those things, I follow, etc. 
Z. sequar aevo priores. K. But in my practice I prefer 
men of the last generation. Couv. Dans la pratique, 
j imite les anciens. 

CHAPTER II. REMINSCENCES. Evidently a 
remark made in Confucius old age, after his return from 
exile. I. For Ch en and Cli ai see Introduction. ^ 
To follow with. [ Il ] School. L. Of those who were with 
me etc. none to be found to enter my door. Z. qui me 

comitabantur omnes non frequentant scholam jam. 

K followed me and shared hardships do not 

now see one at my door. Couv. qui m ont accompagne 
aucun nc frequente plus mon ecole. 

2. For these disciples see Intro. V. C. ifa ~f-^ 

m ?L T- s\ Sffi lit -I- A^ rfri & 3C ffi i&. 

?fr 1$ m ffi* The disciples in consequence of Con 
fucius remark recorded those ten names and clas 
sified them according to their (longcomings) strong 
points into four groups. These ten are also known as 
f- f/f the Ten Discerning Ones, Not all the virtuous 



THE ANALECTS. XL I, II. 



o o 



WL W !f Hr 3 Ji ffl 



nri 






gentlemen. 2. But when I have need of 
those arts, I follow our forerunners. 

CHAPTER II. i. The Master said: 
" Of all who were with me in Ch en and 
Ch ai, not one now comes to my door." 
2. Noted for moral character there were 
Yen Yuan, Min Tzu Ch ien, Jan Niu and 
Chung Kung ; for gifts of speech Tsai Wo 
and Tzu Kung ; for administrative ability, 

509 



XT. IT, III, IV. THE AN.U.KCTS. 

disciples arc nici t oncd, e.g., Tseng Tzfi, who was rot wi .h 
him at the time lie refers to. I... Distinguished for their 

vir 1 u >us principles and practice, ability in speech 

administrative talents literary acquirements. /. Pro 

vii tule facundea, administrations literatura. K. 

distinguished for godliness and conduct; good 

speakers; administrative abilities; ...... literary pur 
suits. Couv remarquables par leur vertus 

habilite a parler ; a gouverner ; erudition. 

CHAPTER I1T. I1UI RECEPTIVE, NOT DISPU 
TATIOUS. Cf II. cj }L 3c SI lhc earliest Commen 
tator took gft as jj? not as (ft, C. fl/j ffc, ? f- f 

Z & -r in in. s. m T-, K a A 3> fc HlK 

& ?&* ftl W 15 B9> He pondered over and personally 

excogitated the Sage s words, and had no doubts to bring 
for solution. Here Confucius speaks as If he had a griev 
ance 5jf*f ^\ tyifc^ though in truth he was deeply delighted 
with him :J(: Jf 75 iSc i? ^> I- gives me no assist 
ance. There is nothing that I say in which he does not 
take delight. Z. non crat auxilio mihi ; ex meis enim 
verbis nullum erat quod, etc. K. never gave me any 

assistance at all nothing in what I said to him with 

which he was not satisfied. Couv. ne m excitait pas a 
parler, il etait content de tout ce que je disais. 

CHAPTER IV. MIN TZU CH II^N S FILIAL- 
NESS. Or, Everybody speaks of him just as etc. Eor 

da sec vnr. 21. c. ft] K. i -i, 3t (:; M ft ffi -It 
# &, A If tt * K ^> :s at X M. z K 

etc. His own family praised his filial ness and friendship, 
and everybody gave him credit therefor, taking no excep- 

510 



THE ANALECTS. XL .II, III, IV. 



Jan Yu and Chi Lu ; and for literature and 
learning Tzu Yu and Tzu Hsia. 

CHAPTER III. - - The Master said : 
" Hui was not one who gave me any assist 
ance. He was invariably satisfied with 
whatever I said." 

CHAPTER IV. - - The Master said : 
"What a filial son Min Tzu Ch ien has 

511 



XL IV, V, VI. THK ANAI.RCTS. 

tion, lience its reality, was manifest. L. Other people 
say nothing of him different from the report of his etc. Z. 

Alien! non discrepant ab praeconio. K. He was 

indeed a good son. People found nothing in him different 
from, etc. Couv. etait remarquable, etc. Les etrangeres 
n en parls pas autrement que, etc. 

CHAPTER V. THE \VHITE SCEPTRE ODE.- 
See V. i. Note the unusual use of }[. -"/- ^ The (Ale is 
from 3* n HI. iii. ii. 5. ft Z ft> ffi J Iff 
-Hi, ? B* ft\ ^ "^ 3S &> 

" The White Sceptre s flaw may be ground away, 
But a flaw in my words has no remedy." 

C. quoting from the ^ jf says |J H fS ]lt lt> 
He repeated it three (i.e. several) times a day. It was due 
to his circumspect speech and conduct that Confucius 
selected him for his niece s husband. L. was frequently 

repeating white sceptre stone, etc. Z. saepc can- 

didae tesserae. K. fond of repeating the verse, " A fleck 
on a stone may be ground away ; A word misspoken will 
remain al way." Couv. souvcnt La tablette blanche. 

CHAPTER VI. --YEN IILTS LOVE OF STUDY. 
Cf. VI. 2, where Duke Ai, is the interrogator and receives 
a fuller reply, for C. R Z *& fi\ "f "T * ^ a 
minister must answer his prince in full, which was less 
requisite in the case of K ang T/u. For Chi K ang Tzu 
see II. 20. L. There was, etc. ; he loved to learn. 
Unfortunately his appointed lime was short and he 
died. Now there is no one who etc. as he did. 

Z. fuit qui amabat sapientiae studium ; at infeliciter 

brevis fuit vitae ct niorluus est, etc. K. There was, etc. ; 

512 



THE ANALECTS. XI. IV, V. VI. 

351 

? ?L it K m 

m -T ^ -ft A 

R S m * 

s m % 5.1 



been ! No one takes exception to what his 
parents and brothers have said of him ! " 

CHAPTER V. Nan Yung frequently 
repeated the White Sceptre Ode. Confucius 
gave him his elder brother s daughter to 
wife. 

CHAPTER VI. Once when Chi K ang 
Tzu asked which of the disciples was fond 
of learning, the Master replied : " There 
was Yen Hui who was fond of learning, but 

513 



XI. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

he was a man of real culture. But unfortunately he died 

in the prime of life no one like him. Couv. lequcl 

de ses disciples s appliquait de tout son coeur a 1 ctudc de 

la sagesse Malheureusement il a pcu vccu 

personnc ne 1 egale. 

CHAPTER VII. A POOR THING, BUT MINK 
OWN. The authenticity of this clause seems doubtful. 
Both ^ jfS and #t |2 indicate that Ilui died before Li. 
As Dr. Legge points out, " lather the dates in them are 
false, or this chapter is spurious." i. ff{ {$ was Yen 
Hui s father and one of his earliest disciples. Sec Intro. 
V. The fl was a coffin cover or catafalque, made like 
a coffin without a bottom and of decorated wood. J^Jt 3$ 
~*<L ! ) -> to make him a shell. Confucius being- an old man 
seldom went to Court, and therefore would have little use 
for his state carriage. C. ffi fa $U $; n 1 H 
tV- -&> Desired to sell the carriage to buy a shell. L. 
begged the carriage, etc. to sell and get an outer shell for 

his sons coffin. Z. postulavit currum, ut faccrct 

inde conditorium. K. begged that Confucius would sell, 
etc. to buy an outer case, etc. Couv. afin (de la vend re, 
et) d en employer le prix a acheter, etc. 

2. Confucius intense grief, see Caps 8 and 9, probably 
in excess of that over his own son, may have encouraged 
the father to this action. Jf is often interpreted here by 
ffi> Of high character or not, yet each of us speaks 
of his son. $j| Confucius son, Intro. V. Confucius, 
though not in office, still had his rank, and the f# -fc ^ 
^L $> i- s deemed a ^ gjf modest form of expression. 
C. quotes that Confucius once meeting the funeral of an 



THE ANALECTS. XI VI, VII. 



-111 ? 

5E W 



M ffi ^ Iff t tit 

unhappily his life was cut short and he 
died, now there is none." 

CHAPTER VII. i. When Yen Yuan 
died, Yen Lu begged for the Master s carri 
age in order to (sell it) and turn it into an 
outer shell. 2. The Master answered : 
" Gifted or not gifted, everyone speaks of his 
own son. When Li died he had a coffin 



XL VII, VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

old host immediately yoked his horses to the hearse, but in 
that case he could get his horses back, whereas here he is 
requested to put his ifjj- l|i royally commanded chariot on 
the f|j public market, a thing he would not do for his own 
son. Ilui s family was poor, see VI. 9, and one may 
infer from this strange request that Confucius also was not 
well off, that Yen Lu knew it and requested the loan just 
as it is no uncommon thing to-day for a Chinese to borrow 
an article from a friend to pawn. L. Everyone calls his son 
his son, whether, etc. There was Li, etc. I would not 
walk on foot, etc. because having followed in the rear it was 
not proper that I should walk on foot. Z. ingemosa, etc. 

unusquidque tamen praedicat suam sobolem ; quando- 

quidem ego sequutus etc. non possum pedester ire. K. 
Talented, etc. a man s son will always be to him as no other 

man s son As I have the honour to sit in the State 

Council not permitted to go on foot when I go out. 

Couv. Aux yeux d un pere, un fils est toujours un fils, etc. 
Comme je viens immediatement apres, etc. il ne convicnt 
pas que j aille a pied. 

CHAPTER VIII. THE DEATH OE HUL Or, 
Heaven is making an end of me. |j To lose, bereave of, 
destroy. C. Pg^ % f^ A cry of pain. He grieved 
that none would be left to hand on the torch. ] j| Inf. {Jf. > 
L. Alas! Heaven is destroying me ! /. hen! Coelum 

me cxtincsit, perdidit! K. When Confucius first 

heard the news, etc. Oh! Oh! God has forsaken me ! 
Couv. llelas! le Gel m a 6t< ; la vie! 

CHAPTER IX. PASSIONATE GRIEF OVER 
HUL I. Or, Burst into heart-breaking giief. His fol- 

516 



THE ANALECTS. XL VII, VIII, IX. 



A 

^ IS "I 



%F, ^* %\r fr =fc 2 ^S- 

x U J xU \ 1 ^v 4X> ^ f~| 

o 



but no shell. I did not walk on foot to 
provide a shell for him, for I have to follow 
behind the great officers of State and may 
not go afoot." 

CHAPTER VIIL When Yen Yuan 
died the Master said : " Alas ! Heaven 
has bereft me ; Heaven has bereft me." 

CHAPTER IX. i. When Yen Yuan 
died the Master bewailed him with exceeding 

517 



XL IX, X. THE ANALECTS. 

lowers said, Sir ! you will break your heart, etc. C. 
1HK 3& ?S -ilL> Grief beyond bounds. L. bewailed him 
exceedingly. Master, your grief is excessive. Z. luxit 
cum efflictam ; asseclae dixerunt : magister dolct nimiuin. 
K. burst into a paroxysm of grief. Sir, you are grieving 
too exceedingly. Couv. pleura amerement, etc. Maitre, 
votre douleur cst excessive. 

2 - C - K ill :\ ^f @ D -&> So extreme 
that he had not perceived it. L. Is it excessive ? Z. 
fuit nimius ciolor ? K. Am I ? Couv. Ma douleur est- 
elle excessive? 

3. If there may not be ^| : . such a 5^ man s A ^ on 
account of g grief etc. jf ff remarks ft $ * 
A S S ffl Ac ^> This, such. C. ^ A ill 1 ! 1 
it$ JBil i- c - Yen Yuan. L. If I am not to mourn bitterly 
for this man, etc. Z. At si non hujus viri causa perdoles- 
cam, etc. K. But if 1 do not grieve exceedingly for 
him, etc. Couv. SM y a lieu d eprouver jamais une 
grande affliction, n ist-cj pas apres la perte d un to! 
homnie ? 

CHAPTER X.-HLJI S SUMPTUOUS FUNERAL. 
~ l - I n j A nl ^ 1C 1J commentaries is interpreted as 
Yen Ilui s disciples, but the modern rendering is usually 
his fellow disciples. C. jig JL ft!} ^ ;/ ,f f Jjif , JJ |fjj 
[^ |f; ^p t/K J F M -tlL v Funerals should all be according 
to the possessions of the family, poverty and a rich funeral 
arc discordant. L. The disciples wished to give him a 

great funeral You may not do so. Z. ipsius alumni 

volebant opulenter sepelire ilium Non clccet. K. C s 

other disciples great funeral. Do not do so for my 



THE ANALECTo. XI. IX, X. 



JT m m m A s= fig 

^ o ** 

A JE *f ^ > 

tii j? ^ n @ ti B 

l P B A It ^ ^ 

-f ^ o * ft rfn" * s tl 

grief, whereupon his followers said to him, 
" Sir ! You are carrying your grief to 
excess." 2. "Have I gone to excess?" 
asked he. 3. " But if I may not grieve 
exceedingly over this man, for whom shall I 
grieve ? " 

CHAPTER X. i. When Yen Hui died 
the other disciples proposed to give him an 
imposing funeral, to which the Master said : 
" It will not do." 2. Nevertheless they 
buried him sumptuously. 3. " Hui ! " said 

519 



IX. X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

sake. Couv. Ics disciples de Confucius voulurent faire de 
grands frais pour sa sepulture. 

2- C. It m JHf gS , And his father yielded. 
L The disciples did bury him in great style. Z. muni- 
fice tumularunt cum. K. gave him a grand funeral. 
Couv. neanmoins a grands frais. 

3. Or, Hui ! He regarded me, etc. ^ as in last 
chapter. C. ffc ^ ft ft ^ ffl ffi , A sigh 
that he was not allowed to bury him as he had his own son. 
L. Hui behaved towards me as his father. I have not been 
able to treat him as a son. The fault is not mine ; it belongs 

to you, () disciples. Z. habebat me sicut patrem 

considerare ilium uti filium : non ex me fuit, sod ab istis 
nonnullis alumnis. K. behaved, etc. not been able to 

treat him as a son. Ah ; gentlemen, it is your fault. 

Couv. me considerait commc son pere ; traiter commc 

mon fils, c -a-cl. 1 enterrer pauvremcnt comme mon fils Li. 
Ce n est pas moi, etc. mais ces quelques disciples. 

CHAPTER XL THIS WORLD BEFORE THE 
NEXT. Confucius evaded a difficult question, for though 
he maintained, with scrupulous care, all the forms of wor 
ship, his horizon was limited. But cf. ill. 12; V. 12; 
VII. 20; r[i jjlf^ Caps XVI, XIX, et al. ; and note the 
remark in gj ?*> > & ffl> That by J& $i|i 
departed spirits are meant is shewn in Confucius use of J^ 
alone in antithesis to A % C. The enquiry aimed at find 
ing out # jfig ^ ;Tj;^ the value of sacrifices, jfc ft X 
ffi >& ^fj\ * T I * #IU J r l W |!i] -liL, Heath is 
common to all as everybody must know, and all are 
earnestly inquisitive about it ; %k ^ W /ll Ki : H A^ 

520 



THE ANALECTS. XI. X, XI. 



iF ? -Hi fiH 



fig r ?- m 



3p 51. -f- ^ ^ 

% > o 

the Master, " You regarded me as a father, 
while I am not permitted to regard you as 
my son. But it is not I. It is these 
discip les of mine." 

CHAPTER XL When Chi Lu asked 
about his duty to the spirits the Master 

replied : " While still unable to do your 

521 



XI. XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

JU i& ^ fib *Ji )T il lK Dut ne wno docs not with sincere 
reverence fulfil his duty to men cannot do his duty to the 

spirits; # EC 4& ffi *n J5r ^ IW > * ffi K 
$ iFn #n $? J^J, #E> an< -i i ic wn c ^ cs not De ^ n at the 

betrinninir and learn the rationale of life, cannot turn to the 

o o 

end and learn the rationale of death. 21 ft WJ *fi * * 

$S n s> fa ^ ^ ^fj lr : > * I SS 5?> For 

darkness and light, beginning and end, are not originally 
two different laws, nevertheless there are steps in the 
piocess of learning, and they may not be leapt over. 

n T PI $E dfe A )U - - IfiJ H> ifii * 

J\\l^ Death and life, man & daimon, arc one and yet two, 
two and yet one. g ff\ ^ -f- ^ ^^ r f K T> %l\ 

jit 75 ffr H 9c ^ &> Someone has said that 
though Confucius did not inform Tzu Lu, who did not 
understand, yet he gave him a profound answer. L. While 
you are not able to serve men, how can you serve their 
spirits? While you do not know life, how can you. know 

about death ? Z. nondum vales servire hominibus, qui 

spiritibus? nondum scis vivcre, (jui scies mori ? K. 

\\ T e cannot as yet do our duties to living men, why should 

we enquire about our duties to dead men know about 

life, enquire about death? Couv. sur la maniere 

d honorer les esprits. Celui qui ne sait i>as remplirses devoirs 
divers les hommcs, comment saura-t il honorer les esprits ? 
Celui qui nc sait pas cc que c est que la vie la mort ? 

ciiArTKR xii. ins rROPiir;sv RKT/UT.U S 

DEATH. i. 1^-j <iuiet, reserved, self-contained, sec 13 
fg H- -says m ?b h ^ li it- m, A blend of 
resolve and calmness with the resolve invisible iron hand 

$22 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XI, XII, 

+ 



-lli ^ 5E 

"* o 

^ ft * 

i& fill 1 *n 

" 



duty to the living, how can you do your 
duty to the dead ? " When he ventured to 
ask about death, Confucius answered, " Not 
yet understanding life how can you under 
stand .death ?" 

CHAPTER XIL i. Once when Ming 

Tzu was standing by the Master s side he 

523 



XI. XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

in velvet glove, f-f f-f j[\\^ Go-ahead, alert, active 
if U says & \ W] K v ?IU Excess of resolve and 
lack of moderation. C. says pjjlj j$ ;> UJi^ Firmness and 
energy; fJJ bold, straightforward. jjjj ^ says jfjj 5ft 
^> /ll> H J fl J # f&> Insufficient calm and more than 
enough determination. C. =f- $ & # fljj fo ff ^ 
The Sage rejoiced that he had obtained such character and 
talent to train. L. bland and precise ; bold and soldierly, 
free and straightforward manner. The Master was pleased. 
Z. affabili ore, animosa specie, scrio vultu ; Confucius gau- 
debat. K. calm and self-possessed, upright and soldier 
like, frank and engaging. Confucius was pleased. Couv. 
un air ferme ct affable, brave et audacieux, serieux. Le 
Maitre etait contei^t. 

2. C. The word \-\ is said to have preceded this clause 
in the jj< collection, others say that the #ji| is a mistake for 
f-j^ For the fulfilment of this natural prediction see Intro 
duction. L. Vu there ; he will not die a natural death. A. 
at iste Yeou, ait, hand nacturus suam mortem videtur. K. 
There is, etc. I am afraid he will not die, etc. Couv. Un 
homme comme lou, dit-il, ne pent mourir de moit naturelle. 

CIIA1TKR XIII. MIX T/U S RKSERVI:. i. C. 
\k ){f , M ft > The name c ,f the Treasury. :jll jfc t\ , 
It was an ancient building, jgj {f \\\ f_-J /f>j\ A fu is a 
place for valuables (silver, silk, etc. Cf. fa granary, /ij 
arsenal). 15;^ ]& & f J ;^ Reconstruct, L. Some 
parties in 1 .11 were going to take down and rebuild, etc. /. 
reaedificaiuri erant Perennitatis aerarium. K. proposed to 
build a new State-house. Couv. Les ministres, etc. reeon- 
struire a neuf le magasin appele, etc. 

524 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XII, XIII, 



31 A 8& ft {ft til 

o * 

fnj E) H & *n & 

^ - - 

M i/ j ^ ^ -til ^f 



looked so self-contained, Tzu Lu so full of 
energy, and Jan Yu and Tzu Kung so frank 
and fearless that the Master was highly 
gratified. 2. (But, said he) " A man like Yu 
will not come to a natural death." 

CHAPTER XIII i. When the men of 
Lu were for rebuilding the Long Treasury, 
2. Min Tzu Ch ien observed, "How would 
it do to restore it as before ? Why need it 

525 



XI. XIII, XIV. THE ANALECTS 

2. Or, Why not follow on the old one and enlarge it ? 
C. ftf> H &> Following on. fi\ >\i &, Works, 
style. :G K IK To rebuild would be hard on the peo 
ple and a burden on the finances $jfr J jjt JJj-^ L. Sup 
pose it were repaired after the old style ;-- why must it be 
altered and made anew? Z. si inhaereatis pristinae rei, 
quod vobis videtur ? etc. K. Why not keep the old build 
ing and modify it to suit present circumstances? etc. 
Couv. Si Ton reparait i ancien batiment, ne serait-ce pas 
bien ? etc. 

3. Or, This man does not talk, but, etc. L. This etc. 

sure to hit the point. Z. vel non loquitur; omnino 

obtinet attingerc medium. K. always hits the mark. 
Couv. ne parle pas a la legere ; quand il parle, il parle tres 
bien. 

CHAPTER XIV. A SCHOLAR IN THE WROXG 
SCHOOL. T. ^ | i g > Or, At Ch iu s door. 
The -^ was deemed a kss refined instrument than the ^^ 
the "scholar s lute." C. f =f- f/U Jl: $$ Z ^ ft^ 
I l iL ^ Rfl -$L^ ^ ts n^sic \\-as martial and not in 
harmony \vith Confucius mind. ^ jf/f \]^ y% ^ /fj* 
4b SI) ^ {Jc ?> Drums and lutes are barbaric and 
carry the air of battle. L. What has the lute of Yu to 
do at my door ? Z. cythara quid facit in K ieou schola ? 
K. That man with his trumpet-blowing should not be 
permitted to come to my house. Couv. Pourquoi la 
guitare etc. sc fait-elle entendre dans mon ecole ? 

2. Or, Has- entered the temple but not its sanctuary. 

c. fr T- K *% ci m ^ .IK * m a, 

W*^Affi^^tf, That is, he had reached 

526 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XIII, XIV. 



m 



\ O > O 

be reconstructed?" 3. The Master said; 
"This man seldom speaks, but when he 
does he is sure to hit the mark." 

CHAPTER XIV. i. The Master said: 
"What is Yu s harp doing in my school? " 
2. The other disciples on hearing this ceased 

to respect Tzu Lu, whereupon the Master 

527 



XL XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

the borders of nobility oi character, but had not yet gone 
deeply into the finer parts thereof. ^\ The main hall, 
|g the rooms. L. began not to respect etc. Yu has 
ascended to the hall, though he has not yet passed into the 
inner apartments. Z. exinde non revercntibus etc. ascen- 
dit aulam, nondum introivit in penetralia. K. began to 
look down upon etc. entered the gate, but not the house. 
Couv. congurent du mepris pour etc. deja monteau temple 

de la sagesse : pas encore penetre dans le sanctuaire. 

CHAPTER XV. EXCESS AND SHORTCOMING 
EQUIVALENT. i. pip is ^ ?g, and jg is -f- JJ v ide 

Intro, v. c. ^ ft :tiSS;]R>Hn# W JS> /& 

? T& *\*^ ^"^ was f g reater talent, with wider interests 
and found of taking risks, hence he constantly went beyond 
the line. ^ H tt 3% ffi & SI 0fc B^ & 
^ 2> Shang was simpler, more circumspect, and of 
narrower mould, hence he constantly failed to reach the 
line. L. was the superior. Z. sapientior. K. the better 
man. Couv. le plus sage. 

2. C. ^ Jft Jjf -liL^ Surpass. L. Then the 
superiority is with Shih, I suppose. Z. si ita, tune Che 
praecellit, nonne ? K. the first man is better than the last. 
Couv. D apres cela, Cheu l emporte-t-il sur Chang ? 

3- C. & \% i|t Jj|f ffi 3> S l f, Tao deems the 
golden mean the highest excellence. L. To go beyond is 
as wrong as to fall short. Z. cxccderc aeque est ac non 
pertingcre. K. To go beyond the mark is just as bad as 
not to come up to it. Couv. Depasser les limites n est pas 
un moindre defaut que de rester en-dega. 

528 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XIV, XV. 

+ ^ " : -> 


? ET- & -Hi ^ - * . 

s $ m IA ic A ft ; 

$ 1 Iffi K 18] -^ -ttt 

o > 

m n m ^ an) m ^ 2 

T- jfe * H ift ^ 

> o 

R m & m m & 

o o o > 

- .u . > -, } 

said : " Yu ! he has ascended the hall, 
though he has not yet entered the inner 
rooms." 

CHAPTER XV. i. Tzu Kung asked 
which was the better, Shih or Shang ? The 
Master replied : " Shih exceeds, Shang 
comes short." 2. "So then," queried he, 
"Shih surpasses Shang, eh?" 3. "To go 
beyond the mark," replied the Master, "is 
as bad as to come short of it." 

529 



XI. XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XVI. NO DISCIPLE OF MINK. Foi 
$fc, i.e. -fi} jj see Inlro. V. It was lie who was the means 
of Confucius restoration from exile, see Intro. 

i. ^ J N See III, i. C. Duke Chou was of the 
royal family, of great merit, and of high prestige and his 
wealth was right and proper, At ft ft ^ but ^ J 
was only the minister of a noble and his wealth, greater 
than that of Duke Chou, was obtained by usurpations on 
liis prince, or by grinding the people, yet Jan Vu not only 
acted as his commissioner, but sought means to add to his 
already ill-gotten wealth. I . The head, etc. collected his 
imposts for him and increased his wealth. Z. ditatus erat 
super, etc. pro illo congerebat tributa, et sic accessione 

ilium angebat. K. amassed immense wealth very 

exacting in collecting imposts for him from the people on 
his estate, thus increasing his master s already great wealth. 

Couv plus riche que levait pour lui des taxes, 

et augmentait encore son opulence. 

2 . c. & etc. $,- py A m at Pi J0i K i!i, 

Told the disciples to proclaim his wickedness and so rebuke 
him. L. He is etc. My little children, beat the drum 
and assail him. L. non est meus discipulus jam : vos 
filiolos resonare tympano ad ilium impugnandum decebit. 
K. lie is etc. Proclaim it aloud my children and assail 

him. Couv n est plus mon disciple Mes ehers 

enfants, battez le tambour, et attacjuez-le, vous ferez bien. 

CHAPTER XVII. SIMPLK, DULL, PRETKX 
TIOUS, \ ULGAK. This seems like a description of 
the four when they entered his school, or of their natural 
characteristics. No -^ F-I precedes these words and $1 J 

530 



THE ANALECTS. XL XVI, XVII. 

+ " + 

b X 

$&- "T ^F $X ffii ? 

ill {li ,l ^ M ^c ft 

o 

Ji. . tfc B 1 It ft s 

nil # -ft 



o o 



CHAPTER XVI. i. The Chief of the 
Chi clan was richer than Duke Chou had 
been, yet the disciple Ch iu collected his 
revenues for him and kept on still further 
increasing his income. 2. " He is no 
disciple of mine," said the Master, " You 
may beat the drum, my sons, and attack 
him." 

CHAPTER XVII. i. Ch ai was simple- 



XI. XVIf, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

suggests that the next cap. belongs to this, the -f- p] hav 
ing been misplaced. For these four disciples see Intro. 
V. The four are -f- ^ f> T% + rj{^ and + {ft, 

I- C. S fl^ ^ ;f j, [M J? ft $K Deficient 
in wisdom, but with honesty to spare. The ^ jjyj- records 
that lie would not tread on (the Master s) shadow, kill an 
exhibernating creature, or break sprouting vegetation, he 
strictly observed his parents funeral rites weeping blood 
for three years, he never smiled, and when fleeing from 
danger refused to take a short cut, or enter the city in 
irregular fashion ; but he was of a character so just, that 
his life was saved by a man, whose feet he had been com 
pelled as judge to have cut off in punishment. 

- $K $& & Dull, slow witted. jfg -~f> BJ^ ^ ^ 
l &> $ n . Yet by his very slowness he won his 
way. 

3. jsu fjii w iiL, m ii w & jh, ^ m K ^ 

Practiced in deportment, but lacking sincerity. 

4- fyf^ SL f& lil> Coarse and vulgar. L. Ch ai is 

simple, dull, specious coarse. Z. simplex, 

obtusus, fucatus, agrestis. K. One was simple : another 

was dull: specious, coarse. Couv. Tch ai est 

pen instruit, peu perspicase, plus soucieux d une 

belle appaixnce (jue de la vraie vertu ; pas assez poli. 

CHAPTER XVIIL POOR AND CONTENT, RICH 
AND DISCOXTKNT. fij joins this Cap. to the last. 
I- C\ jji;, i/jr $i^ ^ 5/r ^i, Near to the noble life. Jig 
^L^Htk 5> i^ [i i -liL> Frequently down to a bare cupboard 
yet undisturbed. L. I le has nearly attained rj perfect 
virtue. He is often in want. Z. Oh ! ille propior erat ! 

532 



THE ANALECTS. XL XVII, XVIII, 

+ 

A 

T- m* 
m 



minded; 2. Shen dull; 3. Shih surface; 
4. Yu unrefined. 

CHAPTER XVIIL i. The Master said : 
" Hui ! he was almost perfect, yet he was 

often in want. 2. T zu was not content with 

533 



XI. XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

plerumque rcrum vacuus. K. almost perfect as a man ; 
yet he is often reduced to want. Couv. presque attcint la 
plus haute perfection. II ctait ordinairement dans 1 indig- 
cnce. 

2- JI8 i.e. -f JJ Intro. V. C. ^ Bii 35 lfr> The 
will of Heaven. ft ^ ft |]| /[: jg .^ Goods 
increased abundantly ; fg^ ;7J J .{jj^ calculations, judg 
ments. Although his contentment and love of the higher 
life were not equal to Yen Ilui s, he had much intelligence 
and was able to ffl ^ jjjj ^ rff^ weigh matters with 
much precision. L. docs not acquiesce in the appoint 
ments of lie arc n, and his goods are increased by him. Yet 
his judgments are often correct. Z. ejus cogitata tamen 
plerumque quadrabant. K. The other man does not even 

believe in religion, yet his possessions go on increasing 

often right in his judgment of things. Couv. ne s aban- 
donne pas a la Providence ; il a masse des richesses ; mais 
il est judicieux. 

CHAPTER XIX. A LAW TO HIMSELF. ff gf 
takes j$ as ig f /jg fj^ that is, he lived in ignorance of 

the settled laws of the sages, and ;fC 7 V V* Ml> i^ee 

Cap. 14) as ^ }g ^ ftjr j^ that it, he lias not hap 
pened upon the region of categorical statement, a law to 
himself (cf. Rom. II. 13-15). C. ^AS^Jffi*^^ 
A man of excellent natural qualities, but untr, lined. f -jf- 
sa\ s ^ ^, ^i ;| ff ^ V)- >WK I-ikc ft>l!o\vincj the 
ro;ui or keeping to the rut. Although he may be a good 
man outside the recognised track , he cannot arrive at the 
ife A i5?\ abode of philosophical knowledge. ^ A 
C t JIB * ^ K ^ 1^ > He is bent on a life oi 

534 



THE ANALECTS. XL XVIII, XIX. 

A 

? IlJ ^ 

?I H rfn 



his lot, and yet his goods increased abund 
antly; nevertheless in his judgments he 
often hit the mark." 

CHAPTER XIX. When Tzu Chang 
asked what characterised the way of the man 
of natural goodness, the Master replied : 

535 



XI. xix, xx, xxr. THE ANALECTS. 

Virtue but not on its theories. L. the characteristics of 
the GOOD man. He docs not tread in the footsteps of 
others, but, moreover, he does not enter the clumber of the 
sngc. Z. bonae indolis hominum conditioncm ; non cal- 
cabant aliorum vestigia, sed nee introibunt in sapientiae 
penetralia. K. An honest man docs not cant, neither 

does he profess csoterism. Couv. naturellement bons 

Us ne marchent pas sur les traces des sages ;...... ils n entre- 

ront pas dans la sanctuaire de la sagesse. 

CHAPTER XX. JUDGE NOT BY APPEARANCE, 
g& Discourse $J honest - this |il may be granted. C. 
S ^ Tl T & S Ifi K A lll^ That is, One may not ( take 
a man by his words or looks. f_H ^ :JI: g ffo $Y j\ etc, 
L. Il only because \vhata man says is reliable \ve grant 
him (to be a chiin tzii) etc. If, because a man s discourse 
appears solid and sincere, we allow him to be a good man, 
is he really a superior man ? or, gravity etc. 7.. eclis- 
serens solida statim approbatur : sed an verae virtutis est 
vir, an fucatae speciei homo Qjj; is always taken literally, 
not as 7 ^). K. Men now are in earnest in what they 
profess. Are the}- really etc. That is what I should like 
to know. Couv. De ce qu un homine fait cles disserta 
tions solides sur la vertu, on ne doit pas juger , iussitot 
qu il est vertueux. II laut examiner s il cst vraimcnt etc. 

CHAPTER XXL TO ONE A CURB, TO AN 
OTHER A SPUR. Cf. V, xiii. %fc both, to unite two in 
one. C. 3fc A> iii 1 i W A iiL> i.e., surpasses others, ijj^ ^ 

k \ i , uH m M *ffi 5; is.mti XK #, iii {/ ^ pj 

W iffi $ X, K ^.Iti ft ifii Tr> m U fa K fg ^> 

On hearing of a light course of action it certainly ought to 

536 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XIX, XXI. 



m 



* -T 

A 



ff 



" He docs not tread the beaten track, nor yet 
does he enter into the inner sanctum of philo 
sophy." 

CHAPTER XX. - - The Master said : 
"That a man s address may be solid and 
reliable, this one may grant, but does it 
follow that he is a man of the higher type, 
or is his seriousness only in appearance ? " 

CHAPTER XXL When Tzu Lu asked 
whether he should put what he heard into 
immediate practice, the Master answered, 
"You have parents and elders still living, 
why should you at once put all you hear 

537 



XL XXJ. Till-: ANALECTS. 

be boldly followed, but when one s seniors aie alive, one 
may not always take sole and independent action, for if one 
does not ask their permission before action, then one 
offends against the right;- Tzfi Lu the self-reliant would 
naturally forget the interests of his elders, but Jan Ch iu 
was of the opposite nature, doing nothing on his own respon 
sibility. L. asked whether he should immediately carry 
into practice what he heard. There are your father and 
elder brothers to be consulted; why should you act on 
that principle of etc. I, Ch ih, am perplexed, and venture 
to ask you for an explanation. Ch iu is retiring and slow, 
therefore etc. Yu has more than his own share of energy 
etc. Z. auditionem, statimque exsequar ? Habes patrem 
fratremque superstites ; secundum hoc, quomodo ipsc audi- 

tum etc. Jan Yeou etc. audita statimne perficiam? 

T che dubio tencor, ausim etc. K ieou quidem haesita- 
bundus, ideo impuli ilium. Yeou duos valet homines, ideo 
retraxi ilium. K. asked if he might at once carry out into 
practise any truth which he had learnt. No, you have the 
wishes of your parents and of your old people at home to 
consult. I low can you take upon yourself to etc. The one 

man is too diffident, encourage him ; too forward, 

pull him back. Couv. Ouancl je regois un enseignement utile 

dois-je le mettre en pratique immediatement ? votre pore 

et des freres plus ages que vous, Conviendrait il de 

mettre aussitot a execution tout etc. Jen lou mettre en 

pratique sans retard tout ce qu il apprenait de bon 

Moi, Tch eu, je suis dans I incertitude etc. K iou n ose 

pas avancer, je 1 ai pousse en avant. lou a autant d ardeur 
et de hardiesse que deux, je 1 ai arrete et tire en arriere. 

538 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXI, 

m -m i HI m 5<: 9? m m ea sir # is 

> 

m il m $r if 31 fir ITr ir ft #n ^ 
A & fl!j ft ff ft. It ft ft f r ^ 

> o > o - 

stit^^fg^^-mzsg-ftffi^ 

" " o 

il ^ H ffc ^ tli [U] & ^ ^ K X 






into practice ? " When Jan Yu asked whe 
ther he should put what he heard into 
immediate practice, the Master answered, 
"Put what you hear at once into practice." 
Kung-hsi Hua asked: "When Yu asked 
if he should put the precepts he heard into 
immediate practice, you, Sir, replied, You 
have parents and elders alive ; but when 
Ch iu asked if he should put the precepts he 
heard into immediate practice, you, Sir, 
replied, Put \vhat you hear at once into 
practice. As I am perplexed about your 
meaning I venture to ask a solution." 
" Ch iu," answered the Master, " lags behind, 
so I urged him forward ; but Yu has energy 
for two men, so I held him back." 



539 



XI. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHA1TKR XXII. HOW DARE I DIK WHILE 
YOU LIVE?-Cf. IX, v. C. fa, jil? M & # fa, 
Got left behind. According to the laws of the ancient 
kiiicrs. there were three for whom a man should be willing 

o o 

to die, father, prince, and teacher 5 fi" ftllK ind Ilui s 
duty was to die with or for his Master, or if spared, seek 
to avenge him. That he did not do so is ascribed to his 
realization that the Master had a divine mission, and that his 
life was therefore free from real danger. L. I thought 
you had died. While you are alive, how should I 
presume to die ? Z. ego existimabam te esse mortuum. 
Magistro superstite, Hui qui ausit niori. K. I was afraid 

you had been killed how should I dare to allow myself 

to be killed. Couv. Je vous croyais mort comment 

me serais-je permis de m exposer a la mort. 

CHAPTER XX1IL NEITHER NOBLE AS MI 
NISTERS, NOR SERVILE AS FOLLOWERS.- -f ? 
was the younger brother of 2J* 4 ; jT the 5^ J of III, i and 
XI, xvi., in whose service Tzii Lu and Jan Tzti had found 
employ. Despite that noble s character and conduct they 
did not retire, hence Confucius calls them JL \\\ , It is 
stated that -jf- %k hoped to win them over to the base pur 
poses of his brother, who had already got the ducal power 
into his hands, and ^L /fj 4flf. ~%\ fo^ already harboured 
the design of getting rid of his prince. But though the disci 
ples had fallen below the Master s ideals, they were still far 
removed from sharing in such a flagrant crime. i. L. 
called great ministers. Z. appellari magni aclministri. K. 
considered statesmen. Couv. Ics talents necessaires puur 
etre de grands rninistres. 

540 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXII, XXIII, 



=? 



181 fi [HI 






ft IP 6 ft & ^ m 

CHAPTER XXII. When the -Master 
was put in peril in K uang, Yen Hui fell 
behind. On the Master saying to him, " I 
thought you were dead," he replied, " While 
you, Sir, live, how should I dare to die ? " 

CHAPTER XXIII. i. When Chi Tzu- 
jan asked if Chung Yu and Jan Ch iu could 
be called great ministers, 2. the Master 
replied, " I thought, Sir, you were going to 



XI. XXIII. Till-: ANAI.I.CTS. 

2. C. W, ft $ Unconinu..n. K ^ 75 (1 J 
Audio ! or, it is. fg H -f PJl #jj > $c .^ Con 
temning the two and snubbing Tzii Jan. L. I thought 
} r ou would ask about some extraordinary individuals and 
you only ask about etc. /. ego putabam te facturum 
niiram quaestionem ; est vero de etc. K. something ex 
traordinary to ask me about. You \vi.-h to have my opinion 
on these men; is that all you want? Couv. Je pensais 
que vous alliez me parler d hommes extraordinaires, et 
vous etc. 

3. L. One who serves his prince according to what is 
right, and when he finds he cannot do so, retires. Z. ii 
juxta jus inserviunt principi, et si non possunt, tune cessant. 
K. serve their master according to their sense of right etc. 
Couv. selon les regies de la justice, et qui se retire, des 
qu il etc. 

4. C. .11 Hi, ffl l ffi \\\ M M B> Merely in the 
number of hand} 7 ministers, functionaries. L. No\v, as to 

etc. ordinary ministers. 7.. Nunc ad complementum 

administri. K. As to etc. states-functionaries. Coi.v. 
pcuvent remplir cl une maniere ordinaire les fonctions de 
ministres. 

5- C. fa ft -x l!i\ fliJ ^ ^ It 0? $ B5 EL, 

Since etc. they would do as their chief did. L. always 
follow their chief; will they? 7.. at vero sunt obse- 
qucntes nostrum, nonn-j ? K. But will these two men 
carry out anything they are called upon to do ? Couv. 
Scront-ils obeissants a leurs maitres ? 

6. c. j ,i F ::~ : f- KLIfcifc* J faZ* Full y 

allowed that not even fear of death would move them to 

542 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXII! 



z E n ^~ g $ 

> 

m B* -m ffl ui m 

O " > O 

^ ^ ?r it it r^ H 



ask about something extraordinary, and it 
is only a question about Yu and CIViu. 

3. He who may be called a great minister is 
one who serves his Prince according to the 
right, and when that cannot be, resigns. 

4. Now, as for Yu and Ch iu, they may be 
styled ordinary minister." 5. " So, then," 
said Tzu Jan, " they would follow their chief, 

543 



XI. XXIfJ, XXIV. THE ANAI.KCT.S. 

crime. L. In an act etc they would not follow him 
7,. occidcre patrem etc. cnimvero non obsequcntur. 
K. An act of etc. they will not carry out. Couv. lour 
obeissancc n ira pas jusqu a tremper dans un parricide 
etc. 

CHAPTER XXIV. SPOILING A STUDKNT. i. 
Tzfi Lu was in the service of ^ J^ i^See last Gip.), and 
probably had ~f* ^Y: appointed on the refusal <>f Min Tzu 
Ch k:n, XT, 7. /- f is the -5g of XI. xvii. C. f ftf $ ^ 
It $> BM f l- -l!L, Fo1 & ^ VI, ;. got Tsze Kaou 
appointed etc. X. jusserat agerePi gubernatorem. K. got 
a very young man appointed etc. Couv. avait nomine 
etc. 

2. ^, This, a certain C. i{, ft ^ ri : f ^ 

H .X- ffii * JIK Si i ifi J^> 3i ia # , i.e. 

his abilities were good, but his education unfinished, and 
to suddenly appoint him to rule people was exactly the way 
to injure 1 him. L. You are injuring a min s son. /. 
noxius huic homini vir. K You are ruining a g<K)d 
min s son. Couv. C cst fa ire grand tort a cc jeune homme 
et a son pe re. 

3- C. j? }ft K- (V #, f? 0f iU S ^> ] t means 
that the ruling of the people and the service oi the gods ali 
constitute learning. L. There are (these) common people 

and officers etc. \Yhy must he read books before 

learned? /.., habet populum et homines habet Telluris 
I 7 rugum(|ue spiritus etc. K. large population to deal 
with; he has questions ot the interests of the country to 
decide upon. Why etc. to educate himsell ? Couv. 11 
est charge de diiiger le p.uple et les oifieiers etc. Tour 

544 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXIII, XXIV. 

m 



A * 



=U 
n& 



\ l l ft ^ S >F 

eh?" 6. "To parricide or regicide," ans 
wered the Master, " they would assuredly 
not follow." 

CHAPTER XXIV. i. When Tzu Lu 
obtained the appointment of Tzu Kao as 
Governor of Pi, 2. the Master said, " You 
are doing an ill turn to another man s son." 
3. " He will have his people and officers," 
replied Tzu Lu, " he will also have the altars 
of the land and the grain, why must he read 

545 



XI. XXIV, XXV. THE ANALKCTS. 

qu i! snit cense avoir appris Fart de gouverncr, cst-il neces- 
saire qu ll etudie les livrcs ? 

4. For j- see V. 14. L. It is on this account that I 
hate your glib-tonguccl p:ople. Z. en cur cxccror hujus- 
modi verbilcvcs. K always ready with an argument. 
Cuuv. Je hais ces beaux parleurs. 

CIIAPTFR XXV. FOUR DISCIPLFS AND 
TIIFIR ASPIRATIONS. i. Cf. V, 7, 25. The four 
arc said to be named in order of age. See Intro. V. 
ft f5 was father of ft ^ f ^ \V C re seated in at 
tendance on ; but C. takes ^ in the ^ i.e. in attend 
ance by the Master s seat. 

2 - ^ ^- etc. (You) take me to be a day the senior, 
eli? do not so me take. C. ^ g * A? j JJ. ofr^ 
i& k ft & ft & m H M> Although J am a few 
>-cars older than you, yet do not consider me older and so 
fear to speak out. 

3- C. J/], 3> J-g^ Everyday life. M JSl fe > f J B 
& )\l -liL> \Vhat would you deem yourselves fit for? L. 
were sitting by etc. Though I am a day or so older than 
you, do not think of that. From day to day you are saying, 
We are not known. If some ruler were to know you, what 
etc. /. ad latus assidebant. Quod ego una die grandior 
etc. nolite me sic considcrare. Domi degentes etc. non me 
cognoscunt. K. I am only a little older etc. Do not mind 

that. Now living a private life, you all say appreciated 

by men in authority ; but suppose etc. what would you be 
able to do? Couv. assis a ses cotes : (Parlez-moi franche- 
ment) sans considerer (jue etc. I /lisses dans la vie privee, etc. 
Les hommes ne me connaissent pas que feriez-vous ? 

546 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXIV, XXV. 







a 



books before he is considered educated ? " 
4. " It is because of this kind of talk," said 
the Master, " that I hate glib people." 

CHAPTER XXV. I. Once when Tzu 
Lu, Tseng Shih, Jan Yu and Kung-hsi 
Hua were seated with the Master, 2. he 
said, " You no doubt consider me a day or 
so your senior, but pray do not so consider 
me. 3. Living in private life you are each 
saying : I am unknown ; now suppose 
some prince were to take notice of you, what 

547 



XI. xxv. TIIK ANALECTS. 

4- C. 45 W> B i ISU Off hand manner. 
S> *" )K i!L> Domineered over. 2,500 men made a 
[!l]K 500 a jg g^ fjj ^ Again, add, continue. g ^ 

SA n fi> ^ ^ Sfe r-i M> Failurc of co ^ ft. 

failure of other crops f o ~Jj ^ (,] ^^ Bi" fi J SS -l!L> 
Direction, i.e. towards the right justice. PjJlj\ fJJ; ^ -{ll,^ 
To smile. L. hastily and lightly replied, Suppose the 
cause of etc. ; let it be straitened between other large 
States ; let it be suffering from invading armies ; and to this 

Z~> o 

let there be added a famine in corn and in all vegetables : 
if I were entrusted etc. people to be bold, and to recognise 
the rules of righteous conduct. Z. surgit praepropere 
coerceatur in grandiorum regnorum nudio ; auge id, 

o o o 

per legiones etc. continue haec per etc poterit efficere 

ut adeo sciat tendere. K. hemmed in between two 

States etc. embroiled in the midst of a war, and hence 

harassed by famine and distress know their duty. 

Couv. se hata de repondre : soit tenue comme en 

servitude entre etc. ; que de plus, elle soit envahie etc. ; 

qu ensuite les grains etc. manquer ; et leur faire aimer 

la justice. 

5- C. A* ^ -|- ![!, fr g .^ A small State. 

in m & -LL, > fe -R =f* ^ ft LL m m^ ^> 

lncapibie (jf it himself. \ .. Suppose etc. and let me have 
the government O f jt, plenty to a!:ound among the peo 
ple. As to tcacJiing them the rules of piopriely and music, 

1 must wait for the rise of a superior nvin etc. / 

possum efficere ut locupletem populum : at cjiioad ejus 

litus et musicam, id cxpectarem sapieutiorem. K. 

of the tliird or fourth power make the people live in 

548 



THE ANALECTS. XL XXV. 



*u m m ja H a n z z w w 
s. &zft\*ttiLmmE)i 

o ~ 

A # $*# PI 8 #n -JS m tfe 
M- A W -tfi, ffi $ Z ?" 

> 

^ -t M ^ ^r it ii ia ^ -T $& 

iii -f in ^ H X M ISB I 31 * 

o 

would you like to do ? " 4. Tzu Lu in 
offhand manner replied, " Give me a king 
dom of a thousand chariots, hemmed in by 
two great powers, oppressed by invading 
troops, with famine superadded, and let me 
have its administration, in three years time 
I could make it brave and, moreover, make 
it know the right course to pursue." The 
Master smiled at him. 5. " And how about 
you, Clfiu ? " " Give me a district of sixty 
or seventy li square," answered he, " or say, 
one of fifty or sixty li square, and let me 
have its administration, in three years time 

549 



XI. XXV. THE ANALKCTS. 

plenty. As to education in higher things, I would leave 
that to the good and wise men who will conic alter me. 

Couv Jo pourrais mettrc le peup e dans 1 aisance. Pour 

ce (JUG concerne les ceremonies et la musique, j attendrais 
la venue d un sage. 

6- C. % m & ** m m IK His forte was 
manners and music. fl$ ^ ;& fljj ft & M fSK 
It ^ fib rfij J&1 ^ -liL> Before naming his ideal he ex 
pressed diffidence, that he could not yet do it, but would 
like to learn, fg -fa (1J ^ [I-J \ Occasional Audi 
ences were called $\ ^ Jgj [; : | ffij^ A general Audi 
ence was called ffi]^ A SJ| was a g ^g dark gown, 
a $ ^[ was )gg y^ a regulation cap. L. I do not say 
that my ability extends to these things, but 1 should wish to 
learn them. At the services etc. and at the audiences of 

the princes with the sovereign, dark square-made robe 

and the black linen cap, small assistant. Z. non 

dicam me id posse etc. regulorum accessibus conventibus- 
que, cum fusca veste nigroque pi eolo, vellem agcre parvum 
administrum. K. I do not say that in \\hat I am going 
to suppose I could do what I propose ; only I would try to 

doit vice-presiding officer. Couv. Je ne dis pas 

que j en sois capable etc. Je desirerais, portant la tunique 
noiratre et le bonnet noir, remplir 1 ofiicc cle petit aide etc., 
etc. 

7. 1 he ^; is a kind of dulcimer anciently of fifty 
strings, altered to twenty-five ; one is supposed to be kept 
in every Confucian temple, along with other ancient musical 
instruments, g ;# Capping took place at twenty, " a 
custom similar to the assuming the toga virilis among the 

550 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXV. 

M n ^ # ir si "fir # 

in /h PI w m ! 

o > 

*? ^. m m m m & M & & it 

H iTri !g SI $ ^ in & K & 

o o " 

^ f^ ^.li r.m ^ I it i? iu H 





I could make its people dwell in plenty; but 
as to the arts of civilization, I should have to 
await a nobler man." 6. " And how about 
you, Ch ih ? " "I do not say that I could 
do it," answered he, " but I should like to 
learn. I would like at the service in the 
Great Ancestral Temple, or say, at the 
Prince s Imperial Audience, to take part, 
in cap and gown, as a minor assistant." 
7. " And how about you, Tien ? " Pausing 
as he thrummed his harp, its notes still 
vibrating, he left the instrument, arose, and 
replied, saying, " My wishes are different 
from those presented by these three gentle 
men." "What harm in that?" said the 
Master. "Let each name his desire." 



XI. XXV. THE ANALECT. 

Romans," L. points out that the 3f- was the name 

of the summer sacrifice for rain, Li Chi, IV, ii Pt. ii. 8. 
Dancing movements were employed at it, hence the name 
M iN C - *. UII JR &> Pausing. ff:\ M liL Ris 
ing k Jl l)L> To present. j -}f h % ;f|l M ^ |!J, 
Mild and genial weather ( 3% i.e. ^). ^f : fl^ Vj i. f ; 
2^ Clothing single or double, ?, ffi gg -{iL, To 
wash (said to be a ceremonial purihca ion). yj\ T|<. ^,^ 
ffi M m> fl6 S &. n A\ %i *, Name of a 
stream to the south of the Lu cit\ , recorded to have had a 
warm spring in it. |$ ^, ^ Ji |,g jfi jg> fj" ft| 
lit ^K -li> The rain altars where there were the altar 
groves. L. In //rw, the last month of Spring, with the 
dress etc. along with five or six young men who have as 
sumed the cap, boys, I would wash in etc. I etc. I 

give my approval to Tien. Z. excedente verc, verms 

vestibus jam confectis, ablui in anine I, auram capture 

in luco Ou yu, etc. Ego sto cum Tien. K. we will sup 
pose now that we are in the latter days of spring, when we 
have changed all our winter clothing for etc. I would 

then propose that we^ take along etc bathe in that 

romantic river top of that ancient terrace to cool and 

air ourselves etc. Couv. Je ne portage pas les aspirations 
etc. A la fin clu printcmps, quand les vetements de la 
saison sont acheves, aller etc. me laver les mains ct les pieds 
a la source tiede de etc. respircr 1 air frais etc. J approuve 
le sentiment de Tien. 

8, 9 , 10. C. ^ -F 3 jft 31: fig, W W -Jt ^ 3i> 

Granted his ability, but smiled at his lack of modesty. 
II. C. Tien could not understand why Confucius did 

552 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXV, 

nttita * & =? ffi m n * i B 2. 

# f BJ B * 1t B * ^ $ 

Ii] mK%WJHt--b $c & 

# ?F ft * l j* TO v a i% a 

n m m Hi M # & a * M 

-Hi ^ B *P ^ r m ^ E ^ 
H a ft ^" ^ B ^ A: F tjr ^ ^ 3 F : 

^e ni i s0 ^ -T PI a A * ^ 



" Mine would be," he said, " towards the end 
of Spring, with the dress of the season all 
complete, along with five or six newly cap 
ped young men, and six or seven youths, to 
go and wash in the I, enjoy the breezes 
among the Rain Altars, and return home 
singing." The Master heaved a deep sigh 
and said, " I am with Tien." 8. When the 
three others withdrew, Tseng Chih remained 
behind and asked, " What do you think of 
the remarks of these three disciples ? " The 
Master answered, " Well, each of them 
merely stated his aspirations." 9. " Then 
why did you smile, Sir, at Yu ? " he pursued. 
10. " The administration of a country de 
mands a right bearing," was the reply, " but 
his speech lacked modesty, that is why I 
smiled at him. 1 1. " But Ch iu, was it not 

553 



XI. XXV. THE ANALKCT. 

not smile at Jan Ch iu, whose ambition was similar to that 
of Tzii I.u, * -f. 2 & te JE ;t,i] # ft , The 

Master not censuring him in his reply also admits his 
ability. 

i 2. Tzii Lu s fault lay in his self-assurance : Ch iu was 
modest, a id Ch ih even more so. 

12. ft fig etc. ft $H fib tii at- ?N None could 
stand above him. L. 10. The management of a State 
demands the rules of propriety. His words were not hum 
ble, ii. Did you ever see a territory etc. not a State. 
12. Who but princes have to do with etc. Z. 10. 
administrandum regnum juxta ritus : ejus autem verba non 

crant submissa etc. 11. Kcquando vidisti quin essct 

regnum. 12. Gentilitia sacra etc. si non regulorum, at 
cujuserunt? K. 10. To rule a country requires judg 
ment and modesty. 1 1. Did you ever hear of not a 

nation ? 12. If such a man is fit only to be vice-president, 
who would be fit to be the president? Couv. 10. Celui 
qui gouverne un Ktat, doit montrcr dc la modestie. 11. 
Kxiste-t-il un domaine etc. qui ne sait p:is un Ktat, une 
principaute ? 12. Les offrandcs etc. (jui concernent-elles, 
si ce n cst les princes ? 



THE ANALECTS. XI. XXV. 



A # -tt if * 2f 

o 

& *& + * 

^ ffc m -b 

/I; M @l IiJ # -f; 

IA M f ^ ^5 in 






a State that he wanted ? " " Where do you 
see a district of sixty or seventy, or of fifty 
or sixty li that is not a State?" was the 
answer. 12. "And Ch ih, \vas it not a 
State that he wanted ? " " In the Ancestral 
Temple and at the Prince s Audience, who 
but a Prince takes a part?" was the reply. 
" Yet if Ch ih were to act a minor part who 
could act the major?" 

555 



XII. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME V 



BOOK XII. 

YEN YUAN. 

CONCERNING VIRTUE, NOBILITY, 
AND POLITY. 

CONTENTS. This interesting book suitably opens with 
the name of Yen Yuan, the beloved disciple. It contains 
twenty-four sets of maxims, addressed to different disciples 
and others, principally on Virtue, the noble man, State 
policy, and other subjects. The different answers given to 
the same question are supposed to suit each questioner s 
need. 

CHAPTER I.- VIRTUE IS SELF-DENIAL AND 
SEEML1NESS. Cf. Phil. IV. <S, For {Hand jffi see Intro. 
VIII. C. fH -^ # ,fr Z 7 r> fiu ]*" s the P crfcct 
virtue of the heart j^ , j$ ]\l^ Conquer, master. [1 
i-M & 2, %L %X -$L^ The individual s selfish desires. 
& Ll> To overcome self ( fuj says ^J -Tj- i.e. self- 
restrainti. (Perhaps self-denial connotes somewhat more 
than yi d ^ which seems to be merely subjective). The 

& m says -fe B, # # * K a, 75 a * a ^ 

,^ ?/. tr,^ Not the supi)ression of self, but of the selfish 
desires within. &\ R liL Revert, reply, respond to. 

556 



THE ANALECTS. XII. I. 



VOLUME VI. 



BOOK XII. 






II - B [IS] + 

?c H m t n 

T Ui ft -T 

CHAPTER L i. When Yen Yiian ask 
ed the meaning of Virtue, the Master replied : 
" Virtue is the denial of self and response to 
what is right and proper. Deny yourself for 
one day and respond to the right and pro 
per, and everybody will accord you Virtu- 

557 



XII. I. THE ANALECTS. 

88 #> r X 2E ffi ?K &> Tllc restraints and graces 
of ~X #JU ( 8! is the natural law, jjift is J.I}! codified, or 
JIJ! is the underlying principle, and jfiQ its external manifes 
tation). @ A }ffi .git ^ Grant, accord (The old com 
mentators assuming that a Prince \vas meant, interpret by 
all under heaven would return to goodness^. $ {^ |{j EL> 
IB ^ fill A J5? lib Yil> To be virtuous proceeds from 
within and is not something another can furnish. I.. To 
subdue one s self and return to propriety, is perfect virtue. 
If a man can for one day etc. all under heaven will ascribe 
etc. Is the practice etc. from a man himself, or is it from 

others? Z. de cordis perfectione vincere scipsum et 

rcdintegrare honestatis decoram, est virtutis perfectio : una 
die etc. totum imperium acquiescet virtuti : fieri perfectus a 
seipso est ; estiamne pendebit ab aliis ? K. Renounce 
yourself and conform to the ideal of decency and good 
sense. If one could only live a moral life etc. for one single 

day, the world would become moral depends entirely 

on oneself and not on others. Couv. Se vaincre soi-meme 

t rendre a son cceur 1 honnetete qu il tenait de la 

nature, voila la vertu parfaite. Si un jour etc. aussitot tout 
1 univers clira que votre vertu est parfaite. II depend de 
chacun d etre etc. Kst-ce que cela depend des autres 
hommcs ? 

2. g Kyc, main features. C. Q ^ ^ ft- & Parti 
culars, ft jji3 i??> B %L -ill. One s own desires. 
^ m 2. IK A prohibition. ?# in ^ Z ^, 
l^ch point, i ){. is really an active verb here, make my 
business ). L. I beg to ask the steps of that process. 
Look not at what is contrary to propriety ; listen not etc. ; 

558 



THE ANALEClS. XII. I. 



II m, i 



it -it 






ro 



ous. For has Virtue its source in oneself, 
or is it forsooth derived from others?" 2. 
"May I beg for the main features ?" asked 
Yen Yuan. The Master answered: "If 
not right and proper do not look, if not right 
and proper do not listen, if. not right and 
proper do not speak, if not right and proper 
do not move." "Though I am not clever," 

559 



XII. I, II. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

speak not etc. ; make no movement which etc. Though 1 
am deficient in intelligence and vigour, I will make it my 
business to practice this lesson. Z. liceat pjtere ejus 
clcnchum. contra decorum nihil cernas, praetcr etc. extra 
etc. sine etc. licet non habilis, velim operari huic docu- 
mento. K. practical rules. Whatever things are contrary 
to the ideal oi etc. do not look upon them, etc. Couv... 
a quoi so resume la pratique etc. One vos yojux, vos 
oreilles, votrc langue, tout en vous soit maintenu dans les 
regies cle 1 honnetete. Malgre mon incapacite, j essaierai, si 
vous me le permettre etc. 

CHAPTER II. VIRTUE IS CONSIDERATION 
EOR OTHERS. For fli F named |g- see VI, i and 
Intro. V. EL 0f >f> fi\* etc. Cf. V. xi. C. ^ ]^ ft 

EL, &! & & %, m %L A?; *!S ffr ?, Bn >t f * ^ 

Strict with oneself, tolerant to others, thus no room is left 
for selfish interests, and heart virtue becomes perfect, fa 
n fl f- 28 ^ JSl : Jl : W) tT ^ iM-eedom from resent 
ment at home and abroad refers to the effects of $ ( and 
jj/i^ The old commentators treat ^[> as referring to a 
prince and ^ a minister. I ,. It >s \\ hen you go abroad 
etc. receiving a great guest ; to employ etc. assisting at a 
great sacrifice ; not to do to others as you would not wish 
done to yourself; to have no murmuring against you etc. 
Z. de interna perfcctione egredere domo etc. mag 
num hospitem ; dispone populum, quasi tractarcs etc. ipsi- 
met quod nolis, ne conferas in alios ; et in regno eximeris 

simultatibus, quacrimoniis. K. When going out into 

the world, behave always audience before the Emperor ; 

in defiling with ete. were at worship before God. What- 

560 



THE ANALECTS. XII. I, II. 



o o 



/;* B Wi , U W 

A flf R l"1 ^ 

^E X *n An IJ It i 

H5 ^ ^ >1 t: * 

"* 

US ^J ^c ^ ? ?jr le 



said Yen Yuan, " permit me to carry out 
these precepts." 

CHAPTER II. When Chung Kung ask 
ed the meaning of Virtue the Master said : 
"When abroad behave as if interview 
ing an honoured guest; in directing the peo 
ple act as if officiating at a great sacrifice ; 
do not do to others what you would not like 
yourself; then your public life will arouse no 
ill-will nor your private life any resentment." 

561 



XII. II, III. THE ANALECTS. 

soever things you do not wish that others should do unto 
you, do not do unto them. In your public life etc. 
give no one a just cause of complaint against you. Couv. 
En sortant de la maison, soyez attentif, comnie si vous 
voyiez un hotc distingue ; en commandant etc. si vous pre- 
sidiez a un sacrifice solcnnel ; ne faitc t; pas a autrui ce quo 
vous ne voulez pas qu on vous fasse a vous-meme. Dans 
la principaute, personne ne sera mecontent de vous etc. 

CHAPTER III. VIRTUE AND THE TOXGUE.- 
Note the play on the sounds of , and 1j$.^ 1,2. C. 
Ssti-ma Niu, Ox was his personal name, Master of the 
Horse his surname, that office in Sung appertaining to the 
family. (See Intro. V.) He was a disciple of Confucius 
and brother of fa fffi see Cap. V. f, ^ .&, H .!_/., 
Repressed, not facile, fc ft ,fr ft. jfij $ /#, f& Jf: 
H ?i : ~4j W\ S>> M ^ j $^ The good man is not 
demonstrative, hence his hesitancy in speech, ^ :ir f*i ~> 

* .ujt. -^v iai> ^C. 

"~* ffi ^ which forms one feature of moral character, -- 
advice assumed to be necessary for Niu, whose tongue was 
loose, & H M ^ I- Tht - man of perfect virtue is 
cautious and slow in his speech. Z. de anirni perfectione. 

corde perfectus, scilicet cujus verba impcdita sunr. 

K. moral character sparing of his words. Couv. 

paile difficilcmcnt, c-a-d. avcc grande retenue, avec cir- 
conspection. 

3- C. ^Stitt^^.^fllill*^ j?f 3, 

Niu thought the way of perfection something very grand, 
and not merely as indicated by the Mister. ${j g takes 
^ as !} (. and this is the usual interpretation. T ,. \\ hcn 
a man feels the difficulty of doing, can he other be than 



THE ANALliCTS. XII. II, III. 



ii m- ^ a 



^ ^ fg g 
t B S [SI * 

. * . B t: % 

T 10 m ^ = iff 

" Though I am not clever/ replied Chung 
Kung, " permit me to carry out these pre 
cepts." 

CHAPTER III. i. When Ssu-ma Niu 
asked for a definition of Virtue. 2. the 
Master said : " The man of Virtue, he is 
chary of speech." 3. " He is chary of 
speech! Is this the meaning of Virtue?" 

563 



IX. Ill, IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

etc. Z. actionc percautus, locutione poteriine hand esse 
impjditus ? K. When a man feels the difficulty of living 

a moral life sparing of hi.s words? Couv. Cehii qui est 

circonspect dans cos actions, pcut-il no 1 etre pas dans ses 
pi roles ? 

CIIAPTKR IV. THE CHUN T/U LRLE FROM 
CARK. See last and next chapters, also VII. 22. i. C. 

HO m it u i-- -is & ffi> fit * -T- ft- &. jit, 

Niu s brother Hsiang T ui was plotting against the Prince of 
Sung, (with probable death and implication of his family as 
the result^, so Niu was in constant worry and anxiety etc. 
L. The superior man etc. Z. Vir sapiens ncc tristatur 
n :c timet. K. A good and wise monarch. Couv. 
L homme sage est exempte de chagrin et de crainte. 

2. fo is a chronic illness. C. ~fa ffi j\l^ |f \\] JI: 

^ H 0r fi M * ft >6, fi: ftg rt # ^ K> rfu a 

$! 5S fiu> W th a mind conscious of its own daily recti 
tude etc. there was no call for anxiety or fear. L. When 
internal examination discovers nothing wrong, \\hat is there 
to be anxious about etc. /. qui se internis examinans 
nihil peccavcriij. is quod tristabitur etc. K. When a man 
finds within himself no cause for self-reproach etc. Couv. 
Celui qui, cxaminant soncoeur, ne rcconnait en lui aucune 
fa ute etc. 

CIIAPTICR V. BROTHERS ALL TO THK CHUN 
T/r. T,-] l\ij /[-^ See above and \ II, 22, also Intro. V. 
Their name was \[\] ^ but being descended from Duke fi{ 
the\ also used his name. 

i & -JC 1$ 81 fllJ )|?f ^E -llL, Grieved over his 
rebelling and courting death, fijjj ft ^ays he had five 

564 



THE ANAUiCTS. XII. Ill, IV, V. 

E9 

ftrffl * & If * T- tJT * 

O " r 

O C > 

.. > 

36 M B : ^ ^ |!U m Z 

~"> o * 

A M t IP ^-S ^ B 

, 

demanded Niu. " When the doing of it is 
difficult," responded Confucius, " can one be 
other than chary of talking about it." 

CHAPTER IV. I. When Ssii-ma Niu 
asked for a definition of the man of noble 
mind, the Master said : " The man of noble 
mind has neither anxiety nor fear." 2. 
" Neither anxiety nor fear ! " he rejoined, " Is 
this the definition of a noble man ?" " On 
searching within," replied the Master, " he 
finds no chronic ill, so why should he be 
anxious or why should he be afraid ? 

CHAPTER V. T. Once when Ssu-ma 
Niu sorrowfully remarked, " Other men all 

565 



XII. V. THE ANALECTS. 

brothers of whom Huan T ui was the second and himself 
the youngest. I., full of anxiety said etc. Z. moerens 

ait ego solus careo. K. unhappy, exclaiming often: 

All men etc. Couv. Les autres homines etc., etc. je suis 
le seul qui n en aie pas. 

2, 3. jg isTziillsii s name. C. ft) - -f^ 
i.e. had heard from Confucius. ^j> j jfi fa | ^ -^ 
ft ^ W\ fib l> Our fate is arranged at our birth and 
is not a thing we can ever change. ^ JV - ffi fifi ffi 

ft ft ffi fie, *& fa t Ii % ifn ti> TO do what 

Heaven wills not to be done is beyond our powers, and the 
only thing is to submit. L. There is the following saying 
which I have heard : Death and life have their determined 
appointment ; riches and honours depend upon Heaven. Z. 

audivi hoc: hubent decretum,... . penes coelum. K- 

pre-ordainecl come from God. Couv sont sou. 

mises aux decrets de la Providence, dependent du Ciel. 

4. c. ft flg f$ EL \>\ & m * fia if, m \ a 

^ rM K X, M J ^c T A f? S: SS: *i ^ * 

^^ If he can etc. then everybody would care for and 
esteem him as a brother. I/y ^ etc. if$ J^ ^ fr| Jig 
3r Z, ;S> Tzii Hsia by this phrase sought to broaden 
Niu s ideas. L. Let the superior man never fail reveren 
tially to order his own conduct, respectful to others and 

observant of propriety ; then etc. What has the superior 
man to do with being distressed because etc. Z. sapicnti 
viro sibi attcndcnti etc. quatuor marium ambitu, omnes 
sunt fratres ; vir sapiens, qui dolcbit etc. K. A good and 

wiseman is serious and without blame earnestness, 

and with judgment and good sense. In that way he will 

566 



THE ANALECTS. XII. V, 



z m n z : it 

o 

ft rfff M M. "F -t 

it *r M ?E H H 31 

51 



o 



A .-T- < PB 



have their brothers, I alone am without," 2. 
Tzu Hsia responded : " I have heard it 
said, 3. Death and life are divine dispen 
sations, and wealth and honours are with 
Heaven/ 4. When the man of noble mind 
unfailingly conducts himself with self-respect, 
and is courteous and well-behaved with 
others, then all within the four seas are his 

567 



XII. V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

find all men within the corners of the earth his brothers. 

What reason complain that he has no brothers in his 

home? Couv veille sans cesse sur sa propre con- 

duitc, il est poll, et remplir exactemcnt ses devoirs etc. 

Entre les quatre mers, tons les hommes etc a-t-il lieu 

de s afdiger de etc. 

CHAPTER VI . DISCERNMENT AND PENE 
TRATION. One would prefer to translate: He who 
disregards the insidious poison of detraction, or the pinpricks 
of criticism etc. ; but this view is unsupported. I])J is defined 
as >L> $& $? Sc> I n no inspect imposed upon. Kuan 
f* 5c IK l$c> never deluded ; yf> ft takes no action. C. 

SH^fti*Sffl P3 SI rfii *" m &> 

Water soaking in slowly and not suddenly, "^ff > !$. A 
;, ^7^ Slander, destroying another s character. /*} 5c"> 
SB M IS #f 5, ?pJ W Si ^, Immediate injury in 
the flesh, i.e. direct personal injury ; the expression is 
found in the JJ |^ ; gK fl B % -&> ^ inform 
of one s wrongs, g^ A >W M jfi) * <1 > fl J fiS 
^P S 3t A ffi fS 8K ^^ Detraction is insidious 
and not sudden, and the hearer without perceiving itstntiy 
is apt to give full credence to it. fj % :#, & ^ jfjj ^J 

J.JJS*^2il^il5* ^, The 

proclaimer of wrongs is \\\ haste and urgency, and the 
hearer is apt to act impulsively before going into details. 
The statement is repeated and not cut shoit ( ^ ) fertile 
sake of emphasis. L. intelligence. He with whom 
neither slander that gradually soaks into tlic miiui, nor 
statements that startle like a wound in the flesh, are suc 
cessful, may be called intelligent indeed far-seeing. /, 

568 



THE ANALECTS. XII. V, VI. 



ffi S U 

m HK) 

- f > DM 

rjLJ 
^-^_ -X v 



r 
TT 



brothers. How, then, can a chiin-tzu grieve 
that he is without a brother ! " 

CHAPTER VI When Tzu Chang asked 
what was meant by insight, the Master re 
plied : " He who is unmoved by the insi 
dious soaking in of slander, or by urgent 
representation of direct personal injury, may 
truly be called a man of insight. Indeed, he 
who is unmoved by the insidious soaking in 

569 



XII. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

scnsim insinuantis obtrcctationes, et cuticuia vulncrati ac- 

cu?ationcs, non admittere, potcst vocari pcrspicacitas 

profunda pcrspicacia jam. K. A man who can resist 
long-continued attempts of others to insinuate prejudice into 
him, or one \vho cannot be influenced by an appeal to his 

own personal safety, perspicuity a really superior 

man. Couv. Ne pas admettre les calomnies qui s insinuent 

ni les accusationcs qui font ressentir a ceux qui les 

ccoutent, comme la douleur d une blessure ou d unc pigiire, 

perspicacite voit loin. . 

CHAPTER VII. TRUST, A STATE S FOUNDA- 

TION.-I. c. w E Sf B5 St ii & fc 

ffcfTMRfB^ffe^ H $t &> It means with 
full granaries, adequate military preparation, and then pre 
vailing enlightenment, the people trust me and will not rise 
in opposition, jf ft says ^ @ & , ^zSSR 
f$N fi! S R, *fr> Food is the People s heaven, 
(life) ; the army their protection ; and confidence their 
heart s (blood). L. says re ^ that there was no stand 
ing army in those days and that -K^ originally meant wea 
pons. This may be true, but fighting was frequent and 
military forces were maintained ; moreover -^ etymologi- 
c.tlly is a man in the act of fighting, i.e., a man with a battle 
axe. L. The requisites of government are that there 
should be sufficiency of food, a military equipment, and tlu 
confidence of the people in their ruler. 7,. suppetat an- 
nonu, suppetant milites, ct populus fidat tibi. K. essential 

in the government of etc sufficient food an efficient 

army ; and confidence of the people in their rulers. Couv. 
(Celui qui administrc les affaires publiques), doit avoir soin 

570 



THE ANALECTS. XII. VI, VII. 



ci mi ?-j *=: 

/L In] tl fT 

> ~ ~ 

K ^ "j 

^ PI H 

l nfa 

* 

of slander or by urgent representations of 
direct personal injury, may also indeed be 
called far-sighted." 

CHAPTER VII. i. When Tzii Kung 
asked what were the essentials of govern 
ment, the Master replied : " Sufficient food, 
sufficient forces, and the confidence of the 
people." 

57i 



XII. VII, VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

quc les vivres ne manquent pas, que les forces militaircs 
le people lui donne sa confiancc. 

2. A far-seeing reply. C. ft ), ffi) ft ^, IW & 
-^ Iff] ^j : ^> \Vith plenty and confidence safety was 
assured even without soldiers, i.e. every man would be a 
spear or bow. L. If it cannot be helped and one oi them 
must be dispensed with etc. Z. quod si omnino non 
possit aliter fieri quin demas etc. K. But if one were 
compelled to dispense with one etc. Couv. S il est absolu 
ment necessaire de negligcr une etc. 

3. A noble reply. C. R M ft & ^ $ Jc % 

A ffi >& ^ &> M ft J 81 & m S H ft *, 

F ?V E ^ 3S 3?> Without food the people must die-, 
yet death is what man cannot escape, but if there be no 
confidence even though there be existence, there is no foot 
hold left, than which death would be happier. j^C ^ ^E 

85 * * m K K, ffi R * # 5E ffi ^ ^c 

f!> .{]/,,, Hence death is better than losing faith with the 
people, that they also may rather die than lose faith with 
me. L. From of old etc. ; but if the people have no faith 
in their iitlcrs there is no standing for the State. Z. ab 
antiquitate, omnes obnoxii morti ; at populus sine fidelitate 
non stabit. K. Without the confidence of the people in 

their rulers there can be no government. Couv 

sujets a la mort. Si le peuple n a pas confiancc e en 

est fait de lui. 

CBAPTKR VIII. NATURE AND ART SYNONY 
MOUS. i. Hi -jf- f^ was a high officer oi if/ft who 
disliked the veneer of his times, & IfJ A Hl> L - 
In a superior man it is only the substantial qualities which 

572 



THE ANALECTS. XII. VII, Vlli. 

A. 

M-$E !Tr * m * Z 

-T & & r ft- ^ H n % 

o > 

j/3c m e ? s ^ E ^ r 

It * M jiff m f"I M m 



. o 



B ^ 



2. " Suppose," rejoined Tzu Kung, "1 
were compelled to dispense with one, which 
of these three should I forego first ?" 
" Forego the forces," was the reply. 

3. " Suppose," said Tzu Kung " I were 
compelled to eliminate another, which of the 
other two should I forego?" " The food," 
was the reply ; " for from of old death has 
been the lot of all men, but a people without 
faith cannot stand." 

CHAPTER VIII.--I. Chi Tzu-Ch eng 
remarked : " For a man of high character 

573 



XII. VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

are wanted why should we seek for ornamental accom 
plishments? Z. sapiens sit simplex, et satis est : quid uti 
cultufaciet? K. wants only the substance ; why should 

he trouble about the style? Couv de vertus solides, 

cela suffit. Qu a-t-il a fa ire de 1 urbanite et de tout ce qui 
ne servirait que comme d ornement a sa pcrsonne ? 

2. The ancient commentators read, Alas that you should 
so speak of the chiin tzii ; but the moderns interpret as here. 
C. m = r& t? 75 3/ 1 , 7- ;S, i.e. Tzu 
Ch eng s words carried a Chiin T/.u s spirit, but loose 
words cannot be caught up. L Your words, sir, show 
you to be etc. Z. pigct sane ! magistri sermo, sapientis 
est ; etc. K. I am sorry stated in that way, it is im 
possible for me not to misunderstand your meaning. Couv. 
C est bien dommage ! Vous parlex ordinaircment, Seig 
neur, en homme sage etc. Un attelage etc. ne saurait aller 
aussi vite que la langue etc. 

3- C. , fc %. -^ A hairless skin. j 
% 5> ^f Tl l ft $U Art and nature are interdependent 
and cannot do without each other. If you get rid of JT 
and only leave f|^ then ft -f> ^ X *S &. ffi ^ the 
higher and lower types of men cannot be discriminated. C. 
criticises both, Tzu Ch ang for deeming J | everything and 
Tzu Rung for insufficiently discriminating its value. L. Or 
nament is as substance etc The hide of etc. stripped of its 

hair, is like dog or go:it etc. Z. Morum cultus aeque 

ac naturae simplicitas etc. K. To be sure, the style comes 
out of the substance, but etc. For the .substance is the skin 
of etc. Couv- On doit soigner I exterieur comme 1 interi- 

574 



THE ANALECTS. XII. VIII. 



A in -til * n M 

o 

IS *. S 2fc. ISu M 

^o > 

o 

to be natural is quite sufficient ; what need 
is there of art to make him such ? " 

2. " Alas ! " said Tzu Kung, "Your Ex 
cellency s \vords are those of a chiin-tzu, but 
a team of four horses cannot overtake the 
tongue. 3. Art, as it were, is nature, as 
nature, so to speak, is art. The hairless hide 
of a tiger or a leopard is about the same as 
the hide of a dog or a sheep." 

* 575 



XII. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

cur. Unc pcau do etc. nc sc distingue pas etc. quand le 
poic cst racle. 

CHAPTER IX. EASE THE TAXES AND AS 
SURE THE REVENUE. i. Duke Ai II. xix. ft =Jf 
i c. ^f /fjf see Intro. V. C. called by his name as a subor 
dinate of the Duke s. Jf] $] [>$ /fj^ State expenditure. 
The Duke s idea was JU {R J^Jl Jol Jj] lll^ to increase the 
taxes in order to meet the expenditure. {ijjj ff says ~)j ^ 
^^ etc. The present year is one of dearth. L. The 
year is one of scarcity, and tlic returns for expenditure are 
not sufficient, etc. Z. annus annona laborat, sumptus non 
sufficiunt. K. The year now is one of scarcity : we can 
not make the revenue meet the public expenditure. Couv. 
Cette annee les recoltes ont manque ; je n ai pas assez pour 
mes depcnscs. 

2 - C. ffjj^ )] 4|L y$ $L^ The communil or share 
system. $J $1] ^ % \[] \ r } ^ H M I3I iff- & 

W Z A M -JJ ft ft* Ih nft ^ JK ^c ^, S W 

-Jl: A, & 1U at - "> 1& m ffi. According to the 

Chcu regulations each male received one hundred mou, and 
with his eight other participators in the square of a thousand 
mou cultivated it in common. When the whole proceeds 
had been evenly divided the farmers got nine-tenths and the 
Duke one-tenth, hence its name. In the clays of Duke Vi" 
of Lu, KC. 608-590, the tax was doubled. Tzu Vu re 
commends a return to the old style ${ & i JJK ^ J 1 ?- 
R, -{il<> wishing the Duke to economise and therein- enrich 
the people. L. \Yhy not siuifly tithe the peciple? 

3. Like \\hat would it be with that tithing? L. \\"ith 
two-tenths I find them not enough : how could I do with 



THE ANALECTS. XII. IX. 



#11 El 



ft f J 



2. n it /. * 

% 

CHAPTER IX. i. Duke Ai enquired 
of Yu Jo saying: "It is a year of dearth, 
and we have not revenue enough for our 
needs ; what is to be done ? " 2. " Why not 
simply tithe the land ?" replied Yu Jo. 3. 
" Why, with two-tenths," said the Duke, " I 

have still not enough, how could I manage 

577 



XII. IX, X. THE ANALECTS. 

that system etc. Z. dime mihi adhuc non suff. ; si hoc, 
quorsum istud dccimnrc ? K. Why, \\ith two-thirds, 
even, we cannot make ends meet etc. Couv. Comment 
puis-je n exiger qu un dixieme ? 

4- C. & JjiJ ft -^ 3> $j ft, & ft HI] ft ^ 
fib $3 m\ When the people are well off the Prince will 
never be the only one poor, hut if the people are poor the 
Prince has no business to be the only one well-off. L. If 
the people have plenty, their prince will not be left to want 
alone etc. Z. populo satis habentc, princcps quocum non 
satis habebit? K. When the people have plenty, the 
prince will not want. Couv. Ouancl le people a le suffisant, 
le prince ne l a-t-il pas aussi avec tons ses sujets? 

CHAPTER X. CHARACTKR AND DISCRIMI 
NATION. See Cap. XXI. i. ^ is to elevate, lofty. 
AL . |^, see L viii. C. & fg, J|ij ^ ^ When 
etc. then the tree is firmly planted. $ J ||lj |J -J^^ 
\Vhen, etc. then there is daily renewal. f(J|j ft say % is 
H and |g is ?{} , ft ii, HP M ?? ^S> i-e. to go 
over to the right and seemly. L. liow virtue was to be 
exalted and delusions to be discovered, the Master said, 
Hold etc. (I. viii) and be moving continually to what is 
right ; this etc. Z. de elcvanda virtute et discernenda 
hallucinatione. Fundari etc. et i)rogredi ad aequitatem etc. 
K. how to raise the moral sentiment and dispel delusions 
in life. Make etc. Act up to what is right etc. Couv. 
pour acquerir une grande vertu ct pour reconnaitre Perreur. 
d observer la justice. 

2. c. < <$ A ^ fif te -HL, m A /t ^B 
ti fo^ ~fr j ?.} ifij ^: -UL^ J^i ^r st ffii fife -^l : it ^E 

578 



THE ANALECT. XII. IX, X. 



in] m 



^ = 111 P J * B 

with that one-tenth system ?" 4.. " If the 
people enjoy plenty," was the rejoinder, 
" with whom will the Prince share want ? 
But if the people are in want, with whom will 
the Prince share plenty?" 

CHAPTER X. i. When Tzu Chang 
asked the best way to improve his character 
and to discriminate in what was irrational, 
the Master said : " Take conscientiousness 
and sincerity as your ruling principles, trans 
fer also your mind to right conditions, and 
your character will improve. 2. When you 

579 



XII. X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

IW $ !^> Love and hate arc the common human pas 
sions, but man s life ami death are of divine disposal and 
not of man s will, hence to wish a man to die or live by 
one s love or hate is a fallacy. L. Having wished him 
to live, you also wish him to die. This is a case of delu 
sion. Z. cumquc volucris ipsum vivere, rursus velle ipsum 
mori, est hallucinari. K. You wish to live and you hate 
to die. But while clinging to life, you yet hanker after 
those things which can only shorten life; that is a great 
delusion in life. Couv. desirer l:i mort d un homme clont 
YOUS desirez auparavant la conservation ; c est vous trom- 
per. 

3- K "P with reason thinks that this quotation should 
follow XVI. 12. It is from the J$ fg II. IV. 4, 3. L. 
It may not be on account of her being rich, yet you come 
to make a difference. V.. xvi. 12. Vcre non peasant 
clivitias, sed solum pensat cxcellentiam. K. Truly, your 
wealth and pelf avail you nought. To have whit others 
want is all you sought. Couv. (xvi. 12) non a. cause 
de leurs richesses, mails sculcment a cause cle leur rare 
vertu. 

CHAPTER XL A PRIXCK, VET NOT A PRIXCK. 
This must have occurred in P>.C. 518 when Confucius, 
thirty-five years of age, was in >/f^ At this time the Duke 
had lost the reins of government which were held by his 
minister fj}[ J who won the people by largesses ; more 
over the Duke had many concubines, thiough whose jea 
lousies he had not >xt appointed his successor, so that the 
relationships of ~%\ \\\ 5 T"> wcrc a ^ astray. Hence 
the advice of Confucius. The Duke however did not fol- 

580 



THE ANALECT. XII. X, XI. 



o - > 

IB & ^ w m * n m 

- o 

^ 5 3$ & 1 9E C SS 

SJc ^ J* ^ I: 

love a man you w r ant him to live, \vhen you 
hate him you wish he were dead ; but you 
have already wanted him to live and yet 
again you wish he were dead. This is an 
instance of the irrational." 

3. " Not indeed because of wealth 
But solely because exceptional." 

CHAPTER XL i. When Duke Ching 
of Ch i enquired of Confucius the principles 
of government, 2. Confucius answered say 
ing: "Let the Prince be Prince, the mini 
ster minister, the father father, and the son 

son." 

581 



XII. XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

low it, with the result that his successor was not appointed, 
and the way was opened to |>i|f J both for regicide and 
usurpation. $ : was the Duke s posthumous title. L. 
There is govcniiiunt, when etc. Good! If indeed the 
prince etc. although I have my revenue can I enjoy it? Z. 
heu sane ! revcra si princeps non sit princeps etc. licet 
praesto sit annona, num ego potero frui ? K. It is very 
true. Indeed, if a prince is not a prince etc. even though 
I had my revenue, how should I enjoy it ? Couv. Tres 
bien. Kn effect, si le prince ne remplit pas ses devoirs de 
prince, quand memc les grains ne manqueraient pas, pour- 
rais-je en avoir pour vivrc? 

CHAPTER XII.- LACONIC JUDGMENT AND 
PROMPT ACTION. i. This reads like a remark made 
after Tzii Lu s death. The absence of tenses is a errcat loss 

o 

to the Chinese language. C. Jf g\ ^ ff\ Half a 
word, or phrase. Jff^ (ffjj [|j^ To snap, break, decide. 

^ K & m w &, & n Hi tin y^ ft m , ^ 

f ^1E S? ^ ^ lil> 1 - | i- s -sincerity and acuteness made 
men submit to his decisions without waiting for him to 
finish speaking. L. Ah! it is Yu, who could with half a 
word settle litigations ! Z. qui dimidio verbo possit diri- 
mere lites etc. K. One who can settle a dispute with half 
a sentence. Couv. homme a terminer un proces en disant 
un seul mot. 

2. It is interpreted in the sense of fulfilling, not giving, a 
promise. C. ft\ f. f & ] )clay. -^ ^ jg g^ In 
haste to fulfil his promises. This is said to be recorded to 
shew why Tzti Lu s decisions were not disputed. L. Z. K, 
idem. Couv. executait ses promcsses sans retard. 

582 



THE ANALECT. XII. XI, XII. 



If ffr T- n * * 1t 
"F m Fit ? B An 

> > > 

88- ^ tt t: m % 

m it- M M w ^ ^F 

o 

W ft "T |g 3t S 

> > 

m ili 1 ^ ^ E 

3. "Excellent!" said the Duke, "Truly, if 
the prince be not prince, the minister not 
minister, the father not father, and the son 
not son, however much grain I may have, 
shall I be allowed to eat it ?" 

CHAPTER XII. i. The Master said: 
" Yu was the one, he could decide a dis 
pute with half a word." 2. Tzu Lu never 
slept over a promise. 

583 



XII. XIII, XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XIII. NO LITIGATION THE IDEAL. 

Probably said when Minister of Justice in Eu. See ^ 
^ IV. Cf. Q in preceding Cap. ^j? [\\- p gj^ Civil, 
3i- 31 : tf , Criminal cases. C. * SS IS 25 8if> 
ft) &. ffi K IS ffl 3S i i> It was not judging in litiga 
tion that was difficult, but to get the people to avoid litiga 
tion altogether was what he would have valued. E. In 
hearing litigation I am like any other body. What is neces 
sary Jwwever, is to cause the people to have no litigation. 
Z. audiendis litibus ego compar sum ceteris, at illud potent 
efficere, ut ne sint litigantes. K. While sitting in court 

lam no better than other men. But what I always 

try to do is to make even the suits unnecessary. Couv. 

Entendre les plaideurs tout comme un autre. L im- 

portant serait d affaire qu il n y cut plus de plaideurs. 

CHAPTER XIV. WEIGH WEEE THEN ACT. 

c. m nt i ft i$ >&> M it flij t& m iu -> ch\\ 

means to ponder over, and when unflaggingly then the 
beginning and end will be the same no tailing off. ^f fjf] 
* K ^lK &, & fllj %. m ill -> Ming m eans to 
put into execution, and when conscientiously, then there 
will be no difference in private or public. L. The act of 
governing is to keep its affairs before the mind without 
weariness, and to practise them with undeviating consistency. 
Z. animo incuba illi sine intermissione, opere cxerce ilium 
cum fidelitate. K. I)e patient in maturing } our plans and 
then carry them out with conscientiousness. Couv. II faut 
appliquer son esprit aux affaires sans relache, et les traiter 
avec justice. 

CHAPTER XV. See VI. xxv. 

584 



THE ANALECT. XII. XIII, XIV, XV. 



T- m m -T IK A -T 

El & $ 7- ill 



if. ^ ft $c Hi I 



rHl 

a 



> 

CHAPTER XIII. The Master said: "I 
can try a lawsuit as well as other men, but 
surely the great thing is to bring about that 
there be no going to law." 

CHAPTER XIV. When Tzu Chang 
asked about the art of government, the 
Master replied : " Ponder untiringly over 
your plans, and then conscientiously carry 
them into execution." 

CHAPTER XV. - - The Master said : 
" The Scholar who becomes widely versed 
in letters, and who restrains his learning 
within the bounds of good taste, is not likely 
to get off the track." 

585 



XII. XVI, XVII, XVIII. 



THE ANALECTS. 



CHA1TKR XVI. --REJOICETH NOT IN INI 
QUITY.- C. interprets j by f$ & ^ ?/!K J3 J& Jt 
ijK Lures on and encourages him in order to maturity. 
L. The superior man seeks to perfect the admirable quali 
ties of men, and does not etc. The mean man does the 
opposite ot this. Z. vir sapiens promovet aliorum bona, 
non contribuit aliorum malis etc. K. encourages men to 
develop the good qualities in their nature etc. whereas, a 
bad man and a fool etc. Couv. Le sage aide les autres a 
bicn faire etc. 

CHAPTER XVIL DIRECTING BY RECTITUDE. 
-The play on the words $% and ] is not easy to re 
produce in English; to rule means to regulate. X.K JL -f~ 
in full and f.j- in deference to the rank of Chi K ang ; see 
II. xx. C. The philosopher $> says fa ft EL ^ JE 
HB fib .IE A #\ No one has ever rectified others unless 
he were correct himself. Confucius is supposed to have 
spoken as in the text hoping that Chi K ang would try to 
rectify the conduct of the three ruling clans of Lu. L. 
To govern means to rectify. If you lead on the people 
with correctness, who will dare not to be correct ? /. 
gubernatio est rectitudo ; si tu praesis cum rectitudine, quis 
audebit non esse rectus? K. Government means order. 

If you .in order, who disorderly? Couv. Gouver- 

ncr on diriger les homilies, c est leur faire suivre la voie 
droite etc. 

CHAPTER XVIII. WOULD NOT ROJ* THOUGH 

^\I1) I O A sample of Confs boldness with a powerful 

noble. / r ; etc. If there be your non-desire. C. If you, 

Sir, are not Y[ ffi avaiicious, although }-ou pj reward 

586 



THE ANALECT. XII. XVI, XVIJ, XVIII 



-J- 
A 



m. JH % T; Jt h H. 
-T & JE ?l -T- A * j& 

f. m Hi if I!H lie ^c ? 



(ID IF. @H /^ \ 

o > 

CHAPTER XVI. The Master said: 
" The man of noble mind seeks to perfect 
the good in others and not their evil. The 
little minded man is the reverse o f this." 

CHAPTER XVII. When Chi K ang 
Tzu asked Confucius for a definition of 
government, Confucius replied : " To go 
vern means to guide aright. If you, Sir, 
will lead the way aright, who will dare to 
deviate from the right ?" 

CHAPTER XVIII. --Chi K ang Tzu, 
being plagued with robbers, consulted Con- 

587 



XII. XVIII. XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

them to be robbers they will %\] Jfo ffi) ^P IS> f eel 
ashamed and refuse to steal. The Chi family had stolen 
their power $g |H> K ang Tzii, the son of a concubine, 
had usurped his infant brother s rights and was suspected of 
his murder, so the people were but following their leader. 
L. distressed about the number of thieves in t/tc State, 
injured etc. If you, Sir, were not covetous, although you 
should reward them to do it, they would not steal. Z. 
angebatur ob latrones ; si tu non sis cupidus, etiamsi merce- 
dem proponas populo, non furabitur. K. distressed at the 
frequency of robberies in the country. If you yourself 
shew them that you do not wish for wealth, although you 
should reward them etc. Couv. dans 1 embaiTas a cause de 
volcurs, il consulta etc. Seigneur, ne soyez ni cupicle ni 

ambitieux encouragiez par dcs recompense!". 

CHAPTER XIX. CAPITAL PUNISIIMKXT UX- 
NKCKSSARY. fit is taken by fj ft as j gj, by 
Kuan as f/c ; it is also vised in the sense of concede to. 
i is read as a verb, #{]> C. & ft R @? $J $N 
Rulers arc those to whom the people look as exemplars. 

S S S $ A Ji S5 SJU ls killi g a wonl 

for those over the people to use ! L. What do you say 
to killing the unprincipled for the good of the principled ? 
Sir, in carrying on your government, why should you use 
killing at all ? Let your ci inccd desires be for what is 
good etc. The relation between superiors etc. The grass 
must bend when etc. Z. si interficiam expcites lege, ut 
dcvcniatur ad hnbendum ordinem, quomodo ? quorsum 
uteris occisione ? Tu velis bonum etc. ; herba, inccssente 
ipsi vento, profecto inciu vatur. K. putting to death the 

588 



THE ANALECT. XII. XVIII, XIX. 



& IS in m ?L ^- 51 ft 

o > - 

m W( ?L & -T; m ft #5 ?l 

ffn S ^ Sft F3 -T- ^ T; 

K IH ft *f in I!5J ^ ?L 

$ $ H Jt ! K S ^ ^ 



ucius, who answered him saying : " If you, 
Sir, be free from the love of wealth, although 
you pay them they \vill not steal." 

CHAPTER XIX. Chi K ang Tzu asked 
the opinion of Confucius on government and 
said : " How would it do to execute the 
lawless for the good of the law-abiding ?" 
" What need, Sir, is there of capital punish 
ment in your administration ?" responded 
Confucius. " If your aspirations are for 
good, Sir, the people will be good. The 

589 



XII. XIX, XX. THE ANALECTS. 

wicked in the interests of the good? depend upon 

capital punishments? Wish for honesty and etc. The 
moral power of the rulers etc. Whithersoever the wind 
blows etc. Couv. Xe ferais-je pas hien de mettre a mort 

les malfaitcurs, afin de rcndre le peuple vertueux ? 

avez vous besoin de la peine de mort ? Vous-meme veuillez 

serieusemcnt etre veitueux etc An souffle du vent, 

1 herbe se courbe toujours. 

CHAPTER XX. r-UNIVKRSAL ESTEEM OR 
MERE POPULARITY. This cap. should be read in the 
light of XV. v. i. |H) is to be heard of, get a name; 
jg is to win one s way by nobility oi character, - is a man 
of education, hence, an official. C. $ -ft * J A> 
fljj ft djrt / K The Ji are those whose character 
commands general confidence and whose deeds win then- 
unhindered way. L. \\"hat must the officer be who may 
be said to be distinguished ? Z. litteratus qualis est. K. 
educated gentlemen do etc. distinguished. Couv. pour 
meiiter d etre appele illustre. 

2 . C. :ji f}J| f #\.^ given to outside show, so Con 
fucius jj Jl- ^ fin $$ 2* -lil exposed his ailment and 
dosed it. 

3- C. H fi ^ % I ll &> IIis {iimG is s P rcad abroad. 

L. heard of through the State throughout his clan. 

/. sit in regno, fama certo celebratur. K. in public lite 
or in piivate life he will be heard of by the world. Couv. 
renom aupres de son prince, de ses concitoyens, et de tons 
ses parents. 

4. ftfi means heard of, fame ; J penetrating, universal, 

influential. C. ffl & 5* *! ffl rM * IBK 75 W. 1 

590 



1HE ANALECT. XII. XIX, XX. 



m m =$-- i? T-- A 

& m .0 "i 5H Ja Z 

m ft m M m ua <& ti 

O 

^ H ^ ^F tic z ti ^ fi 
rf 3g w ^ ri ^ ja 

^E fit ffr ^ $n /!> 

moral character of those in high position is 
the breeze, the character of those below is the 
grass. When the grass has the breeze upon 
it, it assuredly bends." 

CHAPTER XX. i. Tzu Chang asked 
what a man must be like in order to gain 

general estimation. 2. " What is it that you 
mean by general estimation ?" enquired the 
Master. 3 " To ensure popularity abroad 
and to ensure it at home," replied Tzu 
Chang. 

4. " That," said the Master, " is popularity, 

591 



XI. XX. THE ANALECTS. 

*. W\ J<A 5h> fJ?^ and T<* are similar l)iil different. 
There is the difference between them tli.it exists between 
real and counterfeit. 

$ *%fc H c tc- means he is a in in of judgement and 
discretion. C. -ft | j \\ jfi ft ^ ;R A ll *}K 
All are matters of personal culture and not for the observa 
tion of others; hence $f -|f } 4{{ [ft g ^ his 
conduct naturally meets with no opposition. 

6- )S , ^ > U e maintains an attitude of un 
wavering assurance. C. f\ & 3 & fflJ fRE J9? g, t ! iU 
Self-assured, without a qualm, yf> |^ JJ jfjj 4}- ;R. ^S> 
for liis aim is not reality but merely fame. L. That is 
notoriety not distinction. Xow etc. solid and straightfor 
ward and loves righteousness. He examines people s words 
and looks at their countenances. He is anxious to humble 

himself to others. Such etc. As to notoriety, he 

assumes the appearance of virtue, but his actions are 
opposed to it and he rests in this character without any 
doubts about himself. Z. hoc est famosus, non illustris 

esse simplex, rectus, et amator aequitatis, perp-jndit 

verba at examinat vultum, estque sollicitus ut se subjici.it 
aliis : etc. Oui famosus est, specie praefert virtutem, factis 
autem adversatur, et quin ea consistat, minime dubitat. K. 

notorious, not distinguished. Xow stands upon his own 

integrity and loves what is right ; who forms a correct 
judgment of men by observing how they look as well as 
etc. Reflection makes him humble etc., etc the noto 
rious man wants to be moral in his look etc. really is 

not so in his life. He prides himself on such an ap 
pearance without misgiving. Couv. Celui-la a du renom, 

592 



THE ANAIZCT. XII. XX. 



* m. n & w m m 

t 7%.* & it ^ -in -Hi 

M if m pa ^ ^ ^ 

ff ife * T S ^ 

iS ^; ^ A M IS ili 

S & ^ fl- li M 



Q 

TL 



not esteem. 5. As for the man who meets 
with general esteem, he is natural, upright, 
and a lover of justice; he weighs what men 
say and observes their expression, and his 
anxiety is to be more lowly than others ; and 
so he ensures esteem abroad, as he ensures 
it also at home. 6. As to the seeker of 
popularity, he assumes an air of magna 
nimity which his actions belie, while his self- 

593 



XII. XX, XXI. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

il n a pas une gloire veritable. Un homme illustre cst 
simple, droit, ami de la justice. II fait attention aux paro 
les qu il entcnd, et il observe Fair du visage. II a soin de 

se mettre au-dessous cles autrcs seulement clu renom, 

revet une apparence de vertu, opposees etc. II se flatte 

d etre vertueux et s en tient assure. 

CHAPTER XXI.-FIRST THINGS FIRST. Cf. 

cap. X. IS 9 XL xxv< l C> !& ^ 2, $L Ifc *b* 
Evil hidden within. L. When etc. I venture etc. to 
exalt virtue, to correct cherished evil, and to discover 
delusions. Z. de cumulanda virtute, corrigendis cupidi- 
tatibus, et disccrnendis hallucinationibus. K. to elevate 
the moral sentiment ; to discover the secret vices and fail 
ings in one s inmost mind ; and lastly to dispel the delusions 
of life. Couv. comment on pent acquerir une grande 
vcrtu, corriger ses defauts, reconnaitre scs crreurs. 

2. C. U ;J -tJJ Jt 3$ cL> Commended his earnest 
ness in self culture. 

reply to the same disciple in VI, xx. $? 0? & % (ID ^ 
II :II: ^Jj^ Do your duty without counting its conse- 

cognise one s brief anger as a mere trifle, yet the calamity 
brought on one s family as a grievous thing indeed, should 
induce a man to see and overcome the irrationality of his 
anger. (It must always be borne in mind that the answers 
of Confucius were not intended to cover the whole ground, 
but to apply to the interlocutor s needs). Fan Ch ih was 
ffi. $b & ?P.K coarse-fibred and self-interested. L. Truly 

594 



THE ANALECT. XII. XX. XXI. 



A I $ -T ; m W m Z 






ife ffi i 



assurance knows never a misgiving, and so 
he ensures popularity abroad, as he also 
ensures it at home." 

CHAPTER XXL i. Onee when Fan 
Ch ih was rambling along with the Master 
under the trees at the Rain-altars, he re 
marked : " May I venture to ask how one 
may improve one s character, correct one s 
personal faults and discriminate in what is 
irrational ?" 

2. "An excellent question," rejoined the 
Master. 3. "If a man put duty first and 
success after, will not that improve his 

595 



XII. XXI, XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

a good question : II doing what is to be done be made the 
first business, and success a secondary consideration etc. 
To assail one s own wickedness and not etc. For a morn 
ing s anger to disregard one s own life, and involve that of 
his parents etc. 7,. o pulchram questionem : antehabere 
aetus, posthabere acquisitionem etc. ? impugnare sua vitia, 
non vero etc. ? ob unius mane irani, oblivisci suani pcrso- 
nani et usque ad suos pa rentes etc. ? K. Make it a ru e 
to work for it before you accept anything as your own etc. 
Make it a habit to assail your own vices and failings before 
etc. lose his temper and forget himself of a morning etc. 
Couv. Ouclle excellent question ! Avoir en vue la prati 
que plutot que la possession de la vertu etc. ? Faire la 
guerre a ses propres defauts, et non etc. ? Dansun mo 
ment de colere, mettre en danger sa vie et celle dc ses 
parents n est-ce pas illusion ? 

CHAPTER XXII. LOVIC OF MFN ANJ) KNOW 
LEDGE OF MEN. i. C. ^ A t Jfe\ lJ A 
[J J<L UK Philanthropy is altruism in practice, know 
ledge of men the objective of knowledge. L. benevolence. 
It is love to all men. Z. de humanitatc ; amare alios. 
de prudentia ; nosse alios. K. The moral life of a man 
consists in loving men. Understanding consists in under 
standing men. Couv. d humanite. File consiste a aimer 
les hommes. la prudence a connaitre les hommes. 

2. 4ft j says that Fan Ch ili misapprehended, thinking 
the gj A was general f ;] , and th.e %\\ A special .f}U 
two oppositcs. L. did not immediately understand. 

3. Cf. II. 19. C. $ [ft $S fe : *n 4U ffi * 
^? ifl B J t ^C-> To promote the upright etc. is wisdom ; 



THE ANALECT. XII. XXI, XXII 



" 

B a A A m & &f 

o i 

\A\ JM *^~ im (in tf?/ pi AM 
l*t; >** -^ juj |uj ^- I/A -iVj 

o 



-3 ^ih 41 rf. nP -H- ^> 

^w 5 ; H 7K J J ^V ^n<> 

n ts >i a a ii s 

o - 

character ? If he attack his own failings 
instead of those of others, will he not remedy 
his personal faults ? For a morning s anger 
to forget his own safety and involve that 
of his relatives, is not this irrational ?" 

CHAPTER XXII. i. Once when Fan 
Ch ih asked the meaning of Virtue, the 
Master replied, " Love your fellow-men." 
On his asking the meaning of knowledge, 
the Master said : " Know your fellow-men." 

2. Fan Ch ih not having comprehended. 
3. The Master added : " By promoting the 

597, 



XII. xxir, xxiu. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

to straighten the crooked is kindness. Hence they are not 
opposites but corrchtive. I.. Fmploy etc. in this way 
the crooked can be made upright. Z. cvehcndo rectos 
etc. potest fieri ut improbi corrigantur. K. put down 
every cause that is unjust in such a way that the unjust 
will be made just. Couv. en laissar.t de cote les mediants, 
on pent determiner les mediants a se corriger. 

4. $p see fi]^ It is defined by ^ C. Me thought 
the reply only covered the meaning of ^cfj and not of ^ 
L. Fan Ch ih retired etc. A little while a<jo etc. Z 

o 

nuper quidem etc. K. Just a little while ago etc. Couv. 
Tout a 1 heure, j ai ete voir etc. 

5- C. jfc Jf: J5f 2 ft J$i # n (K A sigh 

over its breadth of meaning, which was not limited to -^{j^ 
L. Truly rich is his saying ! Z. o foecundum effatum ! 
K. a saying very wide indeed in its application Couv. 
Ces paroles sont pleines de sens. 

- -ft K Hi- ", 11-13; IV. iv. jfi n A ft 
(t. li & t, ~* U >fj * t s y JU it -- W> 

Af;ir means that all were transformed to goodness and none 

o 

saw any that were not good, as if they had gone far away. L. 
Shun, being in possession of etc. on which all who were 
devoid of virtue disappeared. Z. Choen tenens imperium 
etc., ct improbitas evanuit. K. all immoral people disap 
peared. C ouv. tons les mediants disparurent. 

CIIAITI .R XXIIL OX I RIKXDSHIP. ^ is read 
Ku, (III. 7) and means to inform a superior. j is iji C. 

/JL ffi u ti, ft & at & v. ft z, m si- m 

W. Jfi ;>, ^ H 3g 1> ^ llL> Friendship is for the 
development of virtue, hence the importance of fulfilling 

598 



THE ANALETS. XIT. XXII. 

m T m m a & & m* 

^ S s Hi . $i ^ -T m si 

t ^ T : ^e a M 01 m 

"*irjc*<i F^ a 

* w a M f -P 



straight and degrading the crooked you can 
make even the crooked straight" 

4. Fan Ch ih withdrew and afterwards 
meeting Tzu Hsia Said to him : " A little 
while ago, when I had an interview with the 
Master, and asked for ^ definition of know 
ledge, he replied, By promoting the straight 
and degrading the crooked you can make 
even the crooked straight, what can he 
have meant ?" 

5. " What a rich maxim that is ! " replied 
Tzu Hsia. 6. "When Shun had the Em 
pire, he chose from amongst the multitude 
and promoted Kao Yao, whereupon all who 
were devoid of virtue disappeared. And 
when T ang had the Empire, he too chose 
from amongst the multitude and promoted I 
Yin, whereupon all who were devoid of virtue 
disappeared." 

599 



XII. XXin, XXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

one s duty by pointing things out to him and using tact in 
doinir so, but always according to what is riq-ht. L. Faith- 

t> ./ o o 

full v admonish your friend, and skillfully lead him on. Ii 
etc. impracticable, stop. Do not disgrace yourself. Z. 
fkleliter commonefacias et belle clirigas eos : si nihil possis, 
tune absiste, ne ipsimet injuriam adsciscas. K. Be cons 
cientious in what you say to him. Lead him on gently etc. 
if you find you cannot do that, stop. Do not quarrel with 
him only to get insulted. Couv. Avertissez vos amis avec 
franchise, et conseillez-les avcc douceur. S ils n approuvent 
etc. ; craignez de vous attirer un affront. 

CHAPTER XXIV. FK1KXDS ARK FOR DFVF- 
LOPMENT OF CHARACTKR. L. The superior 
man on grounds of culture meets with his fiiends, and by 
their friendship helps his virtue. Z. sapiens per iittera- 

turam congreditur amicos, adjuvat perfectionem. K. 

makes friends by his taste for art and literature. He uses 
his friends to help him to live a moral life. Couv. Fe 
sage se fait des amis pas son erudition, et 1 amitie est un 
moyen de perfection pour lui et pour eux. 



600 



THE ANALECTS, All. XXIII, XXIV. 

m = 

"o o 

s m m m 

&. 3a .lh H $L 

ft. =? m m =? 

^~> - 

CHAPTER XXIII. i. On Tzu Kung 
enquiring the duties of friendship the Master 
replied: "Advise him conscientiously and 
guide him discreetly. If he be unwilling, 
then cease ; do not court humiliation." 

CHAPTER XXIV. --The philosopher 

Tseng said : " The wise man by his culture 
gathers his friends, and by his friends deve- 
lopes his goodness of character." 

60 1 



XI II. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME VII. 
BOOK XIII. 

CHIEFLY CONCERNING GOVERNMENT. 

CONTENTS. ^ $K Tzu Lu is the title and the 
book contains a number of epigrams on government and 
the duties of rulers. The four words uttered in reply to 
Tzu Lu might almost serve as its text ^ ;, $} ,^ 

CHAPTER I. -THE LEADER SHOULD LEAD.- 
i- Jt ^ o The Difficulty is with the o If 
int -rpreted by " the people," as is usual, it would read, 
Go before them, set them to work. With this idea K ung 
An Kuo interpreted by " Set them the example and then 
you can set them to work." Legge suggests taking ;, 
in a neuter sense. The accepted view is as in the trans 
lation. C. The philosopher ]$g says : jl J3c . ff & 

# 9c , m ^ ft m fl> >L K, * & & 

> i-W Sit ffl ^ &i, Wherever the people should go, 
let the ruler in person go first and the people without 
orders will follow ; whatever the people should do let the 
ruler in person do diligently, and they will do works how 
ever arduous, without complaint. L. Go before the 
people li ith your cxauiplc> and be laborious in their affairs. 
Z. praecas illi, labores illi. K. Go before (as L.) ; show 
them your exertion. Couv. One le prince donnc lui- 

602 



THE ANAI.ECTS. XIII. I 



VOLUME VII, 
BOOK XII!. 



z 



z m 



CHAPTER I. i. When Tzu Lu asked 
about the art of government the Master re 
plied : " Be in advance of them, shew them 
how to work." 

2 On his asking for something more, 
the Master added : " Untiringly." 

603 



XIII. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

mcnic 1 exemplc de toutcs les vcrtus, et pHte sccours au 
pcuplc dans scs travaux. 

2. C. says 4f in ancient copies is -fij: Do not. L. 
Be not weary (in these things). Z. iis ne lassescas. K. 

Be indefatigable in that. Couv s applique sans relache 

a etc. 

CHAPTER II. THE RULER S RULE: USE 
YOUR STAFF. i. For fli ^ v. Intro. V., for ^ 
& see II. 20; III. 6, etc. for ft fr] cf. VIII. 4. C. 7ft 
t*K ?$, K -l!lc The holers of the various offices. $ 
$fe KcA Tn ey were united in the Comptroller. %k iff. 

& ft K ffiu SB & ^ K I* 5&, flfl B ^ & 

ffn W S^ ^ i ^^ ^ ut he should direct them in their 
duties, and afterwards examine into their fulfilment, thereby 
himself avoiding drudgery, and promoting them on the 
perfection of their work. ^^ /f| fj& ^ ^ ^ 4j fig ff^ 
Jrhicn means the virtuous, ts ai the able. The philosopher 
i LL says, ^ ft ft 3, fllj Jf ft Kl .^c ^"l^s 
etc. then the Prince will be doing his Minister s work. L. 
Employ first the services of your various officers, pardon 
small faults and raise to office men of virtue and talents. 

Z. praemittere habentes officii curam, evehe sapientes 

et peiitos. K. Leave the initiative in the details of go 
vernment to the responsible heads of department. Couv. 
Mettez en avant les prefets, c-a-d. ne faites pas tout par 
vous-mcme, mais servez-vous des prefets, qui sont a vos 
ordres. 

2. Cf. II. 19- XII. 24. A :JC ^ tn% cf. VI. 4. 
L. How shall I know etc. so that I may raise them to 
office? will others neglect them? Z quos vero 

604 



THE ANALKCTS. XIII. II. 



rfii 



CHAPTER II. i. When Chung Kung 
was Minister for the House of Chi he asked 
for advice on the art of government, where 
upon the Master said : " Utilise first and 
foremost your subordinate officers, overlook 
their minor errors, and promote those who 
are worthy and capable." 

2. " How may I recognise those are worthy 
and capable ? " he asked. " Promote those 

605 



X11I. II, III. THE ANAI.I-CT. 

tu non novcris, alii an ipsi niissos facicnt. K there is 

then 110 fear that those whom you do not know will be 

neglected. Couv Ouant a ceux quo vous in: con- 

naissez pas, est-ce quc d autres ne vous les fefont pas 
connaitre. 

CHA1TKR III. A LKSSON IN LOGIC.- i. The 
clause is generally read in a hypothetical sense, " If the 
Prince of \Vei is waiting for etc." % ^\ was Duke [{\ 
of Wei, see VII. 14. This incident is placed in the tenth 
year of Duke j on Confucius returning from * to Wei. 
Tzii Lu at that time was in the service of Duke & ffij 
may be taken as in order to ; $f as the sign of the 
future; ^fc is also interpreted as most important. L. 
The ruler of Wei has been waiting for you, in order with 
you to administer the government. What will you con 
sider the first thing to be clone ? Z. expectat magistrum, 
ut fungaris magistratu : magister quid prius praestiturus ? 
K. Now what do you consider etc. Couv. Si le prince 
de Wei vous attendait pour rcgler avcc vous etc. a quoi 
donneriez-vous votre premier soin ? 

2. Cf. XII. ii. >& & etc. Cf. III. 7. et al. The 
translation gives the accepted sense, but it might also be 
read, If I had to, the first step surely would be to rectify 
the various titles. C. . Rj HJ & ^ : Jl : 5t- BB 

n ^c IK ft H & ^- At this tiinc 1)ukc Ch uh 

disavowed his father, and sacrificed to the manes of his 
grandfather as if to his father s, so that names and realities 
were in confusion. I lence if things got their right names, 
Duke Ch uh was unfilial and a usurper, and Confucius in 
this laconic way signifies his own unwillingness to act. 

606 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. I/, III. 



=? T- A 0f 

M S& ^ ^P 



WL ti t TW 



you do recognise ; " was the reply, " as to 
those whom you may fail to recognise, is it 
likely that others will neglect them ? " 

CHAPTER. III. i. "The Prince of 
Wei," said Tzu Lu, " is awaiting you, Sir, to 
take control of his administration, what will 
you undertake first, Sir ? " 

2. " The one thing needed," replied the 
Master, " is the correction of terms." 

607 



XIII. III. THE ANALECTS. 

Apparently however he put no obstacle in the way of his 
disciples accepting service, for at this time Duke Ch uh 
had already ruled for nine years. L. What is necessary 
is to rectify names. Z. quod potissimum, nonne re- 
formare appellationem ? K. If I must begin, I would 
begin by defining the names of things. Couv. A rendrc 
a chaque chose son vrai nom. 

3- 3] ; 1U Is this so! or, Well, really! You 
are a long way from the point, Sir. What has that 
correcting to do with the matter. C. %^ ftf] j& J !}}. 
fra> 1? ^ ^ N 2. 3; ffi -t!l Fai " from the matter 
i.e., not an affair of immediate urgency. L. So, indeed ! 
You are wide of the mark ! Why must there be such 
rectification? Z. estnc ita ? magister digreditur ; quor- 
sum haec rcformatio ? K. Oh ! really, but you are too 
impractical. What has definition of names to do here. 
Couv. Kst-ce raisonnable ? Maitre, vous vous egarez 
loin du but. A quoi cette reforme cles noms ? 

4. PJ Cf. II. 1 8. ^ f$j in $i thereupon is reserv- 
ed-like. L. How etc A superior man etc. shows a 
cautious reserve. Z. quam rusticus iste Yeoti ! Sapiens 
etc. quippe omittcntis instar. K. Sir, you have really no 
manners. A gentleman, when he hears etc. will always 
wait for an explanation. Couv. Cue Lou est grossier ! 
Un homme sage se garde de dire on de faire ce qu il ne 
sait [)as. 

5. L. If names be not correct, language is not in 
accordance with the truth of things. If etc. affairs cannot 
be carried on to success. Z. Si titulus non sit rectus, 
tune appellatio non probatur ; res non pcrficicntur. K. 

608 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. Ill 



HI) B9 ^ Sf -III ^f IE 



S* -/r -ti* ^Hi. ^?5^ H3 X> 

B #11 K ife /E ^5 

^F ill Jfr ft & ffc 

o 



n m 



~X\ 7P ^ : nP R i-p pl 

Jii . T n a. qj 

3. " Are you as wide of the mark as that, 
Sir ! " said Tzii Lu, "Why this correcting?" 

4. " How uncultivated you are, Yu ! " re 
sponded the Master. " A wise man, in re 
gard to what he does not understand, main 
tains an attitude of reserve. 5. If terms be 
incorrect, then statements do not accord \vith 
facts ; and when statements and facts do not 

609 



XIII. HI. TIIK ANALECTS. 

Now, if names of things arc not properly defined, words 

will not correspond to facts impossible to perfect 

anything. Couv. Si les noms ne conviennent pas aux 
choses, il y a confusion dans la langage etc. 

6. rj-f is a verb. |}It $f J/f etc. have nowhere to put 
hand or foot. l ft JIl ft Hi ! ?K ^ ^ 3E fll 
^ fH" l?c> ^ i- s order, 3- ^ is harmony. L. \Vlienctc. 

proprieties and music \vill not flourish punishments will 

not be properly awarded the people do not know how 

to move hand or foot. Z. si etc. tune res non per- 

ficientur ; officia et harmonia non florebunt ; suppli- 

cia et poenae non quadrabunt ; populus non habet ubi 

ponat manus et pecles. K. Where etc. the arts and 

institutions of civilization cannot flourish; law and 

justice cannot attain their ends ; people will be at a loss 

to know what to do. Couv les choses ne s executent 

pas les bienseances et 1 harmonie sont negligees, les 

supplices et les autres chatiments n etant plus proportion- 
nes aux fautes ne sait plus ou mettre la main ni le pied. 

7. Had TZLI Lu attended to the discrimination of Con 
fucius he would not have sacrificed his life for an unworthy 
master. L. necessary that the names he uses may be 

spoken appropriately, carried out appropriately 

just that in his words there may be nothing incorrect. 
Z. Ideo sapiens princcps quod nominat, certc clecebit 

denominari ; pcragi nihil habet quod teniere sit, 

idque totum est. K. can always specify whatever he 

names; carry out makes it a point to be always 

exact in the words he uses. Couv. Un prince sage donne 
aux choses les noms qui leur conviennent, et chaque chose 

610 



THE ANALECTS. XIII III. 

ffi m m % ft * m * m 

=? z z ^ ^ ta n j& HIJ 

M ^ & & fli] * H ll J * 

o 

a & r T fife* & tp ^ 11 ?r< 



B ff w 



m m w 



accord, then business is not properly execut 
ed ; 6. when business is not properly ex 
ecuted, order and harmony do not flourish ; 
when order and harmony do not flourish, 
then justice becomes arbitrary ; and when 
justice becomes arbitrary the people do not 
know how to move hand or foot. 7. Hence 
whatever a wise man denominates he can 
always definitely state, and what he so states 
he can always carry into practice, for the wise 
man \vill on no account have anything remiss 
in his definitions." 

611 



XIII. Ill, IV. THE ANALECTS. 

doit ctre traitee d apres la signification du noni etc. Dans 
le choix des noms il cst tres attentif. 

CHAPTER IV. ROYAL CHARACTER BETTER 
THAN ROYAL FARMING. i. * $U Sec Intro, 
V. It is supposed that he was in office at this lime. 
C. Jf. l? 3i. S $<> W. i&E & Q I!:: Corn growing 
is called farming, vegetable growing kitchen gardening. 
L. husbandry. I am not so good for [hat etc. husband 
man gardener. Z. ego hauci par veterano agrico- 

lae ncc tanti ac veteranus olitor. K. l ; or that etc. 

fanner gardener. Couv. Un vieux labourcur vous 

1 enseignerait mieux que moi jardinier etc. 

2. C. /h A HH SO Ko A Plebeian. L. A small 
man indeed. Z. vulgarem hominem. K. a petty-mind 
ed man. Couv. 1 esprit petit. 

3. Note the parallels fig, S fg, K, fg> ffl K> 
fi*N might be translated a like spirit. C. defines it by 
M K Sincerity. ,*&*!)*&*$ 
ff ^^ A piece of cloth with tapes attached for tying a 
child on the back, as is still in vogue. L. If a superior 
man love propriety, the people will not dare not to be 

reverent righteousness, submit to his example, 

good faith sincere. Now, \vhcn these things obtain, 

the people from all quarters will come to him, what 

need has he etc. Z. si superior amct ritus, tune populi 

nemo audebit non revereri ; justitiam ..acquies- 

cere ; sinccritatcm adhibere voluntatem populi 

fasciatos gestabunt suos infantes et accuient. K. \\ hen 
the rulers etc. encourage education and good manners the 
people will never fail in respect encourage the love of 

612 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. I 



HIJ a flij m at x is a 

K * iff 21 ?- to ^ ^ 

H m $ H -tH H % J$ * 

* 

St J: HI] Ifc .h H /h El ffl *n 

O " 

^ if K * A 55= ^ 



CHAPTER IV. i. On Fan Ch ih re 
questing to be taught agriculture, the Master 
replied, " I am not as good as an old farmer 
for that" When he asked to be taught 
gardening the Mastered answered, " I am 
not as good as an old gardener for that." 

2. On Fan Ch ih withdrawing the Master 
said: "What a littleminded man is Fan 
Hsu ! 3. When a ruler loves good manners 
his people will not let themselves be disre 
spectful ; when a ruler loves justice his peo 
ple will not let themselves be unsubmissive; 
when a ruler loves good faith his people will 
not venture to be insincere ; and if he be 

613 



X11I. IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

justice ...... obedience; ...... good faith ......... honesty ......... 

flock to that country etc. Couv. Si le prince aime 
Purbanite et les convenances, aucun de ses subjets n osera 
les negliger ...... justice, ...... 1 obeissance ...... sincerite ...... 

de mauvaise foi ...... accouront a lui, avec leurs petits 

enfants sur leurs epaules. Quel besoin etc. 

CHAPTER V. LEARNED AND UNPRACTI 
CAL. Cf. II. 2. Tfi JH^ may mean inability to carry 
the teaching of the poems into practical life. C. JJ!^ %$ 

ft # A ft n va a, HI a m a 



Jt K &> BB ffi t -Olo Thc Odes really reveal 
human nature and the principles of things in general, and 
from them the development or decay of manners and the 
success or failure of governments can be deduced. Hence 
the student of them should undoubtedly be versed in the 
rules of Government and be able to discuss them. L. 
Though a man etc. yet if, when intrusted with a govern 
mental charge, he knows not how to act, or if, when sent 
to any quarter etc. he cannot give his replies unassisted, 
notwithstanding the extent, etc. Z. didiceris Carmina 
tercenta ; si ...... nescias expcdire, missusque ...... nequeas a 

te solo dare responsiones, ...... tamcn cui usui facient. K. 

A man who can recite three hundred pieces of poetry by 
heart, but who, when the conduct of the affairs of a nation 
is intrusted to him, can do nothing, ...... public mission to a 

foreign country, has nothing to say for himself etc. Couv. 
Supposons qu un homme etc. il manque d habilite ; s il 
(id. K.) il soit incapable de repondre par lui-meme ; que 
lui sei t toute sa litterature ? 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. IV, V. 

fi 

m n =?- m o ? TJ it 

& 2 M jfc 

B3 Ul H m K n 



Ji 





ra 



like this, then people will come from every 
quarter carrying their children strapped on 
their backs ; what does he want with learn 
ing agriculture ? " 

CHAPTER V. The Master said : " A 
man may be able to recite the three hundred 
Odes, but if, when given a post in the admi 
nistration, he proves to be without practical 
ability, or when sent anywhere on a mission, 
he is unable of himself to answer a question, 
although his knowledge is extensive, of what 
use is it ? " 

615 



XIII. VI, VII, VIII. THE ANALKCIS. 

CHAPTER VI. COMMANDING CHARACT 
ER. L. When a prince s personal conduct is correct, 
his government is effective without the issuing of orders. 
If etc. he may issue orders, but they will not be followed. 
Z. si cujus persona sit recta, quin jubeat, tamen 

agent; non obsequentur. K. If a man is in order in 

his personal conduct, he will get served even without 
taking the trouble to give orders. Couv. Si le prince est 
lui-meme vertueux, le peuple remplira ses devoirs, sans 
qu on le lui commando ; ne les suivra pas. 

CHAPTER VII BROTHERS IX ] )EGENER- 
ACY. Lu was the territory of Duke (^ : ] fouith son of 
^C 3E> the second son being j c The seventh son 
was |J ffi who became Duke of $j~ Cf. VI. 22. C. 

* ft % BU ffi & B$ & ill. & ft Mi (El, ft 

?L ~f 1ft *o Originally brother kingdoms they, in this 
hour of decay and upheaval, still maintained a like relation 
ship in their political condition, hence Confucius sigh. 

L. The Governments are brothers. Z. sicut 

germani fratres. K. The one is about the same as the 
other. Couv. sont soeurs par leur administration, conime 
par leur origine. 

CHAPTER VIII. A CONTENTED MIND.- |J Jfi 
g| is described by the ^ f ^ as Jg ^ to manage one s 
house. C. Tfe -f- :ifij %" ^ ^^ He was a high 
minister of Wei. flj\ fp JI fl[ $fr &t c An expres 
sion of indifference and carelessness ({[[J J^f says j|rf gj 
About), "f^, J{-< \& Collect, accumulate. ^ ffgj -iJi^ 

Complete. H UC ffi ff : ffi) >f] > >T< JSl St ifi i^ 
iji ifl Jll ^ c It means he did it by degrees in modera 

616 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. VI, VII, VIII, 

A -fc A 

^ ^ 7- IE < ^ 

i? il Ift El $ft iff] EJ 

H Hi -dl 1& ^ fr it 

o - 

W = Z & & JE 

o 

f ij Ut * * 

CHAPTER VI. The Master said : " If 
a ruler is himself upright his people will do 
their duty without orders ; but if he himself 
be not upright, although he may order they 
will not obey." 

CHAPTER VII. --The Master said: 
" Lu and Wei are brothers (even) in their 
government." 

CHAPTER VIII. The Master said of 
Ching, a scion of the ducal House of Wei, 
that he dwelt well content in his house. 
When first he began to possess property he 

617 



XIII. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

tion, without permitting a desire for immediate perfection 
to dominate him, and make him greedy. E. that he 

knew the economy of a family well Ha! here is a 

collection ! I la ! this is complete ! Ha ! that is 

admirable! Z. bone clegebat domi ; aliquantulum 

cumulavi, circiter complete habeo ; prope splcndi- 

dum cst K. admirable ordered the economy of his 

home I have j ust made ends meet. I have j ust 

managed to pay for all I require. Now I can just 
manage to get along pretty well. Couv. toujours 

content de 1 etat de sa niaison J ai amasse un pen 

Je suis prcsque au comble de I opulcnce Je suis dans la 

splendeur. 

CHAPTER IX. - - FIRST ENRICH, THEN 
TEACH. Confucius thus early recognises the law of 
Political Economy that wealth and leisure are necessary to 
education and civilisation. 

1. C. $|^ fj) l)l l!L> To drive a vehicle. E. when 
the Master went to etc. Z. Confucius aclibat etc. K. 
When Confucius on his travels etc. Couv. alia dans le 
principaute etc. 

2. C. $U ??< -llJU Many. L. How numerous are 
the people ! Z. multitudo quanta ! K. What a large po 
pulation is here ! Couv. One les habitants sont nombreux ! 

^) h*\\ IJIJ i 1*3 ^ MJ +^^4 

II! > <$ K $1U W v!i" c To lcavc a lai ^ pp ulation 

in poverty affects its very existence, hence the duty of 
distributing the land communally and of lightening the 
levies and imposts in order to their enrichment. E. Since 
they are thus numerous what more etc. Z. cum multi 

618 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. VIII, IX 



a i 



ff 



-ft 



z x -ft s m 00 

o o > 

called it " A passable accumulation ; " when 
he had prospered somewhat he called it, 
" Passably complete ; " and when he had 
amassed plenty he called it " Passably fine." 

CHAPTER IX. i. When the Master 
was travelling to Wei, Jan Yu drove him. 
2. " What a numerous population ! " remark 
ed the Master. 

3. " The people having grown so nume 
rous what next should be done for them?" 
asked Jan Yu. " Enrich them," was the 
reply. 

619 



XIII. IX, X, XI. THE ANAI KCTS. 

sunt quid praeterea addendum ait ; ditandi. K. With 
such a large population uhat etc. Couv. Maintenant 
qu ils sont nombreux les rendre rches. 

4. c. fr rfii >P $u H J iE At & SI, & & :4 

^ S> OJ] JflS S> J<A $L ^c lo enrich \\itliout educat 
ing leaves men very near the level of the brute. I lenee 
colleges must be established for the study >f religion and 
morals in order to the people s education E. And when 
etc. Teach them. Z. instruendi. K. I educate them. 
Couv. Les instruire. 

CHAPTER X. CONFUCIUS CONFIDENCE IN 
HIS METHODS. ffij H Tl J : ^ M G #g "I. And 
already can do. C. TrJ ^f flj gii]^ 3 ^ & ft Hi, 
/v"<? means barely, passably, i.e., the regulations could have 
been published abroad, ft /& , ^f Jjfj |j {U c The 
administration itself brought into order. E. If there were 
any of the princes who would employ me, in the course of 
twelve months I should have done something considerable 

the government would be perfected. A. si esset etc. 

jam foret sat bene habcrctur perfectio. K. If I were 

given the conduct accomplished something put 

everything in order. Couv. Si un prince assez bien 

reglee, parfaite. 

CHATTER XI. A HUNDRED YEARS OF GOOD 
RUEE C. ffi }\\ \ r \ 4-:, I? M\ H8 BB ^ -tilo It 
means a long, unbroken period. J$ M> ft $S ^ ^> 
A> 1^1 ^ 3$ Mo Transform the cruel and cause them 
to cease from evil, ft /ff ^ \ \ jfij -Jc -T ?B . ) 
This was an ancient saying which the Master approves. E. 
If good men able to transform the violently bad, and 

020 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. IX, X, Xf, 

+ 



7 J ill ^ ^ jjp 

g H ^ 3g gjg 

" o 

A ^ jfii ^ tfc 



S 



If ^ nj & f pj 

4. " And when you have enriched them, 
what next should be done?" he asked. 
" Educate them," was the answer. 

CHAPTER X. - - The Master said : 
" Were any Prince to employ me, in a 
twelvemonth something could have been 
done, but in three years the work could be 
completed." 

CHAPTER XL The Master remarked: 
"How true is the saying: If good men 
ruled the country for a hundred years, they 

621 



XIII. XI, XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

dispense with etc. Z ctiani posse domnre nefandos 

etc. K. make deeds of violence impossible etc, Couv. 
Si les princes vertueux succedaient etc. (a dit une poete), 
;\ corrigcr les hommes les plus scelerats etc. 

CHAPTER XII. EVEN A REGAL RULER 
WOULD NEED TIME. C. 3E %^ Sl i 8? A % fif 
H II 1 -tlio A Sa S e heaven-inspired and arising. ^ -f- 
^F 3$ ""* 1c Thirty years make a generation. tl> nS 1 ! 
ifc ft ift" -&> T ne transforming influence of education 
would have become complete. In reply to a criticism 
comparing the "three years" of Confucious with the 
" generation " here, $= -f says: To get the administra 
tion in order might be clone in three years, but to perfect 
the people in virtu re right through to the very marrow 
would take a generation. L. If a truly royal ruler etc. 
it would still require etc. Z. verus rex, profccto uno 
saeculo et jam staret virtus. K. If a really God-sent 
great man were to become Emperor now, it would take 

etc. Couv un souverain v raiment digne de ce nom, 

au bout cle trente ans, la veitu fleuriiait partout. 

CHAPTER Xin. EIRST RI<CT1EY SELF. Cf. 
cap 6 ; and VI, 6. ffi $% one in the administration, not 
the 3$ g( Ruler. L. If a minister make his own conduct 
correct, what difficulty will he have in assisting in govern 
ment. If etc. what has he to do with etc. Z. si quis 
reformet suam personam, ad gerenclum magistrum quid 
negotii ? K. If a man has really put his personal conduct 
in order, what is there in the government of a country etc. 
Couv. Si un homme sait se gouverner lui-mcme, quelle 
difficulte aura -t-il a gouverner 1 Etat? 

622 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XI, XII, XIII. 



a * 

IE * ^ H Hi m & 

> > 

A. IE ^ jo! rfit in JlJ ^ 

* v In C i/4_. >% H ij*i TJv 

o 

f^I IE 3& IE ^ ^f ^ 

o - 

o 



could even tame the brutal and abolish capi 
tal punishment ! 

CHAPTER XII. --The Master said: 
" If a kingly ruler were to arise it would 
take a generation before Virtue prevailed." 

CHAPTER XIII. --The Master said. 
"If a man put himself aright what difficulty 
will he have in the public service ; but if he 
cannot put himself aright how is he going to 
put others right ? " 

623 



XIII. XVI, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XIV. USURPING POLITICIANS. 
For -|tj. -^ sec Intro. V. This incident dates after Con 
fucius return from exile. Jan Yu at tin s time was minister 
in the Chi Family, \vlio held Court and settled State policy, 
usurping ducal powers. Confucius of set purpose declines 
to admit Jan Yu s statement that the)- could have been 
dealing with State affairs, and insists they must have been 
the Chi family affairs, for as a retired statesman, he too was 
entitled to be present at the discussion of State business, 
\\hich would be held at the ducal court and not at that of 
the Chi Family. C. ^ $ J - fa $J C The Chi 
illicit court. ^ Ii .{Ir Late. ^^ |$] &~ Affairs 
of State. *}K %. ^"c ttimily lousiness. J^^ )]] & Q 

To employ. jgK ;fc m # tfi : 4K ?fo & $L WA S! 

jg( c According to the Li, ministers though no longer in 
office, shared in the discussion on State policy. L. \Ve 
had government business. It must have been family affairs. 
If etc. though I am not now in office I should have been 
consulted about it. Z. fuerunt politica. illius negotia 
scilicet; si etc. mihi it^si datum fuisset ea audire. K. \\ e 

have just had State affairs. You mean business. I 

should still have been consulted. Couv. Les affaires pul)- 

liques m ont retenu affaires particulieres de ce (Ki sucnn 

etc.) j aurais ete appcle a la deliberation. 

CIIA1TKR X\ T .- SUCCESSOR FAILURK HANG 
ING ON A \VOR1). i. ^ 7fc Duke ofLu, see III. 19. 
L. suggests that the Duke was quoting a common saying 
in his two questions. C. g|^ .1t|J HL O J\> expect. (JJ 
-J2; etc. like this that, expectation). L. a single sentence 
which could make a country prosperous. Such an effect 

624 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XIV, XV. 

+ + 

ES 

?L HI ST Ki in c ffij -ft 

> o 

^aas w^*^ 

ij ft ISJ it K -111 il 

- o 

" " 

It W ft EJ ^ ^ ^ 

o *~o 

CHAPTER XIV. Once when Jan Tzu 
came from Court the Master asked, " Why 
are you so late ? " " We had affairs of State " 
was the reply. " They must have been 
Family affairs, then," said the Master. " If 
there had been affairs of State, although they 
do not engage me in office, yet I should have 
been consulted about them." 

CHAPTER XV. i. Duke Ting enquir 
ed whether there were any one phrase by 
the adoption of which a country could be 
made prosperous. " No phrase can be ex- 

625 



XV. THE ANALECTS. 

cannot be expected from one sentence. Z. unicuni 
verhum, quod tanicn valeat erigere regnum, existitne ? 
dictio, non potest tantum ilia portenclere. K. expressed 
in one single sentence. One cannot expect so much mean 
ing fiom etc. Couv. Une sentence ne pent avoir une si 
grande portee. 

2. Or, The people s saying says. L. There is a say 
ing, however, which people have, -To be a prince is dif 
ficult etc. Z. at vulgi effatum ait : age re principcm dif 
ficile etc. K. To be a ruler of men is difficult and to be 
a public servant is not easy. Couv. On dit commune 
ment qu il est malaise d etre bon souverain etc. 

3. Tlie first -^p is taken as a preposition, in. C. If 
a prince recognises this he will be ever on his guard, 4jl 
If* ffi & %& doing nothing in haste. L. If a 
ruler knows this etc. Z. si noveris etc. K. Now if one 
only knew that it is etc. Couv. Si un prince comprenait 
bien etc. 

4. i s a preposition. C. g fill f i 0? $1 ffi ^ 
$h if c Cleans, No delight in anytlv ng else, only in this, 
that none oppose me. {jjg ff describes Pf by j and 
: Jt n b > 7 J L tt mi n & ^> All the royal decrees 
and commands. L. I have no pleasure in being a prince, 
but only in that no one can offer any opposition to what I 
say. Z. ego nihil gaudcs in agendo regcm, nisi quod 
vcrba facie ns, jam nemo mihi contradicat. K. I find no 
pleasure in etc. except in that whatsoever I order no man 
shall oppose. Couv. Je ne trouve pas d agremcnt dans 

1 exercise de pouvoir ; une scule chose me plait, per- 

sonne ne me contredit. 

626 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XV. 



& tin ili "T ?L 1 ifij -Hi &r;g & "BT 
g ^ A ia T- M H * *n 1| A = W 
ffn^^^^H^H^^:^ 
5 H S ^ T: U [fi s 1; 
^ ^ jt W ^ 0" - 2 * H S 
it nt ^ H ^ ig - m m. % & H 

o 

pected to have such force as that," replied 
Confucius. 2. But there is the popular say 
ing, It is hard to be a Prince, and not easy 
to be a Minister. 3. If a Prince perceive 
the difficulty of being a Prince, may he not 
expect through that one phrase to prosper 
his country ? " 

4. l< Is there any one phrase," he asked, 
" through which a country may be ruined ? " 
" No phrase can be expected to have such 
force as that," replied Confucius. " But 
there is the popular saying, I should have 

627 



XIII. XV, XVI, XVIT. TIIK ANAM.CTS. 

5. The ; may be him or them. C. /J |f ^ 

3> K V ir> n i! m BB \\\ ii m> * # * ^ N 

^ o If faithful admonition docs not reach the prince s ear, 
he becomes daily more arrogant, and his ministers daily 
more fawning, resulting in inevitable ruin. L. If a luler s 
words be good, is it not also good that no one oppose 
them etc. Z. si ilia bona sint et nemo iis contradicat etc. 
K. If what is ordered is right, it is well and good that no 
one oppose it. Couv. Si le prince parle bien, et que per- 
sonne ne le contredise, ne sera-ce pas bien? 

CHAPTER XVI. TIIK MAGNETIC FOKCK OF 

GOOD GOVERNMENT. i. See vn. is. L. about 

government. Z. de gubernatione. K. \Vhat was essen 
tial in the government etc. Couv. sur la manic-re de 
gouvcrner. 

2- gfc = = Iftc j ^?> The near, the inhabitants. C. 
Sc :IC n iW ! > l"d -JE M ll J *: The recipients of 
his grace are glad, and those who hear of his fame flock to 
him. L. Good government obtains u /icn those who are 
near etc. and those who are far off are attracted- Z. pro- 
pinqui gaudeant, rcniuti advtniant. K. When etc. the 

people at home are happy other countries come. 

Couv. Si ceux qui vivent pres du prince sont contents, .-? 
ceux qui sont loin viennent etc. 

CIIA1TKR XVII. IIASTK v. TIIOROUGIINICSS: 
TRIFLKS v. GRKATTHINCiS. For f- JT see Intro. 
V. lilt is taken as $-, C. # ^\ ^ ft A city 
(in the west) of Lu. ^ : j jv ig /&> H i S: 3( M /r : > 
ffjj 2i ^f i^> II c u n wants things doing in haste gets 
haste without order, and moreover they are not done 

628 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XV, XVJ, XJI. 



-tli 



111] iTn ill T> -Hi 
B H it iS ^ ^ xF ^ 

fsi &..% ? n m M * us 

^ ^ * -T ^ -1 ^ g 

o > o 

no gratification in being a Prince, unless 
none opposed my commands. 5. If those 
are good, and on one opposes them, that 
surely is .well. But if they are not good, 
and no one opposes them, may he not expect 
in that one phrase to ruin his country?" 

CHAPTER XVI. i. When the duke of 
She asked the meaning of good government, 
2. the Master answered : " The near are 
happy and the distant attracted." 

CHAPTER XVIL When Tzu Hsia 
w 7 as Magistrate of Chu-fu he asked what 

629 



XIII. XVII, XVIII. THE ANAI.ECT, 

thoroughly. & /h rft $ flj, fllj Jiff gfc *f K fin 
0f ^ ;f$ ^ jjj- c lie who is on the lookout for trifling 
advantages will get trifles, and miss the greater things, Tjfe 
-T says : ^ jr #j ffi ffi >J- Tzu Hski s 
weakness was lack of breadth and exaggeration of detail. 
L. Do not be desirous to have things done quickly ; do 
not look at small advantages. Desire etc. prevents their 
being clone thoroughly great affairs from being accom 
plished. Z. non sit voluntas praeceps, nc respicias parva 
lucra. K. Do not be in a hurry to get things done. Do 
not consider petty advantages you will never accom 
plish great things. Couv. Ne vous hatez pas trop ; nc 
recherchez pas les petits avantagcs. Qui se hate, n atteint 
pas loin ; qui etc. neglige les grancles choses. 

CHAPTER XVIII. BLOOD THICKER TIIAX- 
TRUTH. i. For Jg ^ sec \ II. 18. The jg $fo -ft 
is generally interpreted in the singular. f{\ l"o state to. 
^- Iff S f j> ifl & M t? ^?> Straightforward in charac 
ter and conduct, /ft @ ]Jn S \-\ ft2> Stealing with a 
measure of reason is called appropriating as when the sheep 
trespasses on one s pasture. L. .Among us here there are 
those who may be styled upright in their conduct. If their 
fathers have stolen etc. they will bear witness to the fact. 
Z. in meo pago sunt qui recte procedunt : si cujus pater 
surripiat ovem etc. K. men to be found who are so upright 
that when a father steals a sheep the son is read) etc. 
Couv. , Dans mon pays il est des hommes qui font profes 
sion de droiture si un perc vole etc. 

2- 3 3$ : f- KS> A father hides for his son. [ft fa 
K ^ see II. 18. C. -f- ^|J |1 ^ V\\ A te 

630 



m 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XVII, XVIII. 

A 

^ m- m m m 



=? ^ m a m m ^ 
R m m =t ^ & m 



should be his policy, whereupon the Master 
said : " Do not be in a hurry, do not be 
intent on minor advantages. When in a 
hurry nothing is thorough, and when intent 
on minor advantages nothing great is accom 
plished." 

CHAPTER X VIII. i. The Duke of 
She observed to Confucius : " In my part 
of the country there is a man so honest that 
when his father appropriated a sheep he bore 
witness to it." 2. " The honest in my part 

631 



XII 1 XVIII, XIX, XX. Till ANALUCTS. 

3? -lii^ Mutual screening between father and son is the 
highest law of Nature, and of humanity. L. 1 he father 
conceals the misconduct of his son. Upiightness is to be 

found in this. / pater pro filio celat, < ccultat, etc. 

K. They consider it consistent \\ith true upiightncss for a 
father to be silent rcgaiding llvj misdeed etc. CVuv. I .e 
pore cache les fautes etc. Cette cenduitc nW pas opposce 
a la droiture. 

CHAPTER XIX. FOUNDATION PRINCIPLES 
OL CONDUCT. Hints to Missionaries et ah Cf VI. 
20. NIL 22. ;> is a prepositional veib, to go to. C :}{< 

#, W. ** ffi M W -^ *! c * 

lays stress on the demeanour, $ on. duty : ? is exhibited 
externally, %& has its seat \vithin. L. It is, in retirement, 
to be sedately grave ; in the management of business to be 
reverently attentive ; in intercourse \\ith others to be stiiet- 

iy sincere rude, uncultivated tribes etc. Z. domi 

degens gravitatem, scclulitatem, fidelitatem 

barbaras tribus. K. In dealing with yourself be serious ; 

in business be earnest; conscientious. Couv. Ouand 

vous etes seul a la maison, veillez sur vous meme ; soyez 

diligent ; soyez de bonne foi tiibus barbares. 

CHAPTER XX. GRADED CHARACTERISTICS. 
fn] j|i What must be like Jt/f in oicler that Mj fifj one 
may call ; him j: an officer. - mean-, an educated 
man, civil primarily, military later. C. jlfc Ut 35 A\ ffi 
^ fi, Iff) Jt M- & & 4\ $ A. T^re are tilings 
this type will refuse to do, and yet it has ability enough 
for what it wants to do ; i c. it is able and honourable, pos 
sessed with a sense of divine shame. L. What qualities 

632 



THE ANALECTS. XTII XVIII, XIX, 



"T S * \ m M 3: 3C 

o 

II 1 m SI -^ fill II E IS 

Ei m m & t a ? ^ 

f"J m ^ "4v -T- ^ Ki M 

o 

*P ^ % K 7- /;^ 

of the country," replied Confucius, "are dif 
ferent from that, for a father will screen his 
son, and a son his father, and there is 
honesty in that." 

CHAPTER XIX. Once when Fan Ch ih 
asked about Virtue the Master said : " In 
private life be courteous, in handling public 
business be serious, with all men be con 
scientious. Even though you go among 
barbarians you may not relinquish these." 

CHAPTER XX. i. Tzii Kung asked: 

What must an Officer be like to merit his 

name?" " If in his personal conduct," re 

plied the Master, " he has a sensibility to 



XIII. XX. TIIK ANAU-XTS. 

must a man possess to entitle him etc. He who in his con 
duct of himself maintains a sense of shame, and when sent 
to any quaiter etc. deserves to be called etc. Z. quid 
agam ut possim vocari sapiens candiclatus: actionibus pro- 

priis serva pudorem, no dedecores etc. K. What 

must one be in order to be considered a gentleman? 

strict personal honour not disgrace his mission. Couv. 

ce qu il faillait faire pour mcriter de-tie- appelc disciplo do 

la sagesse qui dans sa conduite prive\: a- do la pudeur. 

r,e dehhunorc pas le prince qui etc. 

2. & m Clansmen, jft ^ :ft ifjj ft ^ J ^ 
Of established chai actor but restricted ability. L. who 
maybe placed in the next louei lank? Me whom the 
circle of his relatives pronounce to be filial, whom his fellow- 
villagers and neighbours etc. fraternal. Z. quis a tali 
secundus? quern generis cognatio etc. vici populares praedi- 
cent obsequentem erga majorcs. K. hold up as a good 

son good citizen. Couv. dont la pieto filialo est at- 

testee etc. respect pour les aines et les supeiieures cst loiu : 
par etc. 

3 C. J^ t& %j^ Jk-nt on doing, pertinacious. % 
^ 7f IS Jffi ^> 1Iar(i likc cma11 Atones, pebbly. 
/] A> K JC .1 m i K &, IIis capacity is 
shallow and narrow: ;fl; ^ ^ :Jll g| Vj ! ill, Not 
that this affects his personal honour, jit H J fji :^[ : ^L .\ > 
A man for the marketplace, a shopkeeper. L. 1 hey are 
determined to be sincere in what they say and to carry out 
what they do. They arc obstinate Hitlo men. Z. qui in 

vorbis omnino sincorus, tenax. Durisculus hujusmodi, 

yulgaris homo sane. K. One who makes it a point to 

6.U 



THE ANALECTS. XIIL XX, 



r m m =? 



t ^ IS # B 

o 

s m R * w 

o 

: 11 ^ ^ g-t 



dishonour, and wheresoever he be sent will 
not disgrace his Prince s commission, he may 
be said to merit his title." 

2. " I would venture to ask who may be 
ranked next," said Tzu Kung. " He whom 
his relatives commend as filial and whose 
neighbours commend as brotherly," was 
the answer. 

3. " I \vould venture to ask the next," 
said Tzu Kung. " He is one who always 
stands by his word," was the answer, " and 
who persists in all he undertakes ; he is a 
man of grit, though of narrow outlook ; yet 

635 



XIII. XX, XXI. 



Till-: ANALKCTS. 



carry out what he says and to persist in what lie under 
takes, a dogged, stubborn little -entkman though he is. 
Couv. sincere dans ses paroles, obstine dans ses actions, 
est sans doute un homme opinionatre, vulgaire. 

4- 1uU & ;f Z )^ An exclamation of discomfort. 
A 4. is a measure (-f- J\). A ^ is a bamboo vessel of 
- ^K f? K m liL, |]C m t!L, ^ fK M^ns 
:ommon and precise, calculators, counting details. Cfll. 
I 2 L. Pooh ! they are so many etc. V.. ehcu ! modioli 
quasalive homunciones etc. K. only red-taped bureau 
crats. Couv. Helas! ce sont des hommes dun esprit 
etroit etc. 

CHAPTER XXL THE IMPETUOUS AND TIIK 
CAUTIOUS. Cf. V. 21. VIII. 1 6. See Mencius VII. ii. 
37 ^r the expansion of this section. $L ; Give, com 
municate to them, i.e. Ja i ^ ;>> transmit my teach 
ing to them. Another view is $L ; [p] j^ Q F fi ft^ 
\\ alking in the middle, free from excess or deficiency in 
character, but C. takes f J as & the way. .f { : # ^ ^; 
^ r xi^ [M ^f ^ ffe^ Lofty aims with deeds not tally- 
i"Z- IF] ^ft% #IJ ^ 24, IM Vj= ^/ (^^ backing j n 
knowledge but with self control to spare. fj >f; pj ^!} 
IM t/t ^ ,I K I*/ ;> A, Since he could not get (the i[i 
ff ^?) and it was no use teaching the cautious and stolid, 
he would take the heady and the discreet. L. Since I 
cannot get men pursuing the due medium, to whom I might 
communicate it etc. I must find the ardent and the cau- 
tiouslydecided ....... advance and lay hold of the truth; ..... 

keep themselves from wh it is wrong. Z. si non inveniam 
etc. communicem sapientiam, an non potius alta praesu- 

636 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XX, XXi 



m ffi) T- z #n 

o 

H A T- 

> > 

ffi ^ 1I 



ji tii * & -4 

ftt If ff -Hi ^r 



o 
T FM 



perhaps he may be taken as of the third 
class." 

4. <; What would you say of the present 
clay government officials ? " asked Tsu Kung. 
4< Faugh ! " said the Master. " A set of pecks 
and hampers, unworthy to be taken into ac 
count ! " 

CHAPTER XXI. --The Master said. 
" If I cannot obtain men of the via media to 
teach, those whom I must have, let them be 
the ambitious and the discreet; for the ambi 
tious do make progress and get a hold, and, 

637 



XIII. xxr, xxir. 



ANALF.CTS. 



mentibus rcctique tcnacibus? K If I cannot find reason 
able and equitable men to have to do with, upon necessity 
I would choose men of enthusiastic or even fanatical charac 
ter. Couv. vjCon.ir.e je ne trouve pas de disciples capable 
de etc. juste milieu, je cherchcs etc. hautes aspirations etc. 
ou etc. sans etre tres intelliercnts, out 1 aniour de devoir. 

c~> 

CHAPTER XXII.- CONS FANCY NKCKSSAKV 
TO DOCTORS AND iMKI )IUNK-MKN. I. $? com 
posed of work and gesticulation/ a rain-maker, wi/.aid, 
soi cerer, medium, medicine-man. Medicine and magic 
were and still arc closely allied in China, as they were in 
the \Yci-t in mediaeval times and, in more scientific form, as 
they are now again becoming. C. J^ ,- /\ \\l,^ 
Persevering, constant. $A 0f j;j[ ^ fa jjiji^ Spiritualistic 
professor or medium ; -^ $f &. 3?r $ ^^ A medium 
of life and death. f gf jg ^ jfij ^ nf J^ M 
"f$ ^ Although menial occupations they cannot do without 
constancy. L. A man without constancy cannot be 
either a wizard or a doctor. Z. careat constantia, nee 
potest agere hariolum medicumve. K. without persever 
ance cannot l:e etc. magician. Couv. un homme incon 
stant ne peut pas meme devenir habile devin ou bon mede 
cin. 

2. A ({notation from the ]$, $$. diagram [^. C. 7^^ 
j{0 \\l^ L. Inconstant in his virtue, he will be visits d 
with disgrace. /.. alii excipient cum probis. K. The 
reputation for a \ r irtue once acquired unless persevered in 
will lead to disgrace. Couv. Celui qui maiujue de con- 
stance, sera la risee d autres. 

3. This is an acknowledged crux interpretum and C. 

638 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XXI, XXII. 



W -T" ill H 

o 

ft" rTif ft If 



as to the discreet, there are things that they 
will not do." 

CHAPTER XXII. i. The Master said : 
"The men of the South have a saying : A 
man without constancy will make neither a 
soothsayer nor a doctor. How well put ! 
2. (The Yi Ching says:) If he be incon 
stant in his moral character, someone will 
bring disgrace upon him. 3. The Master 

639 



XIII. XXK, XXIII, XXIV. THK ANALKCTS. 

leaves it. It seems to imply the importance of making a 
forecast. r |,* means to prognosticate, divine. L. This 
arises simply from not prognosticating. Z. non considera- 
tur ; en totum K. It is much better not to assume the 
reputation for the viitue at all. Couv. On ne reilecliit 
pas (sur ces paroles), et de la vient tout le mal. 

CHAPTER XXIII. FRIENDLINESS v. FAMILI 
ARITY. Cf. II. 14. ~/fi [yi] not hand in glove with. C. 

?n ft M ofe K Z ,fr, fc] -% 4\ W ifc ;S, The 

agreeable are never churlish, the familiar are servile. There 
is the difference that exists between V and 7^ open and 
underhand. L. The superior man is affable, but not 
adulatory. Z vir sapiens est concors, sed nulla coi:ion-j. 
K. A wise man is sociable but not familiar. A fool etc. 
Couv. Ee sage est accommodant avec tout le monde, 

mais il n a pas de complaisance coupable 

CHAPTER XXIV. POPULARITY AN INSUF 
FICIENT CRITERION OF CHARACTER. jfc TrJ 
.Not yet can do. $|J A literally, cou;itry-nicn. ft ^ 
seem to connate like and detest rather than love and hate. 

<~j ^ *f tf z m M f? ^f> rs iu & ^r ^ 

^j-^ If the good like him and tli bad don t dislike him, 
he must be at fault somewhere. L \Yhatdo you say of 
a man \\lio is loved by all the people of his neighbourhood ? 

\Ye may not for that accord our approval of him hated 

etc conclude that he is bail. It is better that the 

good etc. Z. si pagi homines onuies ament qucmpiam. 

quomodo? nondum bene aversenttir etc. illud melius, 

si popularium boni etc. K. What do you say of a man 
\\ho is popu ar with all his fellow-townsmen in a place ? 

640 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XXII,XXIII,XXIV. 

+ + 

E3 = 

ft ft 7- * * -f- a 
* $ * & it *u m m 



a 



"I Z ?! Z I!!) /h m 

> 

> 

^ in jdi IB m in 

o o 

#n A ^ A M rfn 



remarked : " All because he did not calculate 
beforehand." 

CHAPTER XXIII. The Master said: 
" The true gentleman is friendly but not 
familiar; the inferior man is familiar but not 
friendly." 

CHAPTER XXIV. Tzu Kung asked: 
"What would you say of the man who is 
liked by all his fellow-townsmen?" "That 
is not sufficient," was the reply. " Then 
what would you say of him who is hated by 
all his fellow-townsmen?" "Nor is that 

641 



XIII. XXIV, XXV. Till : ANAI.KCTS. 

He is not necessarily i good nvin. Couv. aime de tons 
Ics habitants do son pays. Ccla nc prouvc pas suffisam- 

ment sa vertu en butte a la haine etc. On pourrait a 

plus juste litre cslimer vcrtik-ux. cclui qui etc. 

CHAPTER XXV. --THE SERVICE OF THE 
NOHLK AND IGNOHLK. 5$ ;> Utensils them,- treats 
them according to capacity. >j f/jfj Demands perfection, 
that a round man fit a square hole. The f$j ff says \^ 
& # It Iff "^ A ^ Jl> He demands all capabilities 
complete in every individual. C. }\ -f- %. <fr fe [fjj 

U /]- A *6 ^ Bn I J> x i f il A Sit Rfl ^ 

t[] /X lllj EL :^> The princely man s character is just 
and considerate, the ignoble man s chaiacter is undeihand 
and harsh, the difference between divine law and human 
passion. E. The supeiior man etc, If)-ou try to please 
him in any way which is not accordant with right, he will 
not be pleased. But in his employment of men, he uses 
them according to thvir capacity. The inferior man etc. 
he wishes them to be equal to everything. Z. viro 
sapient! facile servitur, at difficile satiVfit : si enim oblecteris 
cum non juxta rationem, non laetabitur; at etc. metitur 

capacitatem corum exigit perfectionem. K. A wise 

and good man etc. If you go beyond your duty to please 
him etc. takes into consideration their capacity. A fool 
etc. able to do everything. Couv. il est aise de servir 
Thomme sage etc. Si 1 on cherche a gagner ses bonnes 
graces par une voie peu louable, on n y reussira pas. 
Pour ce (jui est du service c]u il demande, il considere 
les aptitudes etc. 1 homme vulgaire etc. exige la perfec 
tion. 

642 



THE ANALECTS. XIII XXIV, XXV. 



A 



A 



DS s ae irri s tii ^ <* JS f 

sufficient," was the reply. "What is better 
is that, the good among his fellow-townsmen 
like him, and the bad hate him." 

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: 
" The true gentleman is easy to serve yet 
difficult to please. If you attempt to please 
him in any improper way he will be displeas 
ed, but when it comes to appointing men in 
their work, he has regard to their capacity. 
The inferior man is hard to serve yet easy to 
please. If you attempt to please him 4 ? even 
in am improper way, he will be pleased, but 
in appointing men their work, he expects 
them to be fit for everything." 

643 



XIII. XXVljXXVIIXXVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER. XXVI DIGNITY v. POMPOSITY. C. 

~K ffi au IA % ft rfij * # i;it, /h A m\ 

fit fit itU ^ ne well-bred follow the right, hence are 
always at case and never showy; the ill-bred give rein to 
their feelings, and are the opposite of the above. E. The 
superior man has a dignified ease without pride. The mean 
man etc. Z. vir sapiens tranquillus et non superbus. K. 
A wise men is dignified but not proud. A fool etc. 
Couv. Le sage cst calinc, et n est pas orgueilleux 

CHAPTER XXVII. NOT FAR FROM VIRTUE 
-C. ft ^ says Tic ^f, 35 ^ By the wooden is 
meant natural, simple ; f$ -$ ^ jg= ^, by slow of speech, 
tardy and dull. L. firm, cnduiing, simple, modest. 
Z. fortis, constans, hibitu simplex, loquela tardus. K. A 
man of strong, resolute, simple character etc. Couv. Un 
homme courageux, ou constant, ou simple dans ses 
manieres, ou reserve dans ses paroles, airivera aisement a 
la perfection. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. THE SIGNS OF EDUCA 
TION.-Cf. 20. The fjjf ft says: ^ -tJJ, fl: ft ;g 
J^ refers to (friendly) feeling; fffi f/^ ^ ^ ?ffi _h> to 
persuasiveness; |fj f/j ^t /( fi Jl> to the djmeanour. 
C. ft] K says: -tyj -BJ ffi jgj & . Most urgent. fi 
(III ji &> Careful exhortation, -jf? If? ?I1 1 -ill, 
In pleasant Inrmony : all which Y/.\ Lu Licked. L. 

a scholar, lie must be thus, earnest, urgent and 

bland: among his friends etc. Z sapientiae can- 

didatus. Animo fervid us, verbo stimulans, ore comis etc. 
K a gentleman sympathetic, obliging and affec 
tionate. Couv. Celui qui cst devoue, zele pour exciter 

644 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XX VI, X XVI I, XXVI II. 



A 



P 



io a "T Bft t ^ If 



fk PI 

In pj "j inv u 

> o 

#H -TO IB R!3 1J /I- g- 
ili -tJJ 18: A T- 

> > 



CHAPTER XXVL The Master said: 
" The well-bred are dignified but not pom 
pous. The ill-bred are pompous, but not 
dignified." 

CHAPTER XXVII --The Master said: 
The firm of spirit, the resolute in character, 
the simple in manner, and the slow of speech 
are not far from Virtue." 

CHAPTER XXVIIL Tzu Lu asked: 
"What qualities must one possess to be 
entitled to be called an educated man ? " 
11 He who is earnest in spirit, persuasive in 
speech, and withal of gracious bearing," said 
the Master, " may be called an educated man. 

645 



XIII. XXVIII, XXIX, XXX. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

les autrcs a cultiver la vertti, affable ct prevemnt dans scs 
manic-res, merite Ic noni dc disciple de la sagcsse. 

CHAPTER XXIX. WEAPONS DANGKROUS IX 
IGNORANT HANDS.-C. ffc & -til, % Jl # 
% & ft fi\ ffi> J2 m ft 2. &> i^ Train them 
to lives offilialness and fraternity, loyalty and good faith, 
and in the practice of agricultu e and arms HIK Wt, ill > 
They could then ^ & ^ be soldiers. J fa gj :JI; 
Jl. E ^ H> l& Pf H HU iic> When the peop e 
have learnt affection to their ruler, and to die for their 
elders, then they can be led in arms. L. Ext a good 
man teach the people seven years, and they may then 
likewise be employed in war. 7. si probus vir etc. etiam 
poterunt praesto esse militiae. K. A good, honest man, 
after educating etc. will be able to lead them to war. 
Couv. Si un homme vertueux formal t le peuple a la vertu 
etc. tirer les soldats pour la guerre. 

CHAPTER XXX. AT UNTRAINED PEOPLE 
THROWN AWAY IN WAR. ). , To use an untrained 
people in war, this etc. C. JJUJ[] l]]^ Use. !. To 
lead an uninstructed etc. is to throw them away 7.. 
adhibere necdum etc. hoc dicitur abjicitui illos. K To 
allow a people to go to battle without first etc. is to betray 
them. Couv. Conduirc le peuple a la guerre, avant cle 
I avoir forme a la vertu, etc. 



646 



THE ANALECTS. XIII. XXVIIJ,XXIX,XXX. 



ET-EH 



"T* 2*4 "t ~r wB i 

BX2 ,fe pi / ln ^ 

i/c a p t-J T*l& -9c 

o - > 

la ^ ^ a j 

K fin s t& to 



Earnest in spirit and persuasive of speech 
with his friends, and of gracious bearing 
towards his brothers." 

CHAPTER XXIX. The Master said: 
When a good man has trained the people 
for seven years, they might then be fit to 
bear arms." 

CHAPTER XXX. The Master said: 
1 To lead an untrained people to war may 
be called throwing them away." 



647 



XIV. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME VII. 
BOOK XIV. 

HSIEN WKN. 

CHIEFLY CONCERNING GOVERNMENT AND 
CERTAIN RUEERS. 

TITLE AND CONTENTS. This book takes its title 
from Jg i.e. |i ;|f VI. 3, and it has been surmised, from 
the use of the one name | that he is responsible for the 
collection. Dr. Ecgge, quoting- Jp] ^ says : In this 
Book we have the characters of the Three Kings and Two 
Chiefs, the courses proper for princes and great ofiiceis, 
the practice of virtue, the knowledge of what is shameful, 
personal cultivation, and the tranquillising of the people; 
all subjects of great importance in government. They are 
therefore collected together, and arranged after the last 
Book, \\hich commenced with an enquiry about govern 
ment. 

CHAPTER I. THE MEANING OE SHAME. Eor 
SB IS ili st - e VI. 3. Cf. VIII. 13. The usual rendering 
is, When etc. lo take one s pay and do nothing. C. %%^ 
JH &, Service pay. ^ ;fj -ft ^ fig ^ ^ ^ j,, 

it ^" r/g *> ifn fn u iz m, ft "j M [iL, 

With good government to be unable to be of service, and 
with ill government not to be able to stand alone, but only 

648 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. I, 

VOLUME VII. 
BOOK XIV. 

I-ISIEN WEN. 
CHIEFLY CONCERNING GOVERNMENT. 



flft il |!1J 

-Hi m JR> !jl 
iii ^ m 

$S B 

Jt 2B 

CHAPTER LWhen Hsien asked the 
meaning of dishonour, the Master said: 
" When his country is well governed to be 
thinking only of Pay, and when his country 
is ill-governed to be thinking only of Pay, 
that is dishonour." 

649 



XIV. I, II. TIIK A.\AI.KCTS. 

to know one s income, 1 oth arc: discreditable. C. says 
Yuan Szti s shame is made manifest in this saying. i/L f l 
\$\ reads, " When the country is well governed to take 
pay is right, \\hen etc. to take pay is shame." I.. When 
good government prevails in a State to ete salary ; and 

when bad etc.; this is shameful. 7. crubescen- 

dum? si regno viget ordo, gratis frui censu ; si regnum 
careat ordine, adhuc fini censu, pudendum est. K. \Vhen 
there is justice and order in the government etc. to think 
only of pay is dishonourable etc. Couv. On doit avoir 
honte de rccevoir un traitement d officier sous un bon 
gouverncment (si Ton ne rend aucun seivice) e c. 

CHAPTKR II. DIFFICULT RATIIKR THAN 
VIRTUOUS. i. ^ ff Does not do (these tilings). 
{PJ ^ joins this clause to the last and C. says : jj-fc Tjlp 
S?, S &> ^C $f fig fin [rS] $L This is also a question by 
Yuan Ssu, in regard to matters of which he was capable. 
3 ; i> IS- )$, I-ovc of mastery; ^ ft f^, vaunting 
, oneself, see V. 25. fj^^ & fj^ resentment; @v\ ft SH\ 
greed, improper desire. L. \\henthe love of superiority, 
boasting, resentment and cove ousness are re[)ressed, ma\- 
this be deemed perfect virtue. Z. praevalendi vim, jac- 
tantiam, aversionem, cupidinem, non habeii locun? etc. K 
ambition, vanity, envy and selfishness have ceased to act as 
motives etc. a moral character? Couv. Un homme qui 
reprime ses desirs de prevaloir, on de se vanter, ses senti 
ments diversion, sa cupidite etc. 

2. c. f- HIJ ^ ?i! i .K m, n M ra % u 

^T> Tf ^S /^- ^ i i" ^1 fH connc^tes the \\hole duty 01 
man, and is free fiom the entanglement ot these iour things, 

650 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. II 



t "T ft 



en 



*n m %. ff 

o 

CHAPTER II. i. (Hsien again asked): 
" If a man refrain from ambition, boasting, 
resentment and selfish desire, it may, I sup 
pose, be counted to him for Virtue." 2. " It 
may be counted for difficult," said the Master, 

"but whether for Virtue, I do not know." 

651 



Till-: ANALKCTS. 

hence merely to avoid these is not enough to constitute 
Virtue. L. the achievement of what is difficult. Z. 
potest censeri difficile. K Something difficult to achieve. 
Couv. consideree comme une chose difficile. 

CHAPTER III EASY CHAIR SCHOLARSHIP 
CONTEMNED. Cf. IV. 9, n. C. /# jifj ;; gjf fiji 
^C J^ llL Ch ii refers to his care for convenience and com 
fort. L. The scholar who cherishes his love of comfort 
is not fit etc. Z. sapientiae alumnus qui cogitet com- 
moditale. K. a gentleman wh.o thinks of the comfort of 
life, cannot be a true gentleman. Couv qui recher 
che le bicn etrc etc. 

CHAPTER IV. A LESSON IN PRUDENCE. $; 
A man on the edge of a cliff, peiiious, bold. f-; -- : $& 
yielding, modest. See Y 1 1. 35. C. j, }\;] kli ^ Lofty 
and precipitous. ~f^ !? f l ||!T[ , humble ; ! n : submissive. 

fi J ff N T" ffn ^ K ^> ). JS Si -liL The man of 
honour must hold his convictions unshaken, but there are 
times when in order to escape calamity he may not dare to 
express himself freely ; $; jjij ffi [^] $ ^ -j^- j? f ffi 
^f % ViXo nevertheless how dangi rcuis it is for a ruler to 
drive his \\ise men to reserve in speech. L. When good 
government prevails etc. language may be lofty and bold, 
and actions the same. When bad etc. with some resei ve. 
Z si regnum careat ordine t late age, loquere submis-ius. 
K bold and lofty in has actu. ns, but he should be reserv 
ed in the expression of his opinions. Couv. sous un 
gouvcrncment mal regie agissez ouveitement, mais 
moderez votre langage. 



XI IK ANALECTS. XIV. Ill, XIV. 

m = 



ri 


-t- / 


|v -J, 


ra 


i 





fr 


?B jy 


u 


n 


tf * 


S M 



; 



CHAPTER III.- The iMaster said: 
11 The Scholar whose regard is his comfort is 
unworthy to be deemed a Scholar. 1 

CHAPTER IV. -The iMaster said: 
" When law and order prevail in the land, a 
man may be bold in speech and bold in 
action; but when the land lacks law and 
order, though he may take bold action, he 
should lay restraint on his speech." 

.653 



XIV. V, VI. Till-: ANAI.KCTS. 

CHAPTER V. ELOQUENCE AND COURAGE 
NOT ALWAYS PROOF OF MORALS OR VIRTUE. 

-C ft fe -X *n Ii ffi K ^ W % *K fig n 

>ft" i X fit {S iffr fli) Lie M cn f character accumulate 
an r.greeableness \vithin\vhich ilowers externally; but the 
talker may talk f;om sheer loquacity. \^ : ft >fr 4[{ fj, 

3N Ji ^ ^ S> j ^ gc Jfil M 3! Ifn t! 

The altruist is not entangled by private interests and must 
do right \vhen he sees it ; but the courageous man may be 
impelled thereto merely by his physical constitution. L. 
The virtuous will be sure to speak comdly, but those 
whose speech is good nny not always be virtuous. Men 
of principle are sure to be bold etc. /. habens virtutem, 
profecto constat veibis; habens veiba, noil continue pos- 
sidet virtutem ; corcle perfectus etc. K. A man who pos 
sesses moral woith something to say worth listening to 

etc. A moral character etc. Couv. Un homme vertueux 
a cert iinement de bonnes paroles sur sjs levres etc. On 
homme parfait etc. 

CHAPTER VI. EMPIRE RICSTS ON THIi: 
PLOUGHSHARE^- -f- etc. Cf. V. 2. C. ]g g 
? UU ff] & i.e. Nan Yung, See V. I. Dr. Lcggc thinks 
this doubtful, but gives do reason. I was a famous archer, 
Prince of /fj* Jj^ who in P>.C. 2145 destroyed the Em 
peror jjT k\\ of the j (h nasty and usurped his throne. 
I s minister ^ -jjj- in his turn slew I, married his widow 
and reigned in his place. Th ir offspring Ao, alias ^ of 
herculean strength, -Jj fig f$ Jill If /i]"> able to propel a 
boat on dry land, in his turn was slain by the J^ dynasty 
fa )& 0f> On the other luiul jOJ 15.C. 2205 <|i 7JC 

654 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. V, VI, 



-F- 









CHAPTER V. The Master said: "A 
man of principle is sure to have something 
good to say, but he who has something good 
to say is not necessarily a man of principle. 
A Virtuous man is sure to be courageous, 
but a courageous man is not necessarily a 
man of Virtue." 

CHAPTER VI. Nan Kung Kua re 
marked , to Confucius by way of enquiry: 
" (Is it not a fact that though) I excelled as 
an archer, and Ao could propel a boat on 
dry land, neither of them died a natural 

655 



XIV. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

drained the land and Jg Minister of Agriculture under Yno 
, and Shun $ B.C. 2357-2205, also progenitor of the )/,] 
family, developed the agricultural resources of the country 
and reigned over the land, Yii in person and Chi through 
his posterity, the /] dynasty. C. rather absurdly attri 
butes Nan s jemark to a desire to compare the rulers of the 
clay with I and Ao, and Confucius with Yii and Chi, hence 
Confucius hesitation in replying! L. skillful at archery 
etc. move a boat etc. personally wrought at the toils of 
husbandry etc. A superior man indeed is this! An 
esteemer of virtue etc. Z. et uterque non obtinuit suum 

moriendi modum quam aestimat virtutcm iste vir ! K. 

came to an unnatural end two men who worked in 

the fields and toiled as husbandmen I low much he 

honours moral worth in what he has said. Couv out 

peri de mort violente ont cultive la terre de leurs pro 

pres mains etc. cet homme mcts la vertu au-dessus de tout. 
CHAPTER VII. --THE NOBLE MAY OCCA 
SIONALLY LOSK: TMK IGNOBLE NEVER POS- 

SESS.-C. ?5- ^ K fc , m&& Z BIK >b 

^ ffi K> H J * & S ^ t> The chiin-tzii is bent 
on fn but for an occasional moment he may fail in attention 
and possibly temporarily lapse. Cf. IV. 4. L. Su-perior 
men, and yet not always virtuous, there have been, alas ! 
But there never has been a mean man, and, at i/ic same 
tune, virtuous. 7,. sapiens qui non sit perfcctus, clatur 
quidem, etc. !v. There are wise men who are not moral 
characters ; but a fool etc. Couv. On trouve des discip 
les de la sages.se qui ne sont pas parfaits ; homme 

sans principes qui fut parfait. 

656 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. VI, VII. 

* 

-Ul^t^A^^M 

o ^ 

* # s ft a g w 

o 

M ^ ^f flic ^ ^ T 

o 



death; while Yti and Chi, who took a per 
sonal interest in agriculture, became possess 
ed of the Empire ? " The Master made no 
reply, but when. Nan Kung Kua had with 
drawn, he observed : " A scholar indeed is 
such a man ! A true estimation of virtue 
has such a man ! " 

CHAPTER VII. "There may perhaps 
be men of the higher type who fail in Virtue, 
but there has never been one of the lower 
type who possessed Virtue." 

657 



XIV. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER VIII. LOVE IS EXACTING AND 
LOYALTY ADMONISHES. Cf. XIII. i. C. quot- 

i" iSS R, says: $1 fin ft $K #7 18 ^ ^s & jfij 

^J F$> fe? "^ ; AL 4 *^ 1 love (ii son) \vitliout making 
him exert himself is bird or calf love; loyalty that neglects 
admonition is that of women and eunuchs. L. Can there 
be a love which does not lead to strictness with its object. 
Z. quern amas, potesne non dure tractare : Si fidelis, 
potcsne non commonere : K. Where there is affection, 

exeition is made easy; disinterestedness, instruction 

not be neglected. 

CHAPTER IX. A STATE SMALL BUT DIP 
LOMATIC. g|> was a small State surrounded by power 
ful neighbours, and careful diplomacy was requisite to 
avoid serious complications. j$ -^ Get out a notification, 
or despatch. The ff J^ controlled all inter-State inter 
course. C. V/i, # ^IL, Rough draft. fi\], %i ^L> 
To make ; nj 1 } itV i>J V, C Jji -ill, meaning drew the i ough 
draft. -jjJ: -^ was probably a relative of the Ruler, 
whence the ^ his name was ^ ^f c ti[\ ??. ^g -lL , g& > 
i> : $ 1^ ll> Search into and deliberate upon. \] \^ ! 
f^li ^ fe ^ Controller of embassies (Z. legationem prae- 
fectus). ^ g fi ,iH i(t ftl Z Augment and delete, p 
fc m j Jll ^ >C ^ -liL Improve its eleganee of diction. 
For -jf- j^sceV. I 5 and next clause. L. In preparing the 

government notifications etc. rough draft, examined and 

discussed its contents; polished the style, proper 

elegance and finish. Z. componentcs diplomata, crassius 
exarabat, cxigens cxpendebat, concinne castigabat, le[x>rc 
colorabat ilia. K. sketch out the draft, discuss the sevc- 

658 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. VIII, IX. 

K A 



Z 



fU H ^ B 

-> /^ r|4 i& 

fl <_ m ^iR ^ 

A 1ft /^ S 2, 



CHAPTER VIII. The Master said: 
" Can love be other than exacting, or loyalty 
refrain from admonition?" 

CHAPTER IX. The Master said : (( In 
preparing a State document (in Cheng), P i 
Shen drafted it, Shih Shu revised it, the 

6S9 



XIV. ix, x. 



TIM: ANALKCTS. 



nil points, make the necessary corrections, polish the style 
etc. Couv. Quand il fallait ecrirc une lettre a LI noin cle 
prince ...... composait le brouillon, examinait avec soin le 

contenu, Tzeu iu, qui presidait a la reception des hotes, 

corrigeait et polissait le style, clonnait une tournure elegante. 

CHAPTER X. STRICTURES ON THREE MEN 

OF NOTE. i. -jp ;7g See last section and V. 15. C. 

T & & * w w :&, m w & HIJ - ja ^ A 

2$ i> Leniency was not the prevailing feature of his 
administration, yet single-hearted love of the people was his 
motive throughout. L. He was a kind mm. Z. bene- 
ficus est vir. K. a generous man. Couv. un hornme 
bienfaisant. 

2. ^ ]fij named ||-i was a scion of the ducal house of 
JJU He refused the throne in favour of \\ft ~ at the 
same time amending and improving its government, but he 
did not suppress his prince s usurped title of ; moreover 
when Hft EE desired to employ Confucius, he prevented it; 
he was afterwards killed by l\ fj J^ L. That man ! 
Z. Oh illc! K. Why that man! Why sp,-ak of him 
at all? Couv. Oh ! Celui-la ! (ne m en parlez pas). 

3. See III. 22. C. Duke (u took this lief away from 
its owner for some offence and enriched K.C. with it, yet 
ffi R >b WH *ft ft 1 #J recognising K.C. s merit, 
submitted without a murmur, ffi frji ^ f.[ ; i ^ ^ : H; 
*. f fc 2, 3T * ffi at fg, KC. S virtue did not 
surpass his abilities, T.C. s abilities did not surpass his 
virtue. $K 4$ ]\i^ Teeth means age. L. For hj m 
the city of etc. was taken from the chief etc. who did not 
utter a murmuring word though etc. only coarse rice to 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. IX, X. 



M n A ["3 li ffl 

1* nJc -Hi T- fe x 

"%l/l I I * .xv 1 *- J I i /^ - 

V * 

& A $t [!5f il 51 Si 

- o 

H m f$ r f ^ m 

W ^ f!!f ^ 

> > 

Foreign Minister Tzu Yii amended it and 
Tzu Chan of Tung Li embellished it." 

CHAPTER X. i. Somebody asked the 
Master what he thought about Tzu Ch an, 
11 He is a kindly man," was the reply. 2. 
Asked about Tzu Hsi he said : " That 
man ! That man ! " 3. Asked about Kuan 
Chung he said: "There was a man ! The 
head of the Po family was despoiled for him 
of his town of P ien with its three hundred 

661 



XIV. X, XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

eat. Z. is erat, ut cxpoliatus PC etc. indeque vcsccns 
crassionibus cibus, acl fincni aetatis snac nullum dederit in- 
dignationis ^vcrbum. K. able to take possession of an 
estate, confiscated etc. in such a way that the former owner 
etc. had nothing to say in complaint against K.C. Couv. 
C etait un homme si vertueux quo, le Piince clc Ts i lui 
ayant donne etc. n ent jamais un mot d indignation contrc 
lui. 

CIIAPTKR XL KASIKR TO ]5K RICH AND 
MODKST THAN POOR AND CONTENT. C. # 

A^MKiirfn^ ^ & tt % Hut people 

should make effort against their difficulties, and also not 
take their easy places too lightly. L. To be poor without 
murmuring is difficult; rich, proud, easy. 7.. paupcrem 
esse quin indigneris, difficiliusetc. K. poor without com 
plaining, rich without being proud. Couv. II est plus 
difficile de se defend ie du chagrin dans la pauvrete que de 
1 orgueil dans 1 opulence. 

CIIAPTKR XII. FIT FOR DOMESTIC, NOT 
FOR POLITICAL ECONOMY.^ & ,;,; was the 
head of the fti ffi family, and a ^ ^ of Lu. According 
to the *j gji Conf. held him in high esteem. C. y-jfj jfy 
were noble families of g^ By ^ is meant a ^ {([ ^ -^ 
or Comptroller of a noble family, but uithout anj r State 
rank or responsibility. |g^ ft f^ Oveiplus, excel 
J< ^^-f-T: KI J& -ft. One uitli State responsibility. 
Though the two States (in \\ncho\v prefecture, Shantung) 
were small their g( ^ business was multifarious. -^ : 
$$ was a man of great probity but of modeiate tilenr. L. 
more tiun fit to be chief officer etc. not fit to be fix at 

fc> 

062 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. X, XI, XII. 



*= t * I I 

s El 



ffi 



cn 



families, yet never even complained, though 
he had to live on coarse food to the end of 
his days." 

CHAPTER XL The Master said: 
To be poor and not complain is difficult ; 
to be rich and not arrogant is easy." 

CHAPTER XII. The Master said: 
" Meng Kung Ch o would excel as Comp 
troller of the Chao or Wei families, but is 

663 



XIV. XII, X HI. Till-: ANALKCTS. 

officer etc. 7.. tune vcro cxccllcret, at non posset agere 
etc. K. he would be excellent, but he is not fit to be 
councillor of State even in a small principality. Couv. 
excellerait dans la charge etc. il nc serait pas capable de 
remplir etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. MARK THE PERFECT MAN. 
- X JSl JpS ?K Or, Adorn these with religion and 
harmony or manners and music. ^ ftji^ ^C ^c ^ 
$ Lived in the reign preceding Confucius and was of such 
ability that he was called a Sage ife Ao ffi ~f > 19 !> 
Ei :fc ;fc was noted for his courage in killing two tigers 
in one day. Eor sfe ft$ see last section. Jlj. *fe the 
disciple, see Introduction V. C. ;$; A B3 W & A A 
complete, perfect, all round man. These four had -|j & 

ja n au flg a si *&, $ AL a * t?, sfe ^i 

JB iS IS wisdom equal to searching out principles, in 
corruptibility able to nourish the heart, courage for strong 
deeds, skill equal to every exigency. The whole, temper 
ed by refinement, produce a man with complete ability and 
perfect virtue ty & fjg f^ so that he is not known for 
any one especial gift. Yet #; g ^ ijl: 3? ^f- the 
word ^ indicates that there is still a higher type, viz., the 
2! 7v> I complste man. Suppose a man with the 
knowledge of T., the freedom from covetousness of K., 
the bra\ery of C., and the varied talents of J. ; add to these 
the accomplishments of the rules of propriety and music, 

such etc. Z. de perfecto viro prudentiam, tem- 

perantiam, fortitudinem, pcritiam etc. K. a perfect cha 
racter intellect, disinterestedness, gallantry, accomplish 
ments etc. cultivate himself by the study of the arts and in- 

664 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XII, XIII. 



f $ 1> W B ?- * nj 

> o 

&. 1 ^ ff A HI 



not fit to be Minister in the States of T eng 
or Hsieh." 

CHAPTER XIII. i. When Tzu Lu 
asked what constituted the character of the 
perfect man the Master replied : "If he 
have the wisdom of Tsang Wu Chung, the 
purity of Kung Ch o, the courage of Chuang 
Tzu of P ien and the skill of Jan Ch iu, and 
if he refine these with the arts of courtesy 

665 



XIV. XIII, XIV. THE ANALECTS. 

stitutions of the civilised world, etc. Couv. homme par- 

fait prudence, integrite, courage, habilete, cultiverait les 

ceremonies ct la musique. 

2. C. The additional [] means he had finished his 
reply and recommenced. A 3c> IK ^ -& A long-stand 
ing contract^ ^ ^fe> ^ M -ill daily life, (fj g takes 
^ dfe s to mean ^ ^ ). fg 3C ^ 89 
S # * flf^ ft nf JSl Jfi A ^ &, Although 
still somewhat imperfect in ability, wisdom and culture, he 
may be put in the second rank of the perfect. L. The 
man who in the view of gain thinks of righteousness ; who 
etc. danger is prepared to give up his life; and who docs 
not forget an old agreement, however far back it extends, 
etc. Z. qui videns lucrum cogitet justitiam, videns pcri- 
culum profundat vitam, jamdiu facta pactione non oblivis- 
catur perpetuae viae pactum etc. K. When he sees a 
personal advantage, can think of what is right, in presence 
of personal danger, is ready to give up his life, and when, 
under long-continued trying circumstances, does not belie 
the professions of his life etc. Couv. en presence d un 
profit a retirer, craint de violer la justice, etc. qui, memo 
apres de longues annees, n oublie pas les engagements qu il 
a pi is dans la cours de sa vie etc. 

CIIAPTKR XIV. A CIIINKSK STOIC. i. ^ 
& X T* was probably a philosopher in office, who, like 
Confucius, had a following of disciples, of whom ^ may 
have been one. C. describes ^ "f as a Minister of $j 
about whom iJK ^f- ^ Trf #j| no details are discoverable, 
#S 4^ Ut i ! if f ^ but he was evidently incorruptible 
and also reserved. No information is given about /fe fjjj 

666 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XIII, XIV. 



A A 



A 



and harmony, then indeed he may be deem 
ed a perfect man." 

2. "But what need is there," he added, 
"for the perfect man of the present day to be 
like this ? Let him when he sees anything 
to his advantage think whether it be right ; 
when he meets with danger be ready to lay 
down his life ; and however long-standing 
the undertaking let him not forget the tenour 
of his everyday profession, then he too may 
be deemed a perfect man." 

CHAPTER XIV. i. The Master put a 
question to Kung-ming Chia about Kung- 
shu Wen-tzu, and said : " Is it really true 

667 



XIV. XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

^(^ L. Is it true that your Master speaks not, laughs 
not and takes not? Z. estne verum quod tuus magister 
nee loquitur, nee ridet, nee quid admittit. K. your 
teacher seldom speaks, etc. and never accepts anything 
from anybody? Couv. votre maitre ne parle pas, etc. et 
n accepte rien? 

2. Jj[ etc. by the exaggeration etc. ; or, That is wherein 
etc. H$ At the right time f fa ff and thereafter speaks. 
The rejoinder if: $Jc etc. is a suggestion that Kung-ming 
Chia was also exaggerating. C. M ^f ^ 3t ^ M 
1 , , H?o An expression of embitterment and dislike 
for excess. ? Hi K> M ?fc S tfto Though 
Wen-tzu may have been a worthy, Confucius doubted if he 
had attained to such perfection. L. reporters going be 
yond the tnitJi. Speaks when it is the time to speak, and 
so men do not get tired of his speaking. He laughs when 
there is occasion to be joyful etc. He takes when it is 
consistent with righteousness to do so etc. So ! But is it 
so with him ? Z. meus dominus, cum tempus est, nonnisi 
tune loquitur, hinc alii non fastidiunt ejus verba, etc. K. 
My teacher speaks when it is time to speak, wherefore peo 
ple never lose patience when he does speak ; etc. So ! etc. 
Couv. Ceux qui lui ont fait cette reputation, ont exagere. 
Mon maitre parle quand il est temps de parler, et ses paro 
les ne fatiguent personne etc. 

CHAPTER XV. COERCING ONE S PRINCE. 
$$L & ft 1 Scc *ui; also ^ ffl ;/ fil/. 23rd year of Ijg 
fc o C. \Vu Chung Iviving committed some offence had 
fled to ^ but being anxious that his successor should be of 
his own family, so that his family sacrifices and dignity 

668 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XIV, XV. 



T- JR M SB H ill lit * * 
A K $ A 3: J& -7 



that your Master neither talks, nor laughs, 
nor accepts anything ? " 

2. " That arises from the exaggeration of 
reporters," answered Kung-ming Chia. 
"Our Master talks only at the right time, 
hence people do not tire of his talk; he only 
laughs when he is really pleased, hence 
people do not tire of his laughter ; he only 
accepts things when it is right to do so, 
hence men do not tire of his accepting." 
"Is that so!" said the Master. "Can that 
indeed be so ! " 

CHAPTER XV. --The Master said: 
"Tsang Wu Chung held on to the fief of 

669 



XIV. XV, XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

might b^ maintained, he returned to and held Fang, the 
strorghold of his fief, and there requested the appointment 
of one of his half-brothers as successor. This being tanta 
mount to a threat Confucius admits no merit in \Vu Chunrr, 

o * 

but a virtual threat of rebellion. The appointment of suc 
cessor ought to have been left to grace of the Duke. 5c^ 
3-f i% ffij tfc liLc Demand, i.e. ask for it, with it clasped 
tightly under his arm, forcing the Duke s hand. L. 
keeping possession of Fang etc. to appoint a successor to 
him in Ids family. Although it may be said that he was 
not using force with his sovereign, I believe he was. Z. 
quamvis dicat se non coegisse prineipcm etc. K. Although 
it is said etc. did not use intimidation with his prince etc. 
Couv. II a beau dire qu il n a pas fait violence a son 
prince ; je n ajoute pas foi a son affirmation. 

C li A P T E R X V I. C R A F T Y AN D NOT 
STRAIGHT. C. ff X 5V > name JR 5 > RC - 6 35- 
627. ffi %u /fe^ name /J> f]^ B.C. 683-640. Both 
these barons during the ^ %fc period aggrandised the 
Mouse of J%\ by territory taken from the barbarians. In 
reality neither of them was upright, ff sfi JH> but in his 
dealings with J Duke Huan maintained his honour and 
his word and refused all treachery, hence ft jft J^ $J :\\: 
^ this discrimination of their real characters. Cf. next 
clause. L. Craft}- and not upright. /. rectus erat et 
non fraudulentus. K. a man of honour and without any 
craftiness. Couv. c -tait fourbe et manquait de droiture, 
etc. sans duplicite. 

CHAITI^R XII. TO LIVE FOR TI1F STATIC 
BETTER THAN TO DIE FOR ITS PRINCE. i. 

670 



THE ANAIJiCTS. XIV. XV, XVI, XVII, 



"t * 

s *- IE ffij =? * 

^ gfr M ^ 1f 

14 * JE ^ til 

o 

B te m & x 



Fang while he begged the Duke of Lu to 
appoint (his brother as) his successor. Al 
though they say he did not coerce his Prince 
I do not believe it." 

CHAPTER XVL The Master said: 
" Duke Wen of Chin was double-dealing 
and dishonourable. Duke Huan of Ch i was 
honourable and not double-dealing." 

CHAPTER XVII. i. "When Duke 
Huan put to death his brother, Prince Chiu," 

671 



XIV. XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

See also next section. Duke jj| of $ having aroused his 
State to rebellion by his ill government, the Minister jjfa 
$L tf urged the Duke s elder son /J\ ft (Huan) to flee to 
the small but adjacent State of Chii $\ Kuan Chung and 
Shao IIu urged Chin to take refuge in the more distant 
Lu. On the death of 4jl |j who had slain the Duke, Lu 
escorted Chiu back, only to find that Huan by subterfuge 
had arrived first and ascended the throne. I luan then caus 
ed Lu to put Chiu to death and demanded Kuan and Shao. 
Shao ^1] J committed suicide, but Kuan asked to be im 
prisoned. The Minister jj$j knowing his ability induced 
Huan to employ him, and Kuan later made Huan the 
greatest power in the country. There is a dispute as to the 
seniority of the two brothers. L. caused his brother 
Kew to be killed when etc. died with the master but K.C. 
did not die. May I not say etc. Z. Chao hou commori- 
tur ille etc. dico : nonne caruit pietate ? K. famous states 
man K.C. (the Bismarck of the time) etc. Couv. Chao 
Hou ne voulait pas survivre au etc. vertu n a pas etc parfait. 
2. C. fa in the ^f %fc ^ fo\ and anciently the two 
were interchangeable. It is said to mean " i.e. to assem 
ble and lead the barons, which assemblies occurred eleven 
times. in :H: f- ft m ill SC t *. Although not 
himself a {- A ni s benefits had extended far and 
wide, hence he had fc . ?)} i- c - c ^ onc t without being 
tl> L. assembled all the princes together, and that not 
with weapons of war and chariots: it was all through the 
beneficence of K.C. Whose beneficence was like his? Z. 
Huan regulum sub ductu congregisse cmnes regulos, quin 
adhiberet etc. quis sicut iste pius etc. K. a Congress 

6 7 2 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XVII. 



a 



t fl ft H JE 

> , 

to 2 * M 



observed Tzu Lu, " Shao Hu died for him, 
but Kuan Chung did not, Was he not lack 
ing in Virtue ? " 2. " Duke Htian," answer 
ed the Master, " brought the Barons together 
without resorting to chariots of war, and all 
through the power of Kuan Chung. Whose 
Virtue was like his ! Whose Virtue was 
like his ! " 

6/3 



XIV. XVII, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

which prevented a general war. Couv. reunit sous son 
autorite tons les princes feudataircs etc. Oucl autre fut 
aussi parfait que lui etc. 

CHAPTER XVIU. NOT TO P>K JUDGED BY 
COMMON STANDARDS. i. See preceding section. 

c. =f* n M-. ^ 5E *j\ *i m a -& &, 

Tzu Kung s idea was that not to die might be excused, but 
to become his Minister was surely beyond everything. L. 
K.C. I apprehend, was wanting etc. not able to die with 
him. Moreover he became prime minister to Hwan. Z. 
non valuit common, et insupcr acljuvit ilium. K. he even 
served the younger prince, the very man who murdered his 
pupil and charge. Couv. n a pas ete parfait, ce semble. 

n a pas eu le courage de se donner a la mort ; de plus etc. 

2. C. fj |il fg tnK & Wl - - ffi and means, 
senior, leader, g, j -[!l o S JS] MC, K fc 
0f B IE ^ T ^> IIe aggrandised the House of 
Chou (by the subjection of the barons) and reduced the 
power of* (formerly the Jf| J^ territory), thereby putting 
to rights the Empire. fg> fi -ill Without. # ^ ffi 
& Fold, lapel. Sc ^ 2T: |ff- > ? i |* ^ tlL Loose 
hair and left folds were the barbarian custom, in other 
words uncivilised Ch u would have ruled the Empire. L. 
made him leader of all the princes and united and rectified 

the whole empire enjoy the gifts which he conferred. 

wearing our hair dishevelled and the lappets of our 

coats buttoning on the left side. /. acljuvit Moan Duccm 
ut esset archon rcgulorum ; semel restauravit imperium etc. 
K. But for K.C. we should now be living like savages. 

o o 

Couv. II a rcforme le gouvernement de tout 1 empire etc. 

674 



tHE ANALECTS. XIV. XVIII. 

A 

fji ^ g tl 14 ^ B 



t- ~F ) t & fl 
3 K IS W ^B S ^ 



CHAPTER XVIII. - - i. Tzii Kung 
asked : " Was not Kuan Chung deficient in 
Virtue ? When Duke Huan had his brother 
Prince Chiu put to death, Kuan Chung was 
incapable of dying, and even became his 
Minister?" 

2. " After Kuan Chung became Minister 
to Duke Huan," replied the Master, " he 
made the Duke leader of the Barons, and 
entirely reduced the Empire to order, so that 
people down to the present day are recipients 
of his benefactions. But for Kuan Chung 
we should be wearing our hair loose and 

6 7S 



XIV. XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

3. Or, Should he have etc. C. j^ /J^ f,^ Petty 
fidelity, g^ ^J ^ Hang, strangle. L. Will you re 
quire from him the small fidelity of common men etc., 
suicide in a stream or ditch, nobody knowing anything 
about them. Z. qui ergo instar vulgi homines etc. praes- 
tans fidelitatem, seipsum strangulasset etc. ut nemo ipsum 
cognoverit? K. He was not like your faithful lover and 
his sweetheart etc. who in order to prove their constrancy 
etc. nobody taking any notice of them. Couv. Devait-il 
montrer sa fidelite, comme un homnic vulgaire, s etrangler 
etc. et derober a la connaissance de la postcrite ? 

CHAPTER XIX. DESERVING OF HIS NAME. 
-I. For Wen Tzu see Cap. XIV. C. g ^ > 
Household retainer, gv, fc $ The Ducal Court. Jf} 

M 1ft B m m $ & E -til, It means 
Wen Tzu personally introduced him (his former employee) 
at the Ducal Court to be a Court Minister. L. ascended 
to the prince s court in company with Wan. Z. cum 
Wen-tse simul ascendebat ad regiam. K. when he was 
called to office etc. chose for his colleague an officer who 

o 

had been serving in his retinue. Couv. avec son maitrc 
(comme s ils avaient la memo rang). 

2. $ as an honorary title also means $g ^ |^f f^ 
one who confers rank on a plebeian. His worth lay in his 
readiness to put his former servant on an equality with 
himself, which shewed three points, %]] J^ a knowledge of 
character, ^ ^1 forgetfulness of self, l\i ^J devotion to 
his prince. L. He deserves to be considered Wan. Z. 
potest habcri cultus. K. deserves the title of Bcauclerc. 
Couv. vraiment Wenn un homnic d un esprit cultive. 

676 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XVIII, XIX. 





S*\ fli H^ "^ #K ftmr 

xx >>: ^ /c_ $x MI 

o 

-5F 11 ~%L ? ^tl "J5r^ ^ 

J ^w /C - /H IJ * *<-~ 



folding our clothes to the left. 3. Would 
you require from him that which is deemed 
fidelity by common men and women, who 
(shew it by) committing suicide in some 
ditch, nobody being the wiser ? " 

CHAPTER XIX. i. The Minister 
Chuan, formerly a retainer of Kung-shu 
Wen-tzu, afterwards went up to Court in 
company with Wen-tzu. 2. The Master on 
hearing of it observed : " Wen well deserves 
to be considered * a promoter of culture. 

67; 



XIV. XX, XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XX. ABLE STATESMEN 
STRONGER THAN ROYAL INIQUITY.- i. Duke 
Ling see VI, 14, 26. K ang-tzii is the ^ |jf ^ of II. 20. 
C- l > 3fe fi &> I- ose his throne. L. The Master 
was speaking about the unprincipled course etc. when Ke 
K ang said : Since he is of such a character, how etc. 
State? Z. dicente carere honestate ; si ita, cur tamen non 
excidit? K. if he is such a man, how did he not lose his 
throne? Couv. ne s appliquait pas a faire regner la 
vertu perdu ses Etats? 

2. ji}i ^ Third Uncle, i.e. the H it ? of V. 14. 
VP ft ^ Controlled the visiting embassies, jjjft To in 
voke, see VI. 14. 3E M W HI. 13. C. Hi A SI * 
& It fin K :t *J ffl Although not perhaps of the 
worthiest character, yet they were useful men. L. has 
the superintendence of his guests and of strangers; the 
management of etc. the direction of the army and forces, 
with such officers as these etc. Z. curat hospites et 
advenas etc. ; quae cum ita sint etc. Couv. charge de 
recevoir les hotcs ct les etrangcrs ; T ouo clirige les cere 
monies et prcnd la parole dans le temple, etc. 

CIIA?TI<;R xxi. IMMODERATE PROMISE, 

DIFFICULT PERFORMANCE. Or, He who says it 
without modesty, will do it also with difficulty. Cf. IV. 
22. L. He etc. will find it difficult to make his words 
good. Z. si etc. tune exequi ilia erit difficile. K. From 
a man who is not bashful in his talk, it is difficult to expect 
much in the way of action. Couv. Celui qui ne craint 
pas de prornettre de grandcs choses, a de la peine a les ex 
ec uter. 

678 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XX XXI. 



- o 

o * > 

111 Z. #P 3i ffl ft 1 ffff iF & 

* 6. > 

CHAPTER XX. i. When the Master 
was speaking of the unprincipled character 
of Duke Ling of Wei, K ang-tzti observed : 
" Such being the case, how is it he does not 
lose his throne ? " 2. " Chung-shu Yii," 
answered Confucius, " has charge of the 
envoys ; the Reader T o has charge of the 
Ancestral Temple; Wang-sun Chia com 
mands the forces ; and, such being the case, 
how should he lose his throne ? " 

CHAPTER XXL The Master said: 
" He who speaks without modesty will per 
form with difficulty." 

679 



XIV. XXII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXII. CONFUCIUS DEMANDS 
VENGEANCE. i. C. j > W ;fc *> A Mini ~ 
ster of Ch i, named g^ $j fc^ ^ f^ Duke Chien, 
Prince of Ch i, named ^Es The affair occurred in Duke 
Ai s fourteenth year, B.C. 481, two years before Confucius 
death, and in the fourth year of Duke jjf} A L. Chan 
Ch ang murdered etc, Z. occiderat Kien regulum. K. 

Prime Minister had murdered his prince Couv. 

avait mis a rnort etc. 

2. ffi Ceremonially wash the hair ; J to bathe ; all the 
process of fasting and purification is implied. C. ffi f 

*B*S, 3$*iE**o > 

purification and fasting before representing the matter to his 
Prince he shewed how grave he deemed it, and how he 
dare not view it lightly. E ^ ^, A ft ^C ffi> 

9c a ffi ^ ^> A A n m n , is m ^ 

Regicide is utterly subversive of all human order, Heaven 
cannot condone it and all men are called upon to avenge it, 
how much more a neighbour State ! (The ^ j^. says 
Confucius meant avenge by immediate invasion, later 
writers say after obtaining permission from the Emperor.) 
L. Confucius bathed etc. I beg that you will undertake 
to punish him. Z. Confucius abluit caput corpusque etc. 
rogo punias ilium. K. I beg that steps to bring him to a 
summary punishment may be at once undertaken. Couv. 
Je vous prie de le faire chatir. 

2. C. ^f-^ 3 ^ -llL> The three noble families 

of Lu. HF gfc |b H gc. Jib & *" fi* #> The 

government was in their hands, the Duke having no in 
dependent control. L. Inform the chiefs of the three 

680 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXII. 



a 



M 



CHAPTER XXII. i. When Ch en 
Ch eng-tzu slew Duke Chien, 2. Confucius 
bathed himself and went to Court, where he 
petitioned Duke Ai, saying: " Ch en Heng 
has slain his Prince, I beg you to take venge 
ance on him." 

3. "Lay the information before the three 
nobles," replied the Duke. 

68 1 



XIV. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

families of it. Couv. Addressez-vous aces trois grands 
seigneurs. 

4 . cf. xi. 7. c. }L -F- ill ffil (i H- in Jib soli- 

loquised as he went out. Though not in office, being an 
old Minister he still had the right of entry at Court, and 
was entitled to be consulted in important cases. L. Fol 
lowing in the rear cf the great officers, I did not dare not 
to represent such a matter, and my prince says etc. Z. 
Confucius sibi dixit : quia ego subsequor magistruum 
calcem etc. Couv. Parceque (j ai etc taifou, et que) j ai 
encore rang parmi les tai fou. 

5. lie went to. JgJ f{ fo Q ft According to 
the Prince s commands he went and laid his plaint, but the 
three nobles % ft $g ~R 2. >fr, Iff J4 fell R ?% 9> 
tt i^f> h ac l long been desirous of doing without their 
prince, and really were allies of Ch cn lieng, hence had 
no desire to take up arms against him. The second JJ[ -ft 
etc. is supposed to have been addressed to the nobles direct. 
L. but they would not act. Z. r.on annucrunt. Couv. 
qui rejeterent sa deniande. 

CHAPTER XXIII. --THE FRANK MAY BE 
FKARLKSS. C. ?H iif{ ?Q ft ^ <]i\ \\ r ithstand 
him to the face in admonishing and striving. ^|J ^ ^[i : f- 

n ffi If lit, Ml Ja ^> M S 3Bo TzuLuhadno 

difficulty in standing boldly up, but did not find the avoid 
ance of duplicity so easy. L. how a ruler should be 
served. Do not impose on him, and moreover (K. if neces 
sary) withstand him to his face. Z. ne dccinias, ct resiste 
illi. Couv. II doit eviter de le trompcr, et r.o pas craindre 
cle lui resistor, (s il agit mal). 

682 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXII, XXIII, 



0~~^ tt f .. -? tt_ ocz si 
^^rw^^nwlR^ 

\ 



> u > 

Vrt ~y !_. ~^T _J^ K pi p* "=5" 

> 

4. " Seeing that I follow behind the Mini 
sters," soliloquised Confucius (as he with 
drew), " I dare not do other than petition, 
and the Prince says : " Inform the three 
nobles ! " 

5. He went to the three nobles and peti 
tioned them, but they declined action ; 
whereupon Confucius remarked : " Seeing 
that I follow behind the Ministers I dare not 
do other than make my petition." 

CHAPTER XIII. When Tzu Lu asked 
what constituted a man s duty to his Prince 
the Master said : "Never deceive him and 
then you may stand boldly up to him." 

683 



XIV. XXIV,XXV,XXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXIV. GROWTH IN GRACE AND 
DISGRACE. Or, Dcvclopes in (or his intelligence is in) 
higher things etc. C. ft ~f- ff ?c 2IK ft H M 
K 8JK /h A 08 A $C> ft H ^ ^ ft To The 
chun-tzh follows the higher law, and daily advances into 
a higher and clearer life. The lower man yields to his 
lower nature and daily sinks into impurity and baseness. 
L. Superior man; mean man. Z. vir sapiens sursum 
penetrat, vulgaris homo deorsum progieditur. K. looks 
upwards in his aspirations; a fool etc. Couv. Le sage 

tend toujours en haut: un homme sans principes en 

has. 

CHAPTER XXV. MORAL STUDIES FOR 
CHARACTER S SAKE, NOT EOR APPLAUSE. - 
C. J& r5, gfc n K EL Hi Desire to obtain it for 
their own sakes. ffi A> $X 31 #N K A Desiring to 
be known of men. Let the student /f> \fc JJ- $ft % ^ 
not be deluded as to his motive. L. In ancient times, 
men learned with a view to their own improvement. 
Nowadays etc. Z. veteres studtbant pro se, etc. K. 
Men now educate themselves to impress others. Couv. 
Anciennement, on s appliquait a 1 etude de la sagesse pour 
devenir vertueux, 1 estimc des hommes. 

CHAPTER XXVI. AN ADMIRABLE ENVOY.- 
i. He was a ^ ^ of f$j named 55 anc ^ a ^ ormcr ^ lost 
and disciple of the Sage s. He now, after the Sage s re 
turn from exile, sent friendly enquiries. 

2. C. |it *, *a :jt: \& ^ & -tiLo llis 
respect for the master reached to the messenger. The 
master s worth was manifested in the humility of his ser- 

684 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXIV,XXV,XXVI. 

/ 



+ 
TA 



& ?L IT m n * >\- =? 

Wi * fo A B A B 

o * 

f!!] ?!/ i 4 # T ; 

t ^ $ it ^ 

o 

QUA ^ ^ 



CHAPTER XXIV. The Master said: 
" The progress of the nobler-minded man is 
upwards, the progress of the inferior man is 
downwards." 

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: 
" The men of old studied for the sake of self- 
improvement ; the men of the present day 
study for the approbation of others." 

CHAPTER XXVI. i. Chii Po Yu 
having sent a messenger (to convey his re 
spects) to Confucius, 2. Confucius made 
him sit down along with him and questioned 

685 



XIV. XXVI, XXIX. THE ANALECTS. 

vant, whose answer well accorded with the spirit of the 
Sage. L. Confucius sat with him and questioned him. 
What, said he, is your master engaged in? anxious to 
make his faults few etc. lie then went out etc. A mes 
senger indeed ! etc. 7.. Confucius copiam fecit illi sedendi 
etc. vellet minuerj sua errata etc. o legatum ! qualcm 
legatum ! K. My master has been trying to reduce the 
number of his shortcomings etc. Couv. cnvoya saluer Con 
fucius invita la messager a s asseoir desire diminuer 

le nombre de ses fautes etc. O le sage messager ! 

CHAPTER XXVIL See VIII. 14. 

CHAPTER XXVIIL EVERY MAN HIS PEACE. 
See the %j g Diagram 52. ~fi -f \% & etc. The 
wise man takes thought, and docs not leave his place. C. 
It is introduced here as being similar in meaning to the last 

section. % ft jh 31: #r> M ^ T ?I n > t& 
m =? ffi ffl * Hi at fi, Bn fJ 15 T * * tt 

^ K- 111 Iwerything in nature minds its own place, 
and thus the Eaws of Nature work smoothly ; hence the 
wise man also minds his own place, and prince and mini 
ster, high and low, great and small all obtain their distinc 
tive office. L. The superior man, in his thoughts, does 
not go out of his place. Z. sapientis cogitatio non ex- 
cedit suum officium. K. should never occupy his 
thoughts with anything outside of his position. Couv. 
Ees pensees les projets du sage restent toujours dans les 
limites de son devoir, de sa condition. 

CHAPTER XXIX. MODEST PROMISE; SUR 
PASSING PERFORMANCE. Cf. cap. xxi and IV. 
xxii Jfo ;#\ ^p Jft f& JJ; Ashamed means, Fear- 

686 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXVI, XXIX. 



11 A 



tij ,~fi ^u~ PI Pi fc $tf 
MJ j at: a uJ Hb u\ 



* -$ 



/t4 jP 

> oo 

O ~" O 

% 

K JSB li ^ tH ffiJ ^c 

o 

him, asking : " What is your Master doing 
now?" The messenger replied: "My 
master is seeking to make his faults few^er, 
but has not yet succeeded." When the 
messenger had withdrawn, the Master 
observed: "What a messenger! What a 
messenger ! " 

CHAPTER XXVII. The Master said: 
" He who does not occupy the office does 
not discuss its policy." 

CHAPTER XXVIII. The Philosopher 
Tseng said : " A wise man, even in his 
thoughts, does not stray from his own duty." 

CHAPTER XXIX. The Master said : 

68; 



XIV. XXIX, XXX. THE ANAI.F.CTS. 

ing to speak to the full; ^ :#> $T 4\ f gf Wish 
ing to exceed ; i.e. promises less than lie really does. L. 
modest in his speech, but exceeds in his actions. /. 
idem. K. ashamed to say much ; lie prefers to do more. 
Couv. et il fait plus qu il ne dit. 

CHAPTER XXX. VIRTUE, WISDOM, COUR 
AGE: WORRY, DOUBT, FEAR. i. Cf. IX. ,8. 
3% $& fits is usually interpreted by "I cnnnot attain to 
one of them." j JJ says here is the definition of a -ft - j\ 
a man of Virtue, wisdom and courage. j H|J ; f.g 
5|j The law of perfect character. C. as usual will not 
credit the Sage with sincerity; ft JJ JH #5 A -til He 
blames himself to encourage others. L. The way of the 
superior man is threefold, but I am not equal to it. 
Virtuous, he is free from anxieties; wise, perplexities; 
bold, fear. Z. sapientis ratio triplex ; et ego nullam 
attingo : corde perfectus, non tristatur ; pruden.s, r.on hal- 
lucinatur; fortis non pavct. K. A wise and good man 
may be known in three ways, which I am not able to show 
in my own person. As a moral man he is free from an 
xiety ; understanding, doubt; courage, fear. Couv. Le 
sage pratique trois vcrtus, qui me font c efaut ; parfaic, il ne 
s afflige derien; prudent, il ne tombe j)as dans 1 erreur; 
courageux, il n a point de crainte. 

2. j|J here is always read in the sense of f|* to say, but 
why it should not be read, That is your own way, i.e. a 
description of your own character, only a Commentator 
can explain. L. Master, that is what you yourself say. 
Z. magister ipse dicis. K. Only what you say of your 
self, sir. Couv. c est vous qui le elites. 

683 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXIX, XXX. 



Hi J^l. Jti( irl . J tn 

> 

If :t 51 it ff 

o o 

" The higher type of man is modest in what 
he says, but surpasses in what he does." 

CHAPTER XXX. i. The Master said : 
" There are three characteristics of the noble 
man s life, to which I cannot lay clay claim : 
being Virtuous he is free from care ; pos 
sessing knowledge he is free from doubts ; 
being courageous he is free from fear." 2. 
"That is what you yourself say," said 
Tzu Kung. 

689 



XIV. XX XT. XXXIII. IT! IF AN.MKCTS. 

CHAPTER XXXI. COMPARISONS ARE 
ODIOUS.-C. #, J-fc -llL, Compare. ^ ^ & gjf 
Interjections expressing doubt. Jfc jy A 4^ jfl) | Jl: 

& s, m -ft m m. ?IK *& # # & w i& 

St& ** K HO ffr Jia ft -% ffi % Although the 

critical comparison of men and things is also a branch of 
philosophy, to apply oneself entirely thereto keeps the 
mind running on externals to the neglect of self-discipline. 
L. in the habit <?/ comparing men together. Tsze must 
have reached a high pitch of excellence ! Now, I have no 
leisure /^r this. Z. metiebatur homines. Se jam sapiens 
ergo ! Ego vero tale otium non habeo. K. You must 
be a very superior man to etc. Couv. occupait ajuger 
les autres. Seu est done deja. un grand sage. Moi, je n ai 
pas le temps (ajuger etc.). 

CHAPTER XXXII. A WORTHY FEELING OF 
UNWORTHINESS. This occurs with slight variation in 
I. 1, 1 6, and IV. 14. C says that all maxims repeated in 
the same terms are mere repetitions, but \\here there is 
variation in the terms they are to taken as separate sayings, 
hence this saying appearing four times in different forms 
shows the importance of the subject discussed. L. I \\ ill 
not be concerned etc. my own want of ability. Z. non 
angor alios non me ipsum noscere etc. K. be concerned 
that you have no ability. Couv. Le sage ne s afflige pas 
etc. capable de pratiquer parfaitcment la vertu. 

CHAPTER XXXIIL AGAINST SUSPICION. C. 
Kfi> 5fc 3* M M ;^> Go out to meet it before it comes. 
te> vfc )i 1ft] A , To imagine it before it is theie. 
l> el i A JR S> Another s intention to deceive. ^ 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXI. XXXIII. 



fil * -T ?Jc J1U ? 

-Ill B IW -tii S 

o * 

> 

o 

^ A fc ^ 



CHAPTER XXXL Tzu Kung being in 
the habit of making comparisons, the Master 
observed : " How worthy T zu must be ! 
As for me, I have not the time to spare." 

CHAPTER XXXII. The Master said: 
"(A wise man) is not distressed that people 
do not know him, he is distressed at his own 
lack of ability." 

CHAPTER XXIII. The Master said: 
" Is not he a man of real worth who does 

691 



XIV. XXKIII, XXXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

fw> fifi A & 

B/f ff An adversative conjunction. {{ xf-C g ;p {g^ jfjj 
** A Mf (S fJ ^ #; ffi> Although neither anti 
cipating nor imagining, yet in the presence of sincerity or 
duplicity having intuitive precognition. ^L ~l l$l inter 
prets #{) by and, " and also is given topic-conceptions, 
can such a man be a worth} man? " L. He who does 
not anticipate attempts to deceive him, nor think beforehand 
of his not being believed, and yet apprehends these things 
readily when they occur etc. Z. qui non pracsumit de- 
ccptioncs, non supponit diffidentias, at ceteroquin prior 
odoratur etc. K. anticipate deceit nor imagine untrust- 
worthiness, but who can readily detect their presence etc. 
Couv. Celui-la etc. qui nc presume pas d avance que les 
hommes ou chercheront a le tromper on seront en defiance 
centre lui ; mais qui ccpcndant decouvre les ruses etc. aus- 
sitot qu elles existent? 

CHAPTiai XXXIV. A GI15K AND A RETORT. 

I. C. Mou is said to have been an aged moralist and 
recluse, hence called Confucius by name in this arrogant 
fashion. ^ ^ fjx fjX -til, putting himself on this ruler 
and on that. ^ {/^, vf -JC ffi ffi P if.& Kl fft A llL, 
Making a business of talking to please people. L. I low 
is it that you keep roosting about? Is it not that 3-011 are 
an insinuating talker? Z. cur es tarn indesinenter sollici- 
tus? Nonne id e.st age re suavi loquentem ? K. \\liat 

do you mean by rambling about with your talk? a 

self-seeking good talker. Couv. pourquoi cnseignez-vous 
avec tant d assicluite? I\t pour captiver vos auditeurs 
n avez vous pas recours aux artifices de langage? 

692 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXIII, XXXIV. 



+ 
m 

m 



JH 



m 



TJ & a 



not anticipate deceit, nor imagine that people 
will doubt his word, and yet who has im 
mediate perception thereof when present ? " 

CHAPTER XXXIV. - - 1. Wei-sheng 
Mou addressing Confucius said: "Ch iu, 
what are you doing with this perching here 
and perching there ? Is it not that you are 
making yourself an ad captandum talker?" 

693 



XIV. XXXIV, XXXVI. THE ANALECTS. 

2. The @ seems to be Confucius retort, by \vay of 
answer to the $]j ifjllj ; i.e. better move about and do some 
thing, however poor the prospect, than stick in one place 
and give it up. C. fc -g ^ To hate, [g ffe - - jfjj 
^P M {]L Holding to one fixed idea and with no breadth 
of mind. L. I do not dare to play the part of such a 
talker but I hate obstinacy. Z. sed odi pertinaciam. K. 
hate narrow-minded bigotry in men. Couv. Je hais 
opinionatrete. 

CHAPTER XXXV. CHARACTER TKLLS, EVEN 
IN A HORSE. C. 1, ^ ^ ^, The name of 
a good horse, that was credited with running a thousand 
ti a day. ftK fj ?$ & &, Docility. A ^ff ^ Ifil 
ftl fS flfl !)1 ; f$ W t> J i8c> And so with a man who 
has talents without moral character, how is he to be esteem 
ed ? L. A horse is called a kc, not etc. but because of 
its other good qualities. Z. famosus equus non laudaba- 
tur a robore, tractabilitate. K. because of its moral qua 
lities. Couv. Dans un excellent cheval etc. pas taut la 
force que le douceur. 

CHAPTER XXXVI. THE LAW OF RETURN 
ING GOOD FOR EVIL. I. %L means hatred, enmi 
ty I fe ls a god character or action and is interpreted by 
/S M kindness. C. refers this question to the tenets of 
Lao-txu, see the Tao te ching, Part II. L. What do you 
say etc. injury should be recompensed with kindness? Z. 
cum beneficiis retribuere simultates, quomodo? K. re 
quiting injury with kindness? Couv. One faut-il penser 
cle celui rend le bien pour le mal. 

2. It was naturally difficult for Confucius, the cx-Mini- 

694 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXIV, XXXVI. 



ft) ffi El 

o > - 

-T = a ^ ii ^ 

fl II ^" -til 

"* 

M IS -Hi F> 3^ 



2. "An ad captandum talker I would not 
dare to be," replied Confucius, " and I should 
hate to be obstinately immoveable." 

CHAPTER XXXV. The Master said: 
" A good horse is not praised for its strength 
but for its character." 

CHAPTER XXXVI. - - i. Someone 
asked: "What do you think about the 
principle of rewarding enmity with kind 
ness ? " 2. " With what, then, would you 

695 



XIV. XXXVI, XXXVII. THK ANAI.l.CTS. 

ster of Justice, to rise above mere justice. Idealism, the 
divine incentive to a divine nobility, was foreign to his 
philosophy. C. Having done a man good for his ill, how 
am I going to repay another who does me a kindness? 
L. With what then will you recompense kindness : Z. 
cum quo retribues bcneficia? How will you then requite 
kindness? Couv. que rendrez-vous pour le bieii ? 

3- Cf. Li Chi XXXII. ii. C. ft :l\ ffi $. ^ % 
It K fN - - m & fin JHI %L ffi ill 1 ) ft HI, ft 

^C W\ fi& ;??> ii J >& ), fi\ ffi > ^ i ft JS -dL> AS 

to the man with whom one has enmity, whether in love or 
hate, acceptance or rejection, to be singly and entirely just 
without any bias, this is rectitude (i.e. treat him according 
to his varying conduct with justice); as to him who shews 
kindness, he must be unfailingly requited with kindness. 
L. Recompense injury with justice, and recompense kind 
ness with kindness. Z. utilor aequitate ad compensandas 
injurias, etc. K. Requite injury with justice etc. Couv. 
II suffit do repondre a 1 injustice par la justice etc. 

CHAPTHR XXXVII. KNOWN OF HKAVKN, 
THOUGH IGXORKD OF MEN. i. C. offers the 
paltry comment, that ^ r f ft "JSfc, ^ ^ T R" [n] 
4l> the Sage heaved this sigh to prompt Tzii Kung s 
enquiry. L. Alas ! there is no one etc. Z. nemo me 
novit, hcu ! K. Ah ! there is no one who understands 
me. Couv. Personne ne me connait. 

2 - ^"11 -J^c ^K ^Jl" ^ -*f- l ne knouer of me, is it not 
Heaven! C. ^ ft ft ^ jjjj ^ ffi ^ ^ ^> JJ 

yV M ^ >t 7^> fit %u K ^ ffii ft #S Ji 3ii> i^b 

1H W ^ R ti ft f^- ^5 )jf S jfS -U > Not to be 

696 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXVI, XXXVri. 





o 

:x^ J H5 "tlii* 

> T3 

ft n g IS & 3 
^ fc ^ H 
& M *n fg 

o 

reward kindness ? " asked the Master. 3. 
" Reward enmity with just treatment, and 
kindness with kindness." 

CHAPTER XXXVII. -- 1, "No one 
knows me, alas ! " exclaimed the Master. 

2. " Why do you say that, sir, that no one 

i 
knows you ? " said Tzu Kung. " I make no 

697 



XIV. XXXVII, XXXVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

acceptable to Heaven yet bear no grudge, nor to be agree 
able to men yet bear no resentment, only to know tc 
humbly learn and therefore loftily rise, all this but des 
cribes his method of introspection and self-correction in 
orderly and gradual progress. JL 1*" ^ A W* {$[ & 
_h ilt 5^ 3U All who pursue the humble study of 
human duty, are thereby making advance in the higher 
principles of Heaven. L. What do you mean by thus 
saying etc. I do not murmur against Heaven. I do not 
grumble against men. My studies lie low and my penetra 
tion rises high. But there is Heaven, that knows me. Z. 

qui fit ut nemo magistrum noscat ? non succenseo coelo, 

non criminor homines ; ab imis addiscens, ad altiora 
penetro ; etc. K. I do not repine against God etc. My 
studies are among lowly things, but my thoughts penetrate 
the sublime. Ah! There is perhaps only God who 
understands me. Couv. Je m applique a 1 etude de la 
sagcsse, commenc,ant par les prineipcs fondamentaux, et 
avanc.ant pas dcgres. Celui etc. 

CHAPTER XXXVIIL PUT UP THY SWORD. 
I. Kung-po Liao, or Liao the Duke s uncle, " probably 
from an affinity with the ducal house." For Chi-sun see 
II. 5.20; III. i, et al. Both Liao and Tzii Lu were in the 
employ of Chi-sun, Tzu Lu endeavouring to put the princi 
ples of Conf. into practice. C. : f- }jg. was the patronymic, 
J$ his honorific title and fft his style ; he was a ^ -^ 01 
t<K ^ -T My Lord/ is Chi-sun. J$ gjj JJ .& ^ 
$C i ^lv % Ssu means to expose his corpse, i.e. he pio[)osed 
to slay Liao. "f|j ?$ Market and palace. "The bodies 
of great officers were so exposed in the Court, and those oi 

698 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXVII, XXXVIII. 

+ 

A 

IB % &- *n A 



JH ? fa fc T ^ 



ffn 





complaint against Heaven," replied the 
Master, " nor blame men, for though my 
studies are lowly my mind soars aloft, and- 
does not Heaven know me ! " 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. - - i. Kung-po 
Liao having spoken against Tzu LAI to Chi- 
sun, Tzu-fu Ching-po informed Confucius 
thereof, and said : " Our Master s mind is 
undoubtedly being disturbed by Kung-po 

699 



XIV. XXXVIII, XXXIX. THE ANALECTS. 

meaner criminals in the market-place." L. having slander 
ed etc. Our Master is certainly being led astray still 

power enough to cut Leaou off, and expose his corpse etc. 

Z. accusaverat Tse Lou dubitantem animum 

cadaver cxponere in foro vel regia. K. slandered 

informed Chung Yu of it. Chung Yu afterwards in speak 
ing of it to Conf., said "My Lord is being led astray etc. 

Couv. avait parle mal a corpus des soupqons centre 

Tzeu Lu etc. 

2. Jjii Is the Truth going to make progress? Jt $rj 
fit fiij What connection has he with what is ordained ? 
C. says, Even if Liao s injurious statements prevailed it 
was still Fate, and that Liao had really no power in the 
matter. L. If my principles are to advance it is so 
ordered. What can Leaou do where such ordering is con 
cerned? 7.. rectam doctrinam acturam cursum necne, 

coelestis est decreti ille quid ad coeli decretum. K. 

Whether or not I shall succeed in carrying out my teaching 
among men depends upon the will of God. Couv. Si ma 
doctrine doit suivre sa voic, c est que le Ciel 1 a decide. 
Que peut faire L. centre les decrets du Ciel? 

CHAPTER XXXIX. FOUR KINDS OF RETIRE 
MENT.^ is the same as $, In regard to the Jt ^ 
C. quoting fa ^ says: H % m &> * /h & %t 

a m ft M ffi # HL w\ m x * m 5 Alth ^ 

the four are differentiated in rank they are net so in worth, 
for their experiences were unlike. And ^ ,i$ says the ^ 
dt # 75 M Z 3: ft $i Z, 3: -l!L The three next 
refer to the degree of withdrawing, not to the degree of 
worth. (This may be so, but the natural interpretation 

700 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXVIII, XXXIX. 



0:t $& 4\] ^ 

^^ c^> IIL <-~ 



-^ ^ 



r Hii fr $8 # 

fsj & ^ -tH ^f-- ^ 

o 

Hfc ffi )l ^1 Hb 

Liao, but I am still strong enough to have 
his carcase exposed in the market-place." 
2 The Master replied : " If my principles 
are going to prevail it is so fated ; if they are 
going to fail it is so fated ; what can Kung-po 
Liao do with fate ? " 

CHAPTER XXXIX. i. The Master 
said : " Some good men withdraw from the 
world ; 2. the next in order is withdrawal 

701 



XIV. XXXIX, XL, XLI. THE ANALI-CTS 

gives four kinds of worthiness.) J(lJ is ^ [$] a rebellious 
State ; {ft aspect, look of things or of prince, /jfe |>i ft 
failure in respect; ff spoken to, or of, amiss, /fj" j; ^ 
contradiction. L. Some men of worth retire from the 
world, some particular States, because of disre 
spectful looks, contradictory language. /. sapientes 

fugiunt saeculum; alii vero fugiijnt patriam ; tractandi 
speciem ; loqucndi modum. K Men of real moral worth 
now retire from the world altogether. Some of less degree 

of worth etc. looked upon with disfavour, when told to 

do so. Couv. is discursive, but takes iff: ^ as d une 
vertu moins parfaite. 

CHAPTER XL. SEVEN SUCH. This is generally 
taken as a continuation of the last. C. ^ J says : fj- 

M &, n m m m * -% ^ ^ A % * ^ ^ # 

n W & * X &. W Z m m ^ ft means, 
have arisen, i.e. those who have arisen and withdrawn are 
seven ; it cannot be known who they were and to force out 
their names in proof is like chiselling, unnecessary detail. 
L. Those who have clone this are seven men. Z. idem. 
K. I know of seven men who have written books. Couv. 
De nos jours, sept sages se sont retires etc. 

CHAPTER XLI. ATTEMPTING THE 1MPOS 
SIBEE. ^ff P 1 ] said to be in modern Ch ang Ch ing hsien, 
Chinanfu, Shantung. jJ \ ] l \ One who controlled the open 
ing of the gate in the morning ^" jQ JJjJ P 1 ] ^ supposed to 
be a worthy who had withdrawn from the hopeless condi. 
tion of the times. ^ f\ \\ here from? j^ %\] $L Is not 
this he who knows -Jll ^ pj he, or what he endeavours, 
cannot succeed, or the times arc impossible etc. /jjj J 

702 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XXXIX, XL, XLI, 



Eg C9 

+ + 



n & ft =& 



s ft $ 

exr -4^ B# "H* 

ou ^ w A 

o 

* n- A ^ 

> o 

from fatherland, 3. the next from uncon 
genial looks, 4. and the next from uncon 
genial language." 

CHAPTER XL. - - The Master said : 
" There are seven men who have done this." 

CHAPTER XLI. --On one occasion 
when Tzu Lu happened to spend the night 
at Stone Gate, the gate opener asked him, 
" Where are you from ? " " From Mr. 

703 



XIV. XLI, XLII. THE ANALECTS. 

says: jQ [J & lit ^ T.J fffi * & fit ^ 31 

71 7- $* * *n m A *ii){ * T * * "I $ Z. 

n.5f (iLo He himself thought the times impracticable and 
did nothing, and thus ridiculed Conf. , little knowing that 
the Sage did not admit that any time was impracticable. 
L. Whom do you come from? It is he is it not who 
knows the impracticable nature of the times, and yet will 
be doing in them. Z. is scilicet, qui scit aliquid impos 
sible, et tamen idipsum agit? K. who knows the imprac. 
of the times and is yet trying to do something? Couv. 
un homme qui s applique a faire une chose qu il sait etre 
impossible. 

CHAPTER XLII. CONCERN FOR THE WORLD 
v STOICAL INDIFFERENCE. i. ffg gg Tapping a 
stone chime. C. ffi same as JJJ| ; ^, 1JL $$ A straw 
basket. The basketbearer was also a |J^ -J; recluse. The 
heart of the Sage never forgot the world (and its woes,) 
and that the man recognised this from his manner of play 
ing shews that he was no common person -J $ A> !- 
His heart is full who so beats the musical stone. Z. 
quanto cum affectu pulsat calcophonum ! K. He has his 
heart full etc. Couv. qu il aime beaucoup les homines. 

2. We M Afterwards, finally. % E- Cf - XIIL 2O - 
~JJi j_^ ^cll etc. When nobody takes note of a man let him 
thereupon cease and have done with it The first Q, i s the 

verb, the second is an expression of finality, gg J$ is 

a quotation from the jf $g I. iii 9. C. ^ ^ $$ 
~$* W ffl , ?2 ^ Ch ing ch ing is the sound given out 
by the stones and also has the meaning of limitation and 
fixity. Ja ft ^ 7 JC E3 M> H # & 7JC tl Jfi To 

704 



THE ANALECTS XIV. XLJ, XLII. 

m 






El 



SS IB = W ft it MT J 

" o 

^ rfff >fr & ^ rfn 0- 

K ung s," replied Tzii Lu. " Is not he the 
one who knows he cannot succeed and keeps 
on trying to do so ? " was the response. 

CHAPTER XLII. i. The Master was 
playing on a stone chime one day in Wei, 
when a man carrying a basket passed the 
door of the K ung abode and remarked : 
" With what feeling he is playing the 
chimes ! " 2. Presently he added : " How 
contemptible is this petrified ting-tinging ! 

705 



XIV. AMI, XLIII. THE ANALECTS. 

wade in one s clothes is called li, to wade with them held 
i;p is ch i ; J$ J3G ^ .till on J$ in this passage says ^j, ^ 
? l/~ ?]C ill *}"? Jil Jl fording stripped below the waist. 
The man thus ridicules Conf. for not discriminating the 
deep from the shallow, not reading the signs of the times. 
L. How contemptible is the one-ideaed obstinacy those 
sounds display ! When one is taken no notice of, he has 
simply at once to give over his wish for public employment 

Deep water clothes on, held up. Z. oh! quam 

rudis ejus durities ! Si profundior est vadus, tune 

supra zonam amictus trajicias etc. K. How contemptible 
to go on thrumming etc. You must swim over \\hen the 
water is high etc. Couv. Quelle avcugle opinionatrete ! 
etc. Si le gue est profound, je le traverserai les jambes 
nues etc. 

3: ^ means determined ; C. says it means that Conf. 
Jifc -Jt %; K & ffi sighed over tllc old rnan s fixed re 
solve to forget (the needs of) his generation. Conf. was 
one in spirit with the divine powers, jjiJJ ^ "f Jft ^> 
I 1 [$ }ft A> ^ f/b II & -tiL> looking upon all 

the world as one family, and on China as one person, and 
he could never for a day forget this. L. I low determined 
is he in his purpose! But this is not difficult. Z. O per- 
tinaciam ! At non id difficile. K. That certainly shows 
determination, etc. Couv. Qu il est cruel ! etc. 

CHAPTER XLIII. TIIKKK VICARS IMPERIAL 

SILENCE.-- -i. For -jf- 5M scc Intro V Hc could 
not understand how a country could be kept from anarchy 
with the Ruler silent for so long. jf ^ was King J T 
of the ]fif dyn. B.C. 1323-1263. *fc fe is ,35 i in the 

706 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XLII, XLIII, 







Seeing that everybody ignores him let him 
stop and have done with it. If the water is 
deep you strip up to the waist; if shallow 
you tuck up your skirt ! " 3. " How stoical 
he is ! " observed the Master. " But his way 
is not difficult." 

CHAPTER XLIII. Tzu Chang said: 
"The Book of History says that when Kao 
Tsung observed the Imperial mourning he 

707 



X1Y Mill. XI.IV.XLV. THE ANALKCTS. 

: ?1 : $?. IV. viii. i. | (see jfg) is pronounced <?//. C. 
says ^ -f Jg 5(J ; ^ it is tlie name given to the place 
where the Sovereign observed his mourning ; but adds ^ 
f$ ill: *fc lu docs not know its precise meaning. L. 
was for three years without speaking? /. idem. K. 
kept silence etc. Couv. demeura sans parler etc. 

2. C. jft a nl" $& Ll a Kv ^y one controlled 
his own official affairs. ^ $ ^C $ -liL Prime Minister. 
In this way the Prince was able to spend three years in 
silence. L. all attended to their several duties, taking in 
structions from etc. Z. singuli praefecti gcneratim admi- 
nistrabant propria, cum dependentia a primario ministro per 
tres annos. K. for three years all public functionaries 
received their orders from the Chief Minister. Couv. les 
officiers remplissaient leurs functions sous la direction du 
premier ministre etc. 

CHAPTER XLIV.A RIGHT LIVING RULKR 
HAS A RESPONSIVE Pl^OPr.IC. fa e.g. f Em 
ployed on public service. C. $ft ^ s:iys jpg ^ Jjj ^ 
/^ t& R Si fi A A"li -n good order prevails and ~ach 
man s duty is fixed the people are easy to command foi the 
public service. L. When rulers luve to observe the rules 
of propriety, the people respond readily to the calls on 
them for service. 7.. si superior amet ordinem, tune 
populus facile mandatur. K. \Vhen the rulers encourage 
education and good manners easily amenable to govern 
ment. Couv. Si le prince aime a garder 1 ordre fixe par 
les lois et 1 usage, le pcuplc cst facile a diriger. 

CH-APriCR XEV. --THE PRINCELY MAX S 
SELE-CULTURE. (gf J^ } Ic ^ nends himself 

708 



THE ANALECTS. XIV XI III, XI IV, XLV. 

P9 ED 

+ + 



S~"r* f-V ^P ^&* H A. iHT 

J iA< J ^v pj / v r J pj 

lit Sft M B ^ ft & M 



B IHi ffi J: H B S ft 11 

o o > o 

o 

B dF I J ^ S B 

did not speak for three years. What may 
be the meaning of that?" 2. "Why need 
you specialise Kao Tsung ? All the men of 
old did the same," answered Confucius. 
" When a prince died, all his officers attend 
ed to their several duties in obedience to the 
Prime Minister for three years. 

CHAPTER. XLIV. The Master said: 
" When those in high position are fond of 
orderly behaviour, service from the people is 
easily commanded." 

CHAPTER XLV. When Tzu Lu asked 
what should be the character of a man of the 
nobler order the Master replied : " He 

709 



XIV. XYV, XLIV. THE ANALECTS. 

in order to be courteous, or circumspect, $H $f fin B 
^f. Like this and nothing more? JJC J\^ To make otheis 
contented. ^ f: ;tt: ffi ffi fg Cf. VI. 28. Yao and 
Shun in regard to this were still anxious, ah! The $> fg 
on says ft jfi fe - & , ^ ^ ft fig fe - if, 
^1 >F ?$C ^ ot an unregardful thought within, nor an 
unregardful action \\ithout. C. ff^f Q W* St :fe T* ^. 

it 3* as , m * m /h ^ & s jsi ^c ^ 

ffifc a #& K % * i*T c This maxim of the 
Sage s is final and inclusive, but Tzii Lu was deficient 

o 

herein, therefore Conf. shewed him that in its cumula 
tive perfection it reached to others. 2 $fe JQ ^ % f( 
4t 3P*^ st ^ to k ^ 1C well-being of the people as 
their anxious care. L. superior man. The cultivation of 
himself in reverential carefulness. . . so as to eive rest 

o 

toothers rest to all the people still solicitous 

about this. Z. de viro sapiente. excolit so per suiipsius 

vigilantiam. excolit se indeque vota explet aliorum 

tranquillat populum etiam laborabant de hoc. K. A 

wise and good man is one who sets himself seriously to 

order his conversation aright for the happiness of 

others of the world felt their shortcomings. Couv. 

Un disciple de la sagesse se perfectione en veillant attentive- 

ment sur lui-rneme puis il travaille a. la perfection et a 

la tranquillite des autres ensuite il fait regner la vertu ct 

la paix parmi le peuple. ...... au-dessus de leurs forces. 

CHATTER XLVI. AN OLD SCAPJ-KiRACK. 
ffi is a form of $ ; ^ ma> be this or truly ; $ |(jg 
is being, or may be accounted as being a rogue. C. J$ 

iji 11 -t ft A, I* n rH) l:K, %i -% K. 

710 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XLV, XLVI. 



m 



ft Jft fft to It to 

* . j* a a a is 

9C 1 1 . iff 1 M 

"$1 $t ^ 5 13 ^ G 
^ 5^ If H A ^ 

o o o 

o * - 

should cultivate himself to be unfailingly 
respectful." "Will it suffice to be like 
this ? " asked Tzu Lu. " He should cultivate 
himself so as to ease the lot of others," was 
the reply. "And is this sufficient?" asked 
Tzu Lu. "He should cultivate himself so 
as to ease the lot of the people. He should 
cultivate himself so as to ease the lot of the 
people : even Yao and Shun still remained 
anxious about this ! " 

CHAPTER XLVI. Yuan Rang sat 
squatting and waiting as the Master approach- 

711 



XIV. XLVI, XLV1I. THE ANAL1XTS. 

ft ft Jffi / ^ ;#, He was an old acquaintance 
of Conf. and sang w hcn his mother died. He was a fol 
lower of the heresies of Laotzii, which naturally led to 
extravagances unbounded by the courtesies of life. Cf. I i 
Chi II. II. iii. 24. 3 g m To squat. & ft ^ To await 

W ?L -7- * ffn JS jjg jy f ^ yc M m ^ Honoi ._ 

able mention. {$ ^ ^ y^ ^ ^ Harmful to others. 
All he could clo was to jjjr ^ gL i destroy the relation 
ships of society and confound its customs. f$ |g J(: jjm 
Struck him lightly etc. L. In youth not humble ^ 
befits a junior ; in manhood doing nothing worthy of being 
handed down ; and living on to old age ; this is to be a 
pest. Z. adultus, nee habuisti quod laudarctur ; et senior, 
nee moreris ; id est esse cladem etc. K. A worthless 

man cli ^ not rise up when Conf. passed by him now 

you are dishonouring your old age : such a man is called a 
rascal. Couv. vos examples sont tres nuisibles. 

CHAPTER XLV1I A FORWARD YOUTH. i. 
C - m L P ^. ft & A term for one who had not 
yet assumed the cap. ft ^ ^j ^ ft ~ A 
nuncio, one who carried messages between guest and host. 

^ASiftM^^^ilS, #c7L*lfJjL 

1^ 1 ML! ^i ^ -liL The someone supposed the youth 
had made such progress in study that Conf. had appointed 
him as messenger by way of favourable distinction. L. 
employed by Conf. to carry the messages between him and 
his visitors. I suppose he has made great progress? /. 
puer cleferebat mandata, proficit ergo? K. to answer the 
door and introduce visitors. I suppose he has improved 
in his education. Couv. employait an service des h6tes 

712 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XLVI, XLVII. 



mi m np 5E m ro 



^ ^ ui M s 

ed, who said to him : " When young with 
out respect, when grown up doing nothing 
worthy of mention, when old not dying, 
this is being a rogue ! " And with this he 
hit him on the shank with his staff. 

CHAPTER XLVII. i. A youth from 
the village of Ch iieh was acting as mes 
senger for Confucius, so some one interrogat 
ed about him : " He has made good pro- 

713 



XIV. XLVII. THE ANALECTS. 

et des visiteurs... ...s il faisait des progres (dans 1 ctude de 

la sagesse). 

2. Jfi M fi % 2. fi Occupied the seat of an adult. 
3fe IT S 3fe W fin If Shoulder to shoulder. ^ $ 
ni / i& &fc }fc I& A ^L fil Wanted quickly to rank as a 
man. C. jj& f ^ g [$ ^5 gg ^7 Hy right a youth 
should sit in a corner and follow in walking, and so this 
youth had been put to this duty of messenger not through 
singling him out by way of favour, but that he might learn 
the manners to be shewn by juniors to their seniors. With 
this meaning the text might be read in the past tense, " I 
noticed etc." L. 1 observe that he is fond of occupying 

the seat of a full grown man walks shoulder to shoulder 

etc. not one ^ho is seeking to make progress in learning. 
He wishes to became quickly a man. Z. ego video ilium 

considere in dignitatis sede sed volcns quamprimum 

formatus evadere. K. in a great hurry to become a 
grown-up man. Couv. II ne cherche pas a progresser 
p^u a peu ; mais il voudrait etre parfait tout de suite. 



714 



THE ANALECTS. XIV. XLVII. 



ill fi 1 



grcss, I suppose?" 2. "I notice," replied 
the Master, "that he occupies the seat of 
adult age, and I notice that he walks on a 
level with his seniors. It is not that he seeks 
to progress, he wants speedy arrival." 



XV. I. THE ANNLECTS. 

VOLUME VIII. 
BOOK XV. 



Will LING KUNG. 

CHIEFLY ON THE MAINTE NANCE OF 
PRINCIPLES AND CHARACTER. 

CONTENTS. The Book takes its title fro.n the 
unprincipled Duke Ling of Wei, and the action of Con 
fucius in standing to his principles affects the first part of 
the book, the rest chiefly consisting of maxims concerning 
character. 

CHAPTER I. CONFUCIUS DECLINES TO 
TEACH TACTICS. i. For Duke Ling see VI. 26 a 
al - C - H "ill" 3ft flsfi fjf ffi #K Means Hie mar 
shalling of troops. fi\[ 7 jjtfj $J Ceremonial vessels, Cf 
VIII. 4. From childhood he could marshal the various 
apparatus of religion (see | g^, which would advance 
the well-being of the State, but he declined to discuss the 
marshalling of battalions with fflE Jg ^ ^\ an unprincipl 
ed ruler such as Duke Ling, f ^/ -|5 jfi Jj$ {D ^ /J^ 
who was again meditating a campaign. L. abouL tactics. 
I have heard all about sacrificial vessels, hut I have not 
learned military matters. On this he took his departure 
next day. Z. strategiam, sacrif.carium etc has quidem 
olim audivi ; legionum etc nondum eas didici. K. mili 
tary tactics. I know a little about the aits of peace, but I 

716 



THE ANALECTS. XV. I. 



VOLUME VIII. 
BOOK XV. 



O i-t 

-^ >^ -> TT Z\ 

- 7C <. Tu A Jg$ 

^ 

& ? $ 7 nsj + 
-ill js ii i iif ^ s 



CHAPTER I. i. When Duke Ling of 
Wei asked Confucius about military tactics, 
Confucius replied : " With the appurten 
ances of worship I have indeed an accquain- 
tance, but as to military matters I have never 

717 



XV. I, II. THE ANALECTS. 

have never studied the arts of war. Couv. 1 art de ranger 
les armees en bataillc. On ni a cnscignc de ranger les 
supports el les vases de bois etc ; je n ai pas appris a com 
mander les arniees. 

2. fjj( \vas a small country between $j and J to which 
Confucius was proceeding ; see XI. 2, also Introduction. 
g Cut off, deprived of. C. |IU S -liL> Arise, stand 
up. L. When he was in Ch in their provisions were ex 
hausted etc. 7., intercepta annona ; K. Their provi 
sions failed them, so reduced that they could not proce 
ed. Couv. (\\ iut assiege durant sept jours, par ordre du 
piince), les vivres lui manquerent. 

3. J To interview. C. takes p;| as fj -f 3} #5 
Pj The chiin-tzii has indeed his straitened times, but quotes 
/fp : f approvingly who interprets by |Y/) Vj ; jt |f) keeps 
steadfast (in) his want. L. with evident dissatisfaction 
said, Has the superior man likewise to endure in tins way / 
may indeed have to endure want, but the mean man etc 
unbridled license. Z. indignationem prodens ait : sapienti 
etiam accidit angustari ? sapiens ceite angustatur, at etc 
statim diffuit. K. A wise and good man,- can he, too, 
be reduced to such distress? Yes, etc, sometimes also 

meets etc, but reckless. Couv. Le sage est il aussi 

expose a manquer de tout? ne connait pas plus aucune 

loi. 

C1IA1TKR II.ONK CONNECTING PRINCIPLE. 
-I. 1!^ is "f TJ\ see Intro. V. j^ -f- $ Take me to 
be. C. Tzfi Kung was noted for his multifarious know 
ledge and retentive memory, but Confucius wished to shew 
him the fundamental principle of learning : objective rather 

718 



THE ANALECTS. XV. J, II 

^ 

m & B # & % n 



o o 

studied them." Next day he straightway 
took his departure. 

2. (On the way) in Ch en their supplies 
foiled, and his followers were so ill that they 
could not stand. 3. Tzu Lu with some 
irritation sought an interview and said : 
" Does also a man of the higher order have 
to suffer -want ? " " The superior man bears 
want unshaken," replied the Master, " the 
inferior man in want becomes demoralised." 

CHAPTER II. i. "Tzu," said the 
Master, " You regard me as a man of multi- 

719 



XV. II, III. THE ANALECTS. 

than encyclopaedic. I>cgge says: "I understand the first 
part here as meaning Do you think I am aiming, by the 
exercise of memory, to acquire a varied and extensive 

knowledge? " L. You think, I suppose, learns man} 

things and keeps them in memory ? Z. Oui multa didi- 
cerit eaque retinuerit. K. learned many things and re 
members them all. Couv. Oui a beaucoup appris ct 
beaucoup retenu ? 

2. C. At first he accepted ffjj * gg and instantly 
doubted if it were so. I,. Yes but perhaps etc. Z. 
ita ; an aliter est? K. Yes, but is it not so. Couv. Oui, 
sjis-je dans 1 erreur? 

3. Or, I (have) one (principle) wherewith to thread 
them i.e. the many studies). Cf. IV. 15. l>ut C. says : 
fifc JBl If f? flB Jlfc &> fill H> In that chapter it applies 
to conduct, here to knowledge. Needless to say the gene 
ral interpretation is extended to embrace all things in heaven 
and earth. L. says " the third paragraph is equivalent 
to : My aim is to know myself -the mind which embraces 
all knowledge and regulates all practice." L. I seek a 

o t"> I 

unit} all-pervading. Z. ego per uiuim p.::rvado totum. 
K. I unite all my knowledge by one connecting principle. 
Couv. une seule chose me donne Intelligence de tout. 

CHAPTER III. 1-TAV \VIIO A1TRICCIATK 
VIRTUK.-rli is -f- K, C f;g .i! 1 , 1 ^ J l! Z ft K 

r3 ^, -ft IL 4\ & * ffi *n it :u: it!; K I!L, 

H\- virtue is meant the personal acquisition of rectitude, 
without the possession of which it is impossible to know 
the reality of its meaning and flavour. C. thinks Chap 
ters I to III were all spoken on the same occasion. L. 

720 



THE ANALECTS. XV. II, III. 



ui m 

o 



II -Hi El fin 

% *? 4$ m 

farious study who retains all in mind, eh ? " 
2. " Yes," answered he. " But may be it is 
not so ? " 3. " No," was the reply, " I have 
one principle connecting all." 

CHAPTER III. "Yu," said the Master, 

" there are few who understand virtue." 

721 



XV. Ill, IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

Those who know virtue are few. Z, nosccntcs virtutcni, 
pauci. K. It is seldom that men understand real moral 
worth. Couv. pen d hommes connaisscnt la vertu. 

CHAPTER 1V.-CHARACTER TELLS. He who 
made no effort, yet everything was efficiently ruled, he was 
Shun, eh? ffi fi etc. He attended to the seriousness of 
his deportment and with all gravity faced the south, and 
nothing more. Cf. VI. I. C. gg A C& & jfij R; ft, * 
ft 3C 4] 0f f S -111, The virtue of an inspired leader 
being perfect, the people are transformed without waiting 
for him to take action ; i.e. the silent influence of a noble 
man s character suffices, he neither strives nor cries, etc, 
but C. adds, that following ||, the way had already been 
prepared for $, as able officers were in charge. L. May 
not Shun be instanced as having governed efficiently with 
out exertion? He did nothing but gravely and reverent 
ly occupy his Imperial Seat. Z. nihil agent et tamen 
rccte gubernans etc. Recte se componens, recta specta- 
bat australem oram et nihil aliud. K. who success 
fully carried out the principle of no-government. For 
what need is there really for what is called government? 
etc. Couv. presquc sans avoir besoin de rien faire, main 
tenant 1 empire etc. II veillait attentivement sur lui-meme, 
ct se tenait gravement le visage tourne vcrs le midi. 

CHAPTER V. THE UNIVERSALLY ACCEPT 
ABLE.!, 2. Cf. II. 1 8 and XII, 20. ft Go, pass; also 
fashionable, the accepted taste ; jjg ft pass everywhere, 
f/ffi i? says ft here means $% ft M .-f ^lj to act alwa}-s 
to advantage, also ft } ^ $IH f>H ffi so as to get on 
without let or hindrance. C. $f $] jg ^ ;]J; ,\\j t simi- 

722 



THE ANALECTS. XV. IV, V. 



m J rrj rj 

IS 3 0. 
ti fffl "rfn f| ^* * UK 

o 

o 



CHAPTER IV. - The Master said : 
" May not Shun be instanced as one who 
made no effort, yet the Empire was well 
governed ? For what effort did he make ? 
Ordering himself in all seriousness, he did 
nothing but maintain the correct imperial 
attitude." 

CHAPTER V. i. When Tzu Chang 
asked how to get on with others, 2. the 
Master made answer : " If you are sincere 

7 2 3 



XV. v. TIU-: ANAI.KCTS. 

lar to XII, 20. ? ijg TV ft ft f} ft 9^ fa & T 

/X ft & llll Tl ^> Ui s id^i u i* l^ow to obtain ex 
ternal acceptance, hence the Master turns him in upon 
himself, fj in ff jfjV and yf> ff j?jj is ch ii sheng ; 1 g , 
/* CL honest; g^ }ft fg ; |fj\ ft |</c > southern and 
northern indigenous tribes ; H. ^ :/f. | r f $ 3 ttl 2 5OO 
families made a c/ion, and 25 a ]}!_, L. ho\v a man 
might conddct himself so as to be ci-ciyivlicrc appreciated. 
Let his words be etc.. actions honourable and caivful; 
such conduct may be practised among etc. If etc. \\ill he, 
with such conduct, be appreciated etc ? Z. de libero 
agendi cursu sermo sit fidelis et verax, actio seria et matura 

ciirsnm habebit. K. in order to get along with men. 

Be conscientious and sincere, earnest and serious etc. 

Couv. quel etait le moyen d agir sur les autres homines. 
Un homme sincere et vcridique dans ses paroles, prudent 
et circomspect dans ses actions, aura de 1 iniluence, meme 
au milieu des barbares etc. 

3- C. j!: -ft J-/{- & fj Jtg ?& f^j ,r> The :H; re 
fers to sincere etc. -^ ^ j" fiiL J^ ^fj -^ means present 
togetlier witli (or, making a third \\ith oneself. I.. When 
he is standing, let him see those two things, as it were 
fronting him etc attached to the yoke. Z. adhcererc ad 
jugum etc. K. keep these principles constantly before 
you, as when driving a carriage you keep your eyes on the 
head of your horse. Couv. Se ten mt aupres de vous, 
devant vos ycux etc. 

4. C. $|i ^ ;; ! j / & |g -ft^ The part of the girdle 
which hangs down. L. wrote these commands at the 

724 



THE ANALECTS. XV. V. 



it n 



and truthful in what you say, and trustworthy 
and circumspect in what you do, then al 
though you be in the land of the barbarians 
you will get on with them. But if you are 
not sincere and truthful in what you say, and 
untrustworthy and not circumspect in what 
you do, are you likely to get on even in your 
own country I 3. When standing see these 
principles there in front of you. When in 
your carriage see them resting on the yoke. 
Then you will get on everywhere." 4- 
Chang inscribed these counsels on his sash. 

725 



XV. v, vi. THE ANALECTS. 

end of his sash. K. engraved on his belt. Couv. Sur 
sa ceinture. 

CHAPTER VI. T\VO ASPECTS OF RECTITUDE. 
i. Jft was the jjj, recorder of f$j of the name of 9{g^ He 
is the j Sjj ij of Chuang Tzii. It is recorded in the ^ jj /f 
that unable to obtain the promotion of good officers and 
the dismissal of unworthy ones, when dying, he gave orders 
that his body should not be laid out in the state and place 
to which he was entitled, so that when the Prince came to 
condole he might be informed that since Yii had been 
unable to advance the worthy etc. he himself was unworthy 
of a state funeral, by which action he effected after death 
the change he had failed to obtain during life. >f| jj Had 
right rule. Z. Straight as an arrow. L. Truly straight 
forward was etc. When good government prevailed in his 
state etc. Z. Proh quam rcctus etc. Cum regni viget 
ordo, instar cst sagiltae etc. K. What a straightforward 
man etc. When there were justice and order etc. straight 
as an arrow. Couv. Combien le clroiture etc. est admir. 
able. Quc le gouverncment soit bien on mal regie, il suit 
toujours le droit chemin, comme une fleche. 

2. For m ffi 3 see XIV. 26. C. ffl 3i & gj ft 
ife- A 2. 3li> fpC m ft 7^ Confucius calls him 
ft ^f- because his conduct in withdiawing from office 
tallied with that which he had himself approved by ex 
ample. 1$^ 1[ 111; fg, ]/!X llL % Gather himself toge 
ther and retire. Hence he is regarded as superior to 
Yii. When two statesmen of Wei consulted him about 
getting rid of the Prince, he not only declined to talk with 
them, but promptly withdrew. The ^ j|jj fjj presents 

726 



THE ANALECTS. XV. VI. 



nn n Y 
m 5i # a 



CHAPTER Vi: i. The Master said 
" What a straight man was the recorder Yu ! 
When the country was well governed he 
was like an arrow, and when the country 
was ill governed he was still like an arrow. 

2. What a noble man is Chii Po Yu ! 
When the country is well governed he holds 
office, but when the country is ill governed 

727 



XV. VI, VII, VIII. THE ANAIECTS. 

some difficulty, whether it was his portfolio, his talents, his 
principles, or what that he rolled up is not stated. L. A 
superior man indeed etc. When good government etc. he 

is to be found in office Tic can roll his principles up 

and keep them in his breast. 7.. 1 roh quantae s.ipientiae 

etc si regno jacet ordo, tune potest colligere et recon- 

dere illam. K. Really wise and good man entered 

the public service rolled himself up and led a strictly 

private life. Couv. - 11 exerce une charge il sait se re- 

tirer, et tcnir sa vcrtu cachcc. 

Cl I AITER VII. LOST OPPORTUNITIES. Can 
with (him) talk, not to with him talk, loses the man. It is 
difficult to maintain the play on the word "n and sufficient 
ly convey its force. It is here used in the sense of instruct, 
enlighten ;J| ffjj fig 5% Ittl DB fJb !7f Hmpty but able to 
receive, hearing and able to understand. L. When a 
man may be spoken with, not to speak to him, is to err in 

regard to the man in regard to our words. The 

wise neither err in regard to their man etc. Z. Si par est 
quicum loquaris etc. perdis hominem. K. When you 
meet the proper person to speak to and do not speak out, 
you lose your opportunity etc. Couv. Si vous refusez 
d instruire un hommc qui a les dispositions requises, vous 
perdez un hommc. Si vous enseignez etc. 

CHAPTER VIII. DEATH BETTER THAN 
DISHONOUR. Cf. IV. 2. K). # tl To the injury of 
Virtue. $%_ % Kill oneself, and suicide is undoubtedly 
part if not the whole meaning here. J& fc To perfect, or 
fulfil his virtue. C. fc )^ \\\] ; fg ;> A A man of 
entire moral character. $ ^ ff-] ^ ![!] >jj. % M f;S 

728 



THE ANALECTS. XV. VI, VII, VIII. 

A *; " 

^ m ^ * ^ T- #j it 



H ^ m nr & *r MIJ 

A ^c ISi ^ trf % tt 







A ^ * $ A ffi) , m 

" o 

he can roll up (his portfolio) and keep it in 
his bosom." 

CHAPTER VII." Not to enlighten one 
who can be enlightened is to waste a man ; 
to enlighten one who cannot be enlightened 
is to waste words. The intelligent man 
neither wastes his man nor his words." 

CHAPTER VIII. The Master said: 
"The resolute scholar, and the Virtuous 

729 



XV. VIII, IX. THE ANALECTS. 

^ ^ To die when one ought gives contentment to the 
heart, and honour is unsullied. L. The determined 
.scholar etc. at the expense of injuring their virtue. They 
will even etc. to preserve their virtue complete. Z. 
Cordatus vir et perfectus homo etc. datur qui profundit 
vitam ut consumment virtu tern. K. A gentleman of spirit, 
or a man of moral character will never try to save his life 
etc. ; he prefers to sacrifice his life in order to save his moral 
character. Couv. Un homme qui est parfait ou resolu a 
la devenir etc. au detriment de sa vertu. II est des circon- 
stances ou il sacrifie sa vie, et met ainsi la comble a sa vertu. 
CHAPTER IX. AS IRON SHARPENETH IRON. 
Compare Proverbs XXVII. 17. $\\ This, any State. 

c. M B fl* B\ t JSU& "^ Hsicn rcfers to con - 

cluct, rcn to character. ^ J- ^ pfl -%~ |" t ^ 2J : 

a x, t BI s * > sfc K # m m w -w m 

& & 3l : fS $L^ The Sa S e liavin S already remarked 
on Tzu Kung s liking for inferiors, here reminds him again, 
being wishful that he should have some one of whom he 
stood in awe to shape and perfect his character. L. asked 

about the practice of virtue The mechanic, who etc. 

When you are living in any state, great officers 

scholars. Z. qui evaderet perfectus. Immorans aliquo 
regno, scrvias ejus magistruum sapientoribus, consocieris 
cjus litteratorum probioribus. K. A workman who wants 

to perfect his work first sharpens his tools serve those 

nobles and ministers without the friendship of the gen 
tlemen. Couv. Pour devenir parfait L ouvrier etc 

doit commencer par aiguisicr ses instruments qu il 

se mctte au service etc. 

730 



THE ANALECTS. XV. VIII, IX. 



5fc 1; & ? ti 



man will not seek life at the expense of 
Virtue. Some even sacrifice their lives to 
crown their virtue." 

CHAPTER IX. When Tzu Kung asked 
about the practice of virtue the Master repli 
ed : "A workman who wants to do his 
work well must first sharpen his tools. In 
whatever State you dwell, take service with 
the worthiest of its ministers, and make 
friends of the most Virtuous of its scholars." 



XV. X. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER X. ANCIKNT RULES FOR MODERN 
GOVERNMENT. i. Or, I would adopt etc. C. says 
Yen Yuan was fit to be Imperial Piime Minister His ask 
ing about Imperial administration under the form of mere 
State administration was clue to modesty. Confucius ans 
wered him according to his ability rather than his modesty. 
L. The government of a country. Z. DC administrando 
reo-no. K. What institutions he would adopt for the 

t> 

government of an Empire. Couv. Pour bien gouvernor 
un ctat. 

2. c. s K$ m &, *\- ffi ti ft u* & ft n 

fi He tS" -&> ft means that because the handle of the 
Dipper at early dusk rested in J\ the month represented 
by that house was taken as the head month of the year. 
Of the three ancient dynasties the Hsia began its year with 
the JY month, the ]j with the 3K and the J^ with the ^ 
^ \^ M v ^ illi BB ^ 3t, A dfe K ST. Heaven 
was opened in the ^f- month (the month of the winter sols 
tice), earth in the 3^ and man was born in the ^a\ The 
I Isia chose the jh* as most suitable through its relation to 
human affairs, Confucius gave it his approval, and this has 
been the first month ever since the ~J$ dynasty. L. Eol- 
lo\v the seasons of the Hea. Z. Indue dynastiae Ilia 
calendarium. K. I would use the calendar of etc. Coir. . 
L empcrcur doit suivrc le calendricr des Ilia. 

3. The ancients used a ;fc tree (or, the simplest wooden 
structure) for a carriage, and not till the Yin dynasty did 
they have a proper wheeled vehicle, but the luxury oi J5] 
Ind covered theirs with gold and jewellery, indicative ac 
cording to Confucius, of the sho\vy and extravagant nature 

732 



THE ANALECTS. XV. X. 







fir m 



CHAPTER X. i. Yen Yuan once asked 
about the administration of a State. 

2. The Master replied: " Adopt the 
calendar oi Hsia ; 

3. Ride in the state carriage ot Yin ; 

733 



XV. X, XI. THE ANALECTS. 

of the period. Return to the simple life is his advice. L. 

idem. Z. Conscende curruin. K. Introduce tlie 

form of carriage used in etc. Couv. II doit adopter etc. 

4- C. ffl 3 # ?,:, # Bli a &, T 4\ 

$h m f 4\ Es There were five .sacrificial caps ac 
companying the Chou sacrificial vestments ; they were 
shaped like a " mortar-board," with a fringe hanging in 
front and behind, and the Sage approved of their ornate- 
ness. L. The ceremonial cap. Z. Indue tiaram. 

K. Adopt the uniform of the present dynasty. Couv. 
Et porter dans les ceremonies le bonnet etc. 

5. For g{ see III. 25. Jf Cf. III. I. The music was 
always accompanied with posturing. L. Let the music 
be the Shaou with its pantomimes. Z. Musica vero Con- 
cordia pantomimica. K. the most ancient music. Couv. 
exccuter les chants de etc. 

6. For the % g| songs see ff g Part I. Book VII. 

c. i& m m a prohibit; fe A, #> tft nt & z 

A^ servile flatterers and special pleaders, men who could 
make black seem white L. Banish etc. keep far from 

specious talkers licentious dangerous. Z. Re- 

jice cantiones, ablega garrulo assentatores volup- 

tuosae periculosi. K. I would prohibit all the popu 
lar airs in the music of the present clay and I would banish 
all popular orators etc. Couv. Les chants de Tcheng 
sont obscencs ; les beaux parleurs (les flatten rs) sont 
dangereux. 

CHMTI .R XI TAKK THOUGHT J ; OR TO 
MORROW. C. jg ^ & -T ill Z ft Wl & ffi JL 

Jftt Z T ^^ H c wno ^ ias no rc g ar< ^ f r wl iat i y 1CO 

734 



THE ANALECTS. XV. X, XI. 



A fe iS I J $& 

o 

4. Wear the cap of Chou ; 

5. In music adopt the Shao dances ; 

6. Banish the songs of Cheng, and avoid 
specious men ; for the songs of Cheng are 
licentious, and specious men dangerous." 

CHAPTER XL -The Master said: 
735 



XV. XI, XII, XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

miles away will find grief under his table and mat. L. If 
a man take no thought about what is distant etc. Z. 
Homo baud longe praemeditans, profecto habet prope 
moerorem. K. If a man takes no thought for to-morrow 
he will be sorry before the day is out. Couv. Celui dont 
la prevoyance ne s etend pas loin, sera bientot dans 1 em- 
barras. 

CHAPTER XII. NONE LOVED TI IK SPIRITUAL 
AS THK PHYSICAL. Cf. V. 26, IX. 17. ft, Or, A 
pretty face, & ^ ft Jf: & fTr j ^ ft m Si 2. 
til^ "I will give it up! " A sigh that he would never 
see such a ruler. Said to have been uttered when he saw 
Duke Ling riding out with Nan Tzu. L. loves virtue as 
he loves beauty. Z. sicut amatur formositas. K. Alas! 

I do not now see etc. Couv. Faut-il done desesperer 

qui aimat la vertu autant qu on aime unc belle apparence. 

CHAPTER XIII. OMISSION AS PAD AS COM 
MISSION. For |I$ & fli see V. 17. JJJJJ f Jg Under 
the willow Ilui was an officer of ^^ noted for his ability 
and purity. He held that the service of an immoral prince 
could not contaminate him, and he need not therefore 
retire. Cf. XVIII, 2, 8, and Menc II. I. 9. C. $ fV^ 

a * ffl at fi jfri 4\ K W >5, in & & Wi f% H 

, j\L^ It means that he was not a credit to his office 
and was sensible of dishonour as if he had acquired by 
theft and held secret possesion. As Prime Minister of Lu 
it was his duty to find out and employ the best men. 
Here was a better man than himself, yet jealousy kept 
Tsang from advancing him. Not to recognize worth would 
show ignorance, to recognize and not employ was to sup- 

736 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XI, XII, XIIT, 



{ H ^ M S -If 

-&* iH 1 * li Jrif m *d 

^ liC Ul XT d A 

o 

P^C -J\~ KLi* ^v ^^ 

5;n ft 1 #p ^ 



IXI ^^ HJ I ~-| 

" Who heeds not the future will find sorrow 
at hand." 

CHAPTER XII. "It is all in vain ! " 
said the Master. " I have never yet seen a 
man as fond of virtue as of beauty." 

CHAPTER XIII.--" Was not Tsang 
Wen Chung like one who had stolen his 
office ? " remarked the Master. " He knew 

737 



XV- XIIJ, XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

press, ignorance might be venal, deliberate suppression 
criminal. Jj(l ^\ |iL ; i Yjf J/J 0^ I lave him rank 
with him at Court. L. like one who had stolen his situa 
tion ? He knew the virtues and talent etc., and yet did not 
procure that he should stand \vith him at Court. /. an 

non is furans est dignitatem? et tamcn non sccum 

evehit. K. stolen his position afraid lest his friend 

should become his colleague. Couv. n usa-t-il pas cle sa 

dignite comme un voleur ne le demanda pas pour col- 

legue a la cour du prince. 

CHAPTER XIV. DEMANDING MORE FROM 
SELF THAN OTHERS. flij ^ $& Will putat-a-dis- 
tance discontent. C. -Jf B fe # S {ft, M A 
M & J\> Sv i&^ To demand much from self results in 
self-improvement, to demand little of others enables them to 
easily respond. L. Requires much etc. will keep himself 
from being the object of resentment. Z. In seipsum 
graviter, leviter autem animadvertendo in alios etc. K. 

Expects much demands little will never have any 

enemies. Couv. Celui qui se reproche severement ses 
fautes a lui-meme, et rep rend les autres avec indulgence etc. 

CHAPTER XV. THE SPIRIT OF ENQUIRY.- 
Cf. VII. 8; V. 8. C. ft f,ij etc. $ fli fffi * tt 
, S? -liL nas the meaning of thoroughly thinking out and 
deciding upon. Chinese pundits translate it by $| $ ^ 
^ p^ How shall I deal with, or, What shall I do with 
this? L. When a man is not in tJic Jiabit of saying, 
What shall I think of this? etc. I can indeed do nothing 
with him. Z. Qui non dicat : quomodo hoc, quomodo 
illud ; ego non habeo quod ipsi faciam jam. K. What is 

733 



THE ANALECTS. XV< XIII, XIV, XV. 



%\\ to B & R * m 
z * M 13 m 

o 

fnJ M A g K 

-Hi ^ ip HO ^ ffn 
B ^ ^ ii M ^ 

the superiority of Hui of Liu-hsia yet did 
not appoint him as a colleague." 

CHAPTER XIV. --The Master said: 
" He who demands much from himself and 
little from others will avoid resentment." 

CHAPTER XV. - - The Master said : 
" If a man does not ask himself, What am 
I to make of this ? What am I to make 
of this? there is nothing whatever I can 
make of him." 

739 



XV. XV, XVI, XVII. THE ANALECTS. 

4( 

the right thing to do? I can do nothing for such a man. 
Couv. Je n ai rien a fa ire pour cclui qui ne demimdc pas, 
Comment ferai-je ceci ? ccla ? 

CHAPTER XVI. A PETTY LIFE TO LIVE. J{t 
/, J etc. Herding together the whole cl,iy, with talk in which 
right has no part, but pleasure is found in deeds of trifling- 
cleverness etc. C. /J\ JJ; .f/, ^\\ self-interested wisdom. 

B * R m m fa K W \% Z >b m, When 
moral obligation does not enter into conversation then talk 
becomes loose, and a demoralizing spirit is produced, jj 
1? /h S fllj fr Kt f f* m m, To those who 
love to act with petty adroitness, the favourable opportunity 
for risky deeds soon ripens. Jf ^ gjj ^f g^ jf: $i| ]^ 
A 1S iM 7$ t-jf S IS l!L> Mow hard means they 
have no way of becoming virtuous and will fall into trouble. 
L. When a number of people are together for a whcle 
day, without their conversation turning on righteousness, 
and when they are fond of carrying out tlic suggestions of 
a small shrewdness etc. /. turmatim convenientes tota 
die, si verba non attingant aequitatem, seel ament producere 
privatam prudentiam etc. K. \\ T hen a body of men sit 
together etc. conversation to some principle or truth, but 
only amuse themselves with small wit and smart sayings, it 
is a bad case. Couv. se reunisscnt en troupe etc qui ne 
disent rien de bon, et veulent suivre les lumieres trompeuses 
cle Icur propre prudence etc. 

CHAPTER XVII. NOBILITY SHEWN BY RE 
CTITUDE. Or, when a princely man makes the Right 
his fundamental principle, makes Courtesy his rule in 
evolving it, Modesty his rule for exhibiting it, and Sinceri- 

740 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XVI, XVII. 









-V ri 



*T 

> 

CHAPTER XVI. --The Master said: 
" Men who associate together the livelong 
day and whose conversation never rises to 
what is just and right, but whose delight is 
in deeds of petty shrewdness, how hard is 
their case ! " 

CHAPTER XVII. The Master said: 
" The noble man takes the Right as his 
foundation principle, reduces it to practice 



XV. XVII, XVIII, XIX. THE ANALECTS. 

ty his rule for effectuating it perfectly, what a princely 
man he is ! Three of the five virtues fH =f^ /B> ^ fjf are 
here introduced, jg is <g Jg ; fg is j$ JJ, C. Jg 

> $1 V *, a JSl fi fl 1ft iJn fr *6 # 

gjj jj^ Rectitude is the root of all the laws of conduct, 
hence may be taken to be the essential stem, but in practice 
restrictions and refinement are necessary. L. The superior 
man in everything considers righteousness to be essential. 
He performs it according to the rules of propriety. lie 
brings it forth in humility. He completes it with sincerity. 
Z. vir sapiens aequitatem assumit pro basi, cum ritu ex- 

ercet illam, patefacit perficit illam. K. makes 

Right the substance of his being ; he carries it out with 
judgment and good sense ; he speaks it etc. ; attains it with 
sincerity. Couv. Le sage prend la justice pour base ; il 

la pratique d apres les regies etablies par les anciens il 

la garde toujours sincerement. 

CHAPTER XVIII. -- PAINKD AT INABILITY, 
NOT AT BEING UNKNOWN. Cf. XIV. 32 et al. 
The chun-tzu is " sick " over his own powerlessness, he is 
not "sick " because he is ignored by others. L dis 
tressed by his wanting ability. He , is not distressed by 
men s not knowing him. Z. Sapiens angitur se nihil 
posse etc. K. should never be distressed that men do 
not take notice of him. Couv. Ee sage s afflige de ne 
pouvoir pratiquer la vcrtu parfaitement. 

CHAPTER XIX. UNWEPT, UNHONOURE1) 
AND UNSUNG.- C. ft + *$ \>\ Q * * A 

IK m & it ^> n n m m 2. y$ "j %\ 

^^ Whilst the chun-tzii learns for his own improvement 

742 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XVII, XVIII, XIX. 

+ + 

K A 

H e n & 

- 

o * 

\rf? /I \!^ ^t|i 

^ A m & 



with all courtesy, carries it out with modesty, 
and renders it perfect with sincerity, such 
is the noble man. 

CHAPTER XVIII. --The Master re 
marked : " The noble man is pained over 
his own incompetency, he is not pained that 
others ignore him." 

CHAPTER XIX. - - The Master said : 
743 



XV. XIX, XX, XXI. THE ANALECTS. 

without seeking to be known, yet to die unmentionecl shews 
that there is no evidence whereby his excellence may be 
known. L. The superior man dislikes the thought of his 
name not being mentioned after his death. Z. quin suum 
nomcn sit laude clignum. K. hates to die without having 
done anything to distinguish himself. Couv. Le sage ne 
vcut pas mourir qu il ne se soit rendu digne d eloge. 

CHAPTER XX. THE SOURCE WITHIN. Cf. 
XIV. 25. ^ m says ^ eg m ^ ftffi^ There is 
nothing (of any kind whatever) that he does not seek 
within. L. What the superior man seeks is in himself. 
What the mean man seeks is in others. Z. Sapiens 

quaerit a se, apud alios. K. Seeks for what lie wants 

in himself. Couv. Le sage attend tout de ses propres 
efforts: de la favour des autrcs. 

CHAPTER XXL DIGNITY FORBIDS STRIFE 
AND SOCIABILITY PARTISANSHIP. Cf. II. 14; 
VII. 30. f^ etc. or maintains his dignity and does not 
strive. C. [ & ft ^ f M %* % jfr> 
1A ^ \ji\ To control oneself with dignity is f^ but 
such a one is not cantankerous and therefore is not conten 
tious, ju a jg ^ ^ m ^ M j.t z ;s> t& ^ 

1$^ Agreeable in his intercourse with others is 1^ yet 
being without party spirit he joins no clique. L. is 
dignified, but does not wrangle. He is sociable, but not a 
partisan. Z. Gravis sed sine offensionc ; cst social is sed 
sine partium uffcctu. K. Proud but not vain, sociable 
but belongs to no party. Couv. Est niaitrc de lui-memc, 
et n a de contestation avec pc.rsonne ; il cst sociable, mais 
n est pas homme cle parti. 

744 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XIX, XX, XXI. 



^ ^ a ^ nt 
^ ia * fin 

E tfff A f S 1 

o o o 

" The nobler man hates to end his days and 
leave his name undistinguished." 

CHAPTER XX. - - The Master said : 
"The noble man seeks what he wants in 
himself; the inferior man seeks it from 
others." 

CHAPTER XXL --The Master said: 
"The noble man upholds his dignity with 
out striving (for it) ; he is sociable without 
entering any clique." 

745 



XV. XXII, XXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

CHAPTER XXII. DISCRIMINATING MEN AND 
THEIR WORDS. Cf. V. 9 ct al. ^ To select, pro 
mote, accept. Jg To reject, do away \vith. L. The 
superior man docs not promote a man simply on account of 
bis words, nor does he put aside good words etc. Z. Nee 
ob verba elevat hominem, nee ob hominem rejicit vcrba. K. 

Never upholds a man because etc. nor does he discard 

because of the speaker s character. Couv. n eleve pas un 
homme aux charges, uniquement parce qu il 1 a entendu 

bien parler ; et ne rejette pas une bonne parole mediant 

homme. 

CHAPTER XXIII. THE GOLDEN RULE. Mi 
Exhibit, extend to. Is there one word which might be acted 
upon throughout life. % Cf. IV. 15 and the note thereo:i. 
Re S 0? ^ C Cf. V. 1 1 ; note also that in that case the 
saying is attributed to Tzu Rung. C. ffi 2 V$^ 3l : 
n ^ #)\ ft Tl l & & & ft Z^ The extension of 
oneself to the other party putting oneself in another s place 
is of unlimited application, so may serve as a rule of action 
throughout life. jj fo ^ $[ ^ The following of your 
good heart s promptings is shn. L. translates it here by 
Reciprocity, and in IV. 15 by " the benevolent exercise 
of (the principles of our nature) to others." Z. hereby 
Charitas and in IV. 15. ,\P, ^, by integritas cordi extensa 
ad proximum. ]\. has " charity " in both places. fH W 
lL R $9* ? -tffi L! K. ^> AV;/ seems to mean, To be 
in spirit towards others as to self, and s/ut to mean fH in 
action; Confucit;- gives lii:re its definition |_i fy~\ ^ @C L tc. 
\Mvjther it \\as liis own or an existing aphorism it is given 
as the coniiUuilion of slut. It ccnnutes more tlian Re- 

746 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXII, XXIII. 



w 



fr m ? 

*L iff) m H ^ "0 

o 

;t pf R9 A B 

Ul * ^ 

o > 

iF 1^ W &. ^ 

^ 

CHAPTER XXII. The Master said: 
" The wise man does not appreciate a man 
because of what he says, nor does he de 
preciate what he says because of the man." 

CHAPTER XXIII." Is there any one 
word " asked Tzu Kung, " which could be 
adopted as a lifelong rule of conduct?" 
The Master replied : " Is not Sympathy the 

747 



XV. XXIII, XXIV. THE ANALECTS. 

ciprocity, which may mean Do to others as they do to 
you. As understood by the Chinese it means less than 
Chanty as defined in I Corinthians XIII. At any rate it 
indicates the high water mark of Confucian morals, |j {| ^ 
A ^ fill 3% ^ #\ -? Jfc even the unselfishness of a 
Sage cannot go beyond this. Couv. N est-ce pas le 
precepte d aimer tous les hommcs comme soi-meme? 

CHAPTER XXIV. HIS FAIRXHSS IX JUDGING 
CHARACTER. I. in ;ff etc. If there have been any 
unduly lauded, it has been grounded on investigation. C- 
!& ft n A m ffil ffi K Jft, Proclaiming the ill- 
deeds of others at the expense of truth is to defame or 
libel. $ ft flJ A m Iffi m. --K W To publish 
men s excellence beyond the facts is to unduly eulogize. 
L. In my dealings with men, whose evil do I blame, 
whose goodness do I praise, beyond what is proper? If I 
sometimes exceed in praise, there must be ground for it in 
my examination of the individual. Z. ego quoad alios, 

an ullum exaggerate deprimo, laudo? is habet quod 

cxpertus sum. K. In my judgment of men I do not 

easily award blame or praise, carefully weighed my 

judgment. Couv. Qucl est celui que j aie blame ou loue 
avec exces? Si je loue trop quelqu un, c est que j at re- 
connu (qu il se rendra dignc etc.) 

2. These people Jtjf l are those ^ for (or by) whom 
Jj/f J^Jt made straight their paths [ft ^ and proceeded fjf ^ 
C. m R ft ^ JJfc ^ A, The people of the present 
tlay. H fC, Ji IS Ml 111, Hsia, Shang, Chou. jft 
it, IS & III] No private ends. ?i J?f Bl f!H 0f St 

* s S Ja Jft R eu H it * J5lr fit * * 

748 



THE ANALECTS. XV, XXIII, XXIV. 

m 

rfr # in -T- m & 



B- -V /./I niu :xJ >i^\ 

^ ss w $ 7- 

o o 

^r ^ Ift > 7/^ P 

*vl li C //>% ^^ 

^* > ^* o 

Hli ^ iP A ^ 

word ? Do not do to others what you would 
not like yourself." 

CHAPTER XXIV.- -i. The Master 
said : " In my treatment of men, whom 
have I unduly disparaged or whom have I 
unduly extolled ? If there be one whom I 
.have so extolled, there is that by which he 
has been tested. 2. For these are the peo- 

749 



XV. XXIV, XXV. THE ANALECTS. 

gg K M fiB M 0? & III! &> xvh Y T "cither con- 
sure nor praise beyond measure is, that these are the people 
whose goodness (the founders of) the three dynasties prais 
ed as good, and whose ill as ill, without partiality ; /& fjj 

4 <ft * n MB fe 3C & # M so i too > ma x not 

in these days warp the facts of their good and evil. L. 
This people supplied the ground why the three dynasties 
pursued the path of straightforwardness. Z. Lste populus 
est sane, tres fundatores quieum juxta aequum jus cgerunt. 
K. nothing to prevent one from dealing honestly with 
(people of present day) as the men of the good old times 
dealt with the people of their day. Couv. Notre peuple 
est encore cclui que les cmpereurs etc. ont traite avec la 
plus grande justice. 

CHAPTER XXV. THE GOOD OLD TIMES. & 

Wf & etc - I can sti 1 ^" 1xlck t0j or rcnicinber - Tllc 

blank was left during suspension of judgment. Chu-tzu 
remarks that Confucius says this, because he himself must 
have done both these things, and although they were small 
matters their absence shewed [lj $jg . ~j\. $ Hf ^11 ^ 
how greatly times had changed, /il] J5 says jj-fc J,L ifg S 
>fi ^1 54S M tlle nic aning of the text is doubtful and 
should not be forced. L. says: "The appointment of 
the historiographer is refcned to llwang-te the inventor of 
the cycle. The statutes of Chow mention no fewer than 
five classes of such officers. They were attached also to 
the feudal courts, and what Confucius says is that in his 
early days a historiographer on any point about which he 
was not sure, would leave a blank, so careful were they to 
record only truth. L. Even in my early days, a his- 

750 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXIV, XXV, 



f* SB PI fin -ft 1 

iti \m Ivi 

A W tr 

Ul -Hi -Hi JJf 



pic whereby the three dynasties have pursu 
ed their straight course." 

CHAPTER XXV. The Master said: 
" I can still go back to the days when a re 
corder left a temporary blank in his records, 
and when a man who had a horse would 



XV. XXV, XXVI, XXVII. THE ANALECTS. 

toriographer etc. Z. ego adhuc nactus fui historiogra 
phuin omittentem incertorum scriptionem etc. K. In my 
young days I could still obtain books which supplied in 
formation on points which the standard historical books 
omitted. Couv. (Dans mon cniance) j ai encore pu voir 
un historiographe qui n ecrivait rien dont il ne fut certain, 
un homme riche qui pretait a d autres ses chevaux etc. 

CHAPTHR XXVI. SPECIOUS ARGUMENTS 
AND WANT OF FORBEARANCE C. Fj ^ Jg 
HI & ^> $& & fit" A -$: K $f #> Specious argu 
ments bring right and wrong to confusion, aud cause the 
man who listens to them to lose what virtue he has gained. 
/h F I8 (/h small ^ UJ, cannot bear with) $n ii? A 
^ltlE^c^55 < r^ J; e.g. effeminate kindness on 
the one hand, or precipitate attack on the other. Another 
comm : says there are two kinds of ^ TQ,^ the zjfe softness 
of woman and the pjlj hardness of men. sft Jj| gj, and 
^> ^? S> inability to stand the ruthless, and inability to 
restrain oneself. L. Specious words confound virtue. 
Want of forbearance in small matters confound great plans. 
Z. parva intolerantia vero evertit magna consilia. K. It 
is plausible speech which confuses men s ideas of what is 
moral worth. It is petty impatience which ruins great 
undertakings. Couv. Les beaux discours font prendre le 
vice pour la vertu. Une legere impatience ruin un grand 
projet. 

CIIAPTIOR XXVII. POPULAR OPINION AN 
UNSAFE GUIDE. Cf. XIII. 24. C. fJJ R G> ^ 

fni ft fib % 1^3 A> & i(\- r ^ ifii ^F ^> 1W IS, 

Sc K %L ^ > Only the good are fit to love and hate ; 

752 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXV, XXVI, XXVIJ. 



lend it to another to ride. Now, alas ! such 
things are no more." 

CHAPTER XXVL The Master said : 
" I 3 lausible words confound morals, and a 
trifling impatience may confound a great 
project." 

CHAPTER XXVIL The Master said: 
" Though all hate a man, one must investi- 

753 



XV. XXVII, XXVIII. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

not to find out the cause of popular like or dislike may 
leave the mind darkened by prejudice. L. When the 
multitude hate a man, it is necessary to examine into the 
case etc. Z. Si multitude odit quempiam, omnino ex- 
aminandus etc. K. When a man is unpopular it is neces 
sary to find out why people hate him. Couv. Quand la 
haine ou la favour s attache a un homme, il faut examiner 
sa conduite, avant de juger s il est tligne etc. 

CHAPTER XXVIII. A MAN BROADENS HIS 
PATHS, NOT HIS PATHS HIM. This aphorism sen 
tentious and apparently fallacious has a sense in which it 
may be true. Mere principles are dead things without 
inherent vitalising power ; the power is in the living man, 
never in the principle. Another version might read : "It 
is the man who can magnify his ways, not his ways that 
magnify him." C. ^ $j$ jfij -fc -& To broaden 
and enlarge, develop. By ^ is meant rule of right living, 
religion, and in this sense C. says A ^f $ Jlf > jft ty\- |R| 

A^ m A <fr 4i ffi Bn Jtt iffi 7 & A fig * 

3C ffi> ?& ^ fib it :JE A -HL> Apart from the man 
there is no such thing as tao (path of duty), and apart from 
tao there is no such thing as the man ; but the mind of man 
is sentient, while the inanimate body tao is incapable of 
action, therefore, etc. L. A man can enlarge the princi- 
ples idiicli Jic folloivs ; those principles do not enlarge the 
man. Z. Homo potest amplificare doctrinam etc. K 
It is the man that can make his religion, or the principles 
he professes great etc. Couv. L homme pent developper 
et perfectionncr ses vertus natuielles ; les vertus naturelles 
ne renclent pas 1 homme parfait (s il ne fait aucun effort). 

714 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXVII, XXVIII. 



A 



& A & 

A SB *f 







gate the cause ; and though all like him, one 
must also investigate the cause." 

CHAPTER XXVIII. The Master said: 
" A man can enlarge his principles ; it is not 

his principles that enlarge the man." 

7S5 



XV. XXIX, XXXI. THE ANALECTS. 

CLIAl TKR XXIX. SIN THAT IS SIN. Cf. I. 8; 

vii. 3; ix. 23. c. .$ rfli ffi & IW & M M !&. 
m * &- fl J 31: & & i& ifu" } * & Be , if a 

man can reform his faults he is once more faultless, but if 
not, his faults become fixed and he will never reform them. 
L. To have faults and not to reform them, this, indeed, 
should be pronounced having faults. Z. Peccare et non 
emendari, hoc dicitur vitium. K. To be wrong and etc. 
Couv. Ne pas se corriger apres une faute involontaire, 
c est commcttrc une faute veritable. 

CHA1TKR XXX. USKLKSS FASTING AND 

VIGILS. cf. ii. 15. c. *$ >fr ja ,& ^, ^ ^ 3l 

Ju5 ffll @ W> T strain the mind to forced enquiry is 
not as good as yielding the will and acquiring naturally. 
It being impossible for Confucius to have spoken honestly 

45 K says ?fflffli:*$#tt9RlXfc 

A. Kl> ^ was no ^ ^ ia ^ ^ lc sa ^ c ^ iac ^ nieditated without 
learning, but he condescendingly says this for the instruc 
tion of others. L I have been the whole clay without 

eating etc. occupied with thinking The better plan is 

to learn. Z. ut meditarer ; nihil profeci ; poiius est ad- 
discere. K. a whole day etc. better to acquire knowledge 
from books. Couv. Autrefois je passais des jours entiers 
etc. afin de me livrer a la meditation. J en ai retire pen de 
fruit. II vaut mieux etudier a Tecole d autrui. 

CIIAITI<:R xxxi. DUTY, NOT A LIVING, TIIK 

TRUK MAN S OHJKCT. ^ To plan, scheme, aim at. 
$t may l^e Truth, or the way one ought to go, duty. C. 
W W\ & i& it ifij * ^ W it> ^arming is the 
means of seeking food, yet is not always successful. ^ 

756 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXIX, XXXI. 



-T 



-til & 18 





ffi * fc ^ ff[) 



e? st ^D ^ Q ^ 

CHAPTER XXIX. The Master said: 
" To err and not reform may indeed be call 
ed error." 

CHAPTER XXX. The Master said: 
" I have spent the whole day without food 
and the whole night without sleep in order 
to think. It was of no use. It is better to 
learn." 

CHAPTER XXXI. The Master said: 
"The wise man makes duty, not a living, 

757 



XV. XXXI, XXXII. THE ANALECTS. 

$? JSl ft SI M lli & -JU r K Learning is the means 
whereby the right way is sought, and yet there is pay 
therein, ?#.&&& * fij ^ 5& M tU ^ 
56 ft & JIB @C S JSl fi> / UL> bllt he learns 
anxious lest he miss the right way, not from fear of poverty 
and because thereof to obtain pay. L. The object of the 
superior man is truth. Food is not his object. There is 
ploughing ; even in that there is sometimes want. So 
with learning ; emolument etc. Z. Kxccllens vir intendit 

sapientiae sit agricultura, sterilitatis fames invenitur in 

ilia, dum studium etc. K. is occupied in the search for 
truth etc. Farming sometimes leads to starvation, and 
education sometimes leads to the rewards of official life etc. 
Couv. tourne toutes ses pensees vers la vertu etc. An 
contrairc, Ic disciple de la sagesse, en ne travaillant que 
pour acquerir la vertu, s attire des honncurs et des richesses 
etc. 

CHAPTER XXXII. KNOWLEDGE, VIRTUE, 
DIGNITY STILL NEED THE REGULATIONS. i. 
Or, There are some whose knowledge reaches it, but whose 
virtue cannot maintain it, etc. C. #JJ } \ %\\ $fc *M 

Iff] & Ril Z m S Ja ~ti 2, K tt %^ ll ^ who 

is intelligent enough to understand certain principles, but 
who allows his personal interest to intervene, has no per 
sonal possession of those principles. L. When a man s 
knowledge is sufficient to attain, and his virtue is not enough 
to enable him to hold, wh itever he may have gained he 
will lose again. Z. Si intelligent a-sequitur gubernandi 
rationem, at virtus etc. K. There are men who attain 
knowledge by their understanding, but if they have not 

758 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXI, XXXII, 



*- ^ m 



SI 



his aim ; for there is hunger even in farming, 
while there is emolument in scholarship ; but 
the wise man is anxious about his duty, not 
about poverty." 

CHAPTER XXXII. -- i. The Master 
said : " If a man intellectually attains to a 
given principle, but his moral character does 
not enable him to live up to it, even though 
he has obtained it he will certainly lose it. 

759 



XV. XXXII, XXXIII. THE ANALECTS. 

moral character to etc. Couv. Si quelqu un connaissait 
la doctrine cles sages (1 art cle se diriger soi-mcmc et les 
autrcs), et qu il n cut pas assez de vertu pour la mettre en 
pratique etc. 

2. The two first ; are referred to jfc JJfl^ the third to 
j^ There seems to be no justification for such a varia 
tion, for it is more natural to read, " if he dees not order it 
with dignity, people " etc. The whole passage is taken to 
refer to a ruler. C. flj R& .& f] gfr g. Li means to 
superintend the people. L. When his knowledge etc. if he 
cannot govern with dignity, the people etc. Z. at non 
cum gravitate pracsis populo, tune populus non reverebitur. 
K. But if they do not set themselves seriously to order 
their knowledge aright, they will not inspire respect in the 
people. Couv. Mais manquait cle gravite en public, le 
peuple etc. 

3. The ;, in fj ; is also referred to J^ though 
again .there seems no call for the variation. C. jjj/j ;, fj 

R-fi.3tEIJS^BnftS^ To move the 
people i.e. to stir and rouse them, so to speak, jftg fjfj 1 ifg 
SI ; i H Jt^ The codified standard of right principle. 
L. Yet if he try to move the people contrary to the rules 
of propriety: full excellence is not yet reached. Z. at 
hunc nioveas non juxta debitam normam, nondum per- 
fectum crit. K. I5ut if they do not exercise and make 
use of it in accordance with the ideals of decency and good 
sense, they are not yet perfect. 

CHAPTER XXXIII. GREAT MINDS NOT 
GUAGED BY EITTLES. %j ^ etc. or ?J - >p pf 

JSl /h ffi *u > c. ^ T j ^ 5j| ^ ^ -jir juj 

760 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXII, XXXIII. 



w & a >& 



^ 



2. Though intellectually he has attained to 
it, and his moral character enables him to 
live up to it, if he does not control (them) 
with dignity, (the) people will not respect 
him. 3. And. though he has intellectually 
attained to it, his moral character enables 
him to live up to it, and he controls with 
dignity, if he moves (the people) to action in 
an irregular manner, he is still lacking in 
excellence." 

CHAPTER XXXIII --The Master said : 

761 



XV. XXXIII, XXXIV. Till- ANAI.KCTS. 

Iffi tt i& & &. l 3u lt: is b > no mcans Certain that 
a chiin t/tl can be recognized in minor matters, but his 
talents ami character are equal to weighty responsibilities. 

* A Si 8S tt $ #fc ffii * & * & "T Hi, 

And although the calibre of the second rate man is narrow, 
it is unlikely that you cannot find one strong point. %\\^ 
Jo ll 0.1, ! distinguish him. , ffit #f S* H_L, 
1 le is the one \\ ho undertakes. L. Cannot be known in 
little matters ; but he may be entrusted with great concerns 
Z. excellens vir non potest in parvis cognosci, at potest 
magna suscipcre. K. May not show his quality in small 
affairs etc. A fool may gain distinction in small things. 
Couv. On ne peut conficr de grandes choses a 1 homme 
vulgairc, mais on peut 1 apprecier dans les petites, (paree 
qu il ne peut exccller que dans les petites choses\ 

CHAPTER XXXIV. VIRTUE MORE VALU 
ABLE THAN FIRE AND WATER. Cf. cap 8. & 
;, // >v tl <- tc. The people s (or, Man s) relationship to 
Virtue exceeds that towards fire and (or) water. C. j 

K * >k M M ^ 7 t : - ^ T - J ^- JC- ft 
t: !)1 ; ^S, ffl. 7]c ^C *f % rfij t ffi r2> M TK i/c 
>P i W A A, ilii ^ M ife -It 6, M * 

dependent on fire and water for his existence and cannot do 
without them for a clay ; so is it with Virtue. But water 
etc. are external objects, while Virtue is part of himself. 
Without water etc. there would only be hurt to his physical 
nature, while without Virtue he loses his spiritual nature. 

% 7jc i/c & 4i US fln A> t U J * ft L A, 

~>ft fI tW ffn >P S f ^> Moreover at times they destroy 
men which Virtue has never done, why then fear it and 

7 62 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXIII, XXXIV. 



* -til -iP 5 -til /h 

"* - 

5 * iffi /I- n 

JE ^ K W A ffif 

J * /h ^ nr 

ffff A JA > n 



"A man of the higher type may not be 
distinguishable in minor responsibilities, but 
he can undertake great ones. An inferior 
man cannot undertake great responsibilities, 
but may be distinguished in minor ones." 

CHAPTER XXXIV. The Master said: 
" Virtue is more to man than either water or 
fire. I have seen men die through walking 

763 



XV. XXXIV, XXXVI. Till-: ANAl.F.CTS. 

neglect to pursue it! L. Virtue etc. 1 Ii;ive seen men 
die from treacling on water and fire etc. Z. pnpulus 
quoad virtutem, potiorem habet qinm aquam et igncni etc. 
K Men need morality more than the necessaries of life, 

such as fire and water falling into etc. Couv. La 

vertu est plus necessaire au peuple que 1 eau et le feu. 
en marchant d.ins 1 eau etc. 

CIIA1TFR XXXV. MORAL DUTY. Or, He who 
has undertaken the way of Virtue does not yield place to 
his Teacher. C. ffi {H & fc 3$ El fl: llL> To take 
Virtue as one s duty. $j| [![{i ft $S M $U n $" ft 
tt fM *& %% ilL> I wen for one s teacher there must be 
no yielding, that is, one ought to go boldly forward and 
resolutely perform it ^ {H ft A 0? @ # fflj Pi fi 
^^ For Virtue is a man s personal affair and requires 
personal performance. L. Let every man consider virtue 
as what devolves on himself. He may not yield the pjr- 
formance of it even to his teacher. Z. Muneri habens 
virtutem, ncc cedes magistro. K \\"heu the question is 
one of morality, a man need nut defer to his teacher. 
Couv. Celui qui s applique principalement a pralicjuer la 
vcrtu, pent rivaliscr avec un maitre. 

CIIAPTKR XXXVI. DISCRIMINATING V. 
BLIND HDKLITY. Cf. XIV. 18 C. ^ jj: fjfj [fl 
.]\l^ Correct and firm, or unyielding when it is right to be 

so. m, .H J ^ t? ^ ^ ffi & K f8, docs not 
discriminate between right and wrong in his insistent fideli 
ty. L. Tlu superior man is correctly firm and not firm 
merely. Z. Sapiens est tenax, sed non peivicax. K. 
Faithful, not merely constant. Couv. Le .sage s attache 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXIV, XXXVI. 

+ + 

X 

^ ^ TA rfn % 
tg 0. n B % 

o o - 

tt ffi> ^ -K 

^tu D3 ^14 >TV 

^ t m IE 

> o 

^^ K ittJ 

B5 t 

into water or fire, but I have never seen a 
man die through walking the path of Virtue." 

CHAPTER XXXV. The Master said: 
"He upon whom a Moral duty devolves 
should not give way even to his Master." 

CHAPTER XXXVI. The Master said: 
" The wise man is intelligently not blindly 
loyal." 

765 



XV. XXXVI, XXXVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

fortement a la verite et au devoir ; il ne s attache pas opinia- 
trement a scs idees. 

CHAPTER XXXVIL BUSINESS FIRST, PAY 
SECONDARY. C. -f^ i$ ^ Emolument. ^ ~nj 
^t 4] 5fc S ; )fr -&> He should not allow his desire 
for pay to have precedence. ft r g %f ^ fg Ji: J|^ 

^[8K*StWJSL>JSl*ilB&> 

Filling a post I must attend to its duties, having occasion 
for reprimand I must fulfil my office, all which imply 
careful attention to my business. E. A minister re 
verently discharges his duties, and makes his emolument 
etc. Z. Servians principi cordi habeat suuni munus, et 

posthabeat suum censum. K should place his duty 

first etc. Couv. Doit remplir sa charge avec grand soin etc. 
CHAPTER XXXVIII. - THE EQUALISING 
POWER OF EDUCATION. ft Jfc etc. When a man 
h:is any teaching to give he should make no distinctions. 
Or, where education prevails there are no distinctions. C. 

A tt ft & m at ii % & m n ?;> m w z 

9H -Ui> ft ?J : f Jff B J A f? T B S ** ifn 

^ W fg m JU tt Ii > Me" I X "aturc arc all 

good, but have become divided into the classes of good 
and evil through taint in disposition or training. There 
fore, the wise man having helpful teaching, men can all 
revert to goodness, and the error that distinguished them 
need not be again referred to. E. There being instruc 
tion, there will be no distinction of classes. Z. Existit in- 
stitutio sine hominum distinctione. K. Among really 
educated men there is no class or race distinction. Couv. 
EC sage admet a 1 ecole tous les hommes sans distinctions. 

766 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXVII, XXXVIII. 



+ 

A 



m B 



CHAPTER XXX VII. The Master said: 
" In serving one s prince one should give 
careful attention to his business, and make 
his pay a secondary consideration." 

CHAPTER XXXVIII. - The Master 
said : " In teaching there should be no class 

distinctions." 

767 



XV. XXXIX, XL, XI.I. THE ANALKCTS. 

CHAPTER NNNIN. DIFFERENT WAYS DIF- 
FKRKNT PLANS. Or, Those whose ways are not tlu 
same, do not meet together in order to plan. C. g is 

- S> * EU ill ft M 35 -HI Kl e.g. good and 
bad, heterodox and oithodox. L. Those whose courses 
are different cannot lay plans for each other. Z. Si vitae 
ratio non sit caclem, non convenitur ad deliberandum. K. 
Men of totally different principles cannot act together. 
Couv. Deux homines qui suivent des voie differentes, ne 
pcuvent pas s entr aider dans leurs conscils. 

CHAPTER XL, LANGUAGE IS FOR LUCIDITY. 

-c. iSS^i^rfnjh, ^iaSM^X, 

Words should be used simply for conveying the meaning, 
ornateness is not their aim. L. In language it is simply 
required that it convey the mean , .ig. Z. Sermo sit in- 
telligibilis, et hoc satis. K. Language should be intel 
ligible and nothing more. Couv. Le langage doit ex- 
primer clairement la pensee, cela suffit. 

CHAPTER NLL- COURTESY TO THE BLIND. 
ffi was the mat seat, the ancient Chinese sitting tailor- 
fashion as the Japanese still do. i. (lip JJ (Band) 
Master Mien had an interview. For flip see III. 23. C, 
fllJK $& i!iIU y^ f/f S/ii/i means Music Master, a blind 
man, (as was the rule with musicians in China in those days 
and commonly so now). ^ was his ^ ^ L. The 
Music master Mien having called upon him etc. Z. tails 
est hie, talis est iliic. K. A blind music teacher etc. 
Couv. Le prrfct de la musique etc. 

2. git f ,i]i g* ^ jft giL^ \Vith (or to) the Musician 
to say those things is it a duty ? L. Is it the rule to 

768 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XXXIX, XL, XLI 



* =& ffl- ^ ffl ^ 

" O 

# z ffi m % m 

> 

s? m -m a if g% *t 

o > o 

= 3 tj S $. *$ ^ 

^ ft ^ /^ Ft M P 

11 " * 

ill m * -T ^ B T> 

CHAPTER XXXIX. The Master said: 
" Those whose \vays are different do not 
make plans together." 

CHAPTER XL. - - The Master said : 
" In language perspicuity is everything." 

CHAPTER XLI. i. The State Band 
master Mien once called to see him. On 
arriving at the steps the Master said, " Here 
are the steps." On coming to the mat, he 
said, " Here is your mat." When all were 
seated the Master informed him: " So and 
so is here, so and so is there." 

2. When the Bandmaster had gone, Tzu 

769 



XV. XI.I. THE ANALECTS. 

tell those things to the Music-master? Z. Cum phonasco 
dicere talia, normane? K. Is that the way to behave to 
a music-teacher? Couv. Demanda si c etait tm devoir 
d avertir ainsi le prefet etc. 

3. ffl J & Assistant # # ?$ ,ft ft ftj, The 
blind in ancient times always had an assistant, or guide, :J(I 
18. ill jlfc % whose duty was like this. And in thus acting 
Confucius did not make it a special case, but having under 
taken the office of Assistant he carried out its duties. I.. 
Yes, tlr s is certainly the rule for those who lead the blind. 
Z. Ita, sane juvandi coecos phonascos norma. K. Yes 
that is certainly the way to behave to blind people. Couv. 
Certainement, c est un devoir d aider ainsi les directeurs de 
la musique. 



7/0 



THE ANALECTS. XV. XIJ. 



W ]1 (S3 
^ If 
Z ^F 4& 

^ m 

Chang enquired ; " Is it the proper thing to 
tell a Bandmaster those things ? " 3. " Yes," 
answered the Master, " undoubtedly it is the" 
proper thing for a blind Bandmaster s guide 
to do so." 



771 



XVI. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME VIII. 



BOOK XVI. 

CONCERNING MINISTERIAL RESPONSI 
BILITY ET ALIA. 

This Book is especially noticeable in that it always refers 
to the Sage as }[ -T- ^ rol this the Commentator gt J 
suggests that it was adopted from the >/ edition, and the 
others from the $}^ 

CHAPTER I. SADDLING RESPONSIBILITY 
FOR A RULER S FALSE POLICY. For ^ ft see 
HI l - ifcfl Jftl was a minor State, under 50 li square, of 
the class called [tyf ;,jf^ from their being under the suzerain 
ty of the prince by \\hose territory they were surrounded. 
Though they held directly from the Emperor the feoffees 
had no approach to the Imperial throne save in the train of 
their feudal Miperior. At this timj Duke Ji was little 
more than nominal ruler in Lu, the actual power being held 
by the I louse of ^ As j^l J>H was near to %> the ^ 
feeof, it had stirred the greed of 2Ji j^ \\lio kinged to 
take possession of it and enjoy its revenues. L. The head 
of the ^Chi family was going to attack Chwan Yd. /.. 
invasura erat. K. preparing to commence hostilities. 
Couv. Se preparait a envahir. 

2. For jtj. -fa and ^ jf-ff see Introduction V No 
record exists that these two were in the employ of ^ J 

772 



THE ANALECTS. XVI, 

r , , . -, ... ,,_:, 

VOLUME VIII. 



BOOK XVI. 



*f 



a 



CHAPTER I. i. The Chief of the 
House of Chi being about to invade the 
minor principality of Chuan-yu, 2. Jan Yu 
and Chi Lu interviewed Confucius and said : 

773 



XVI. I. THE ANALECTS. 

at the same time. C. suggests that Tzu Lu had again 
temporarily entered the Chi service after his return with the 
Sage from Wei, and before going back to Wei. J$ ^f Ip. 
JJ\ Is about to have an affair in etc. L. is going to. 
commence operations against. Z. mox habebit rem cum 
etc. Couv. prepare une expedition contre. 

3. to 75 e ^ c - I- s it n t y u > who are the author of 
this wrong ? Confucius addresses his remarks directly to 
.p} } who (C.) was Comptroller to ^ J and had great 
influence, and lays the blame on him alone. L. is it not 
you who are in fault here? Z. nonne est tuum hoc 
crimen? K. Sir, is this not due to your fault? Couv. 
N avez-vous pas quelqu un part a ce crime? 

4. The -fa 3 is said to be } 3 th: second Emperor 
of the Chou dynasty. )ff H^ Name of a mountain in 
Chuan-yii, now in yff )\\ /jtf ^ J}; jfj^ and called ^ to 
distinguish it from |JEj Jp? in Shensi. -fa 3 Former king, 
or kings. The ruler of Chuan-yii, situated at the foot of 
this mountain, and within the 700 li squ re of Lu, was ap 
pointed to perform the sacrifices to the Jf ^ divinity, thus 
ranking above men like ^p 0;^ C. says jfrj; (^ (altars 
to the gods of the land and grain) indicates fe j^ the 
Ducal House, and cont nucs ^ B$ pg ft {<} f$| ^ ^ {^ 

& -^ n, & & & m ft K ic --, m Hf at z 

^3 fpj S S 1 1$^ At this time Lu was quartered up, ^ 
J^; having appiopriated half, Meng-sun and Shu-sun each a 
fourth, so that Chuan-yii and the other suzerain states were 
all that remained to the Duke, and ^ J desired to ag 
grandise himself with this one. But Confucius points out 
that being an imperially appointed State, especially appoint- 

774 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. I 



f & ? 3 ?L 







<( Our Chief is about to commence operations 
against Chuan-yii." 

3. " Ch iu," said Confucius, " is not this 
misdeed yours ? " 4. Chuan-yii long ago 
was appointed by the ancient kings to preside 
over (the sacrifices to) the Eastern Meng; 

moreover it is within the boundaries of our 

775 



XVI. I. TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 

cd for sacrifice, he had no right to invade it, moreover, it 
was in Lu and so there was no need to invade it. No re 
cord exists of invasion. The attitude taken by Confucius 
may have prevented it. L. long ago, a former king ap 
pointed it etc. moreover, it is in the midst of the territory 
etc. a minister in direct connection with the emperor. 
What has>w/r chief to do with attacking it? Z. olim a 

priscis regibus habita est uti orientatis Mutig domina 

estque reguli domui subdita, qui ut invadatur Met ? K. 

the ruler thereof is a prince of the Empire. What 

right, then have you to declare war etc. ? Couv. a etc 
choisi par les anciens empereurs pour etre le lieu ordinaires 

des sacrifices et releve de 1 autorite de notrc prince. 

De quel droit etc. 

5. C. Jan Yu had indeed plotted this invasion with his 
Chief, on whom however he here seeks to throw the blame. 
L. Our master wishes the thing ; neither of us two Minis 
ters wishes it. Z. dominus vult hoc. K. it is not we 
two etc. Couv. nous, ses ministres, nous ne le voulons 
ni Tun ni 1 autre. 

6 - Hi ij ctc - When you can show forth your abilities 
then keep your rank, when unable cease. C. J] j -fc 
& &,^ An ancient and worthy Recorder (who left 
behind other maxims). |5j{> ^j t!L> To exhibit, show 
forth. JfiJ, fi |JL, Post, position j[f, % ft ffi 

&> m . * ^ m IN ^ n, n IIB ^ m m % 

%k illo A leader of the blind, the meaning is that if the 
two objected they should remonstrate, and failing in that 
retire. L. When he can put forth his ability, he takes his 
place in the ranks of office, etc. How cai* he be used as a 

776 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. I. 






m a ft m r a M ^ 
BB ^ w n* E ^ IM t 

State, and its ruler is direct sacrificial Mini 
ster of the Crown, what business has your 
Chief with attacking it?" 

5. " It is our master s wish," said Jan Yu, 
" neither of us two ministers wishes it." 
6. "Ch iu," replied Confucius, " Chou Jen 
had a saying: Let him who is allowed to 
use his ability retain his position, and let him 
who cannot retire. Of what use is he as a 

777 



XVI. I. THE ANALECTS. 

guide to a blind mnn who docs not support him when tot 
tering-, nor raise him up when fallen. Z. excrtus vires 
adcat dignitates, qui non possit absistat. K. Let those 
who can stand the fight fall into the ranks etc. Couv. 
repetait souvent. Cue celui qui pjut se depenser pour le 
bien du peuplc, entre dans les rangs de la magistrature etc. 

/. C. describes *% as a jgf >|i wild bull, elsewhere it 
is described as having one horn, possibly a rhinoceros 
W, fS &, Cage. ^ [3 &> Case, cabinet The 
custodians, i.e. Jan Yu and Tzu Lu would be responsible 
for the outbreak of ^ J^ L. And further, you speak 
wrongly. When a tiger or rhinoceros etc : When a 
tortoise or gem etc. Whose is the fault? Z. si tigris 

vel urus chelonium vel jaspis etc. K. tiger or a wild 

animal a tortoise-shell or a valuable gem etc. Couv. 

De plus, votre reponsc est blamable boeuf sauvao-c 

ecaillc de tortue etc. 

8. C. [/^ 5 , j J$ 55 ft [^ means, its walls were 
thoroughly fortified. JJj^ ?& R ;> ^ ^^ Pi was Chi- 
shih s own domain. L. Hut at present Chucn-yu is strong 
etc. be a sorrow to his descendants. Z. bone munita est 

posterioribus generationibus certo erit filiorum ncpo- 

tum([ue sollicitudo. K. This principality is very strong 
ly fortified, and is within easy reach of our most important 

town. Couv. bien fortifie dans les temps a venir, ses 

descendants scront dins 1 embarras. 

9- $ vc vt t-\^ 1 Fates casting aside (declining) say- 
in ^- 1$ ^ ffi iCt % .% \\ j.} Making excuses 
fi" it. I- The su[)erioi- mm hates that declining to say 
1 want such-and-such a thing, and framing cxplana- 






THE ANALECTS. XVI. I. 



M D It IE j IW 

o 

Sit ^ Z % 5S &*& 



blind man s guide, who neither holds him up 
when tottering, nor supports him when fall 
ing ? 7. Moreover, your remark is quite 
wrong, for when a tiger or a wild bull escapes 
from its cage, or when tortoise-shell or a 
precious stone gets injured in its cabinet, 
whose fault is it ? " 

8. "But now," said Jan Yu," Chuan-yii 
is strongly fortified and near to Pi. If (our 
Chief) does not take it now it must hereafter 
become a cause of anxiety to his descen 
dants." 

9. " Ch iu," replied Confucius, the man of 

779 



XVI. I. Till-: AN.U.F.CTS. 

tions/<97 the conduct. 7.. sapiens oclit hujusrnodi rcnucn- 
tem dicere se velle rem, ct firmitcr praetextentem rei ex- 
cusationes. K. A good man hates to make excuses when 
he ought to simply say, I want it. Couv. le sage detcste 
ces hommes qui ne veulent pas avoucr leur cupidite, ct in- 
ventent des pretextcs pour 1 excuser. 

IO - S. liL I, Ch iu, as to myself, I etc. C. 1^ =f} 
J ty^ Small population ; f^ fj JJJ 2 > poverty; f-j^ 
nl" fr ^ ^Jl : 5s each obtained his share ^<^ uj j [ ~\+ 
%\\ J<^ Classes and masses mutually, contented. At this 
time, deprived of control, the Duke was really without a 
people, which meant he was done out of his rightful share; 
and he was weak while 2p was powerful, which produced 
discontent. L. that rulers of states and chiefs of families 
are not troubled lest their people should be few, but lest 

the\- should not keep their several places when the 

people keep their several places, there will be no poverty ; 
when harmony prevails, there will be no scarcity of people; 
and when there is such a contented repose there will be no 
rebellious upsettings. 7,. Non angi infrcqucnli.i subdi- 
torum, sed angi non aequa juris distributione. K. Xot be 

concerned that they have not enough possessions, but 

that possessions are not equally distributed with 

mutual goodwill there will be no want. Couv. La 
pauvrete n est pas a craindrc, ou la justice est observce; ni 
le defaut de sujets, ou regnc la Concorde ; ni le bouleverse- 
mcnt de 1 Ktat, ou regne la tranquillitc. 

n. fllj (& etc. Then let him cultivate refinement and 
morals in order to attract them. L. So it is. There 
fore, if remoter people are not submissive, all the influences 

780 



THE ANALF.CTS. XVI. I. 



m 



A 






honour detests those who decline to say 
plainly that they want a thing and insist on 
making excuses in regard thereto, i o. I have 
heard that the ruler of a kingdom, or the Chief 
of a House, is not concerned about his people 
being few, but about lack of equitable treat 
ment; nor is he concerned over poverty, but 
over the presence of discontent; for where 
there is equity there is no poverty, where 
concord prevails there is no lack of people, 
and where contentment reigns there are no 
upheavals. 11. Such a state of things ex 
isting, then if any outlying people are still 

781 



X\ 7 I. I, II. TIIK ANALKCTS. 

uf civil culture and virtue arc to be cultivated to attract 
them to be M> ; and when etc. they must be made contented 
and tranquil Z. J lace ita se h.il) nt ; quaprop .er si re- 
motiores populi etc. K. This being so, wh:n the people 
outside etc. Couv. Si les habitants des contrees eloignees 
ne reconmissent pas 1 autoritc du prince, qu il fasse fleurir 
les vertus civtles afin de les attirer etc. 

>2- C. x& A gj j |gf( ^ The distant people means 
those of Chuan-yu. ft ft] ffi ffi ffl 1 JL I ft & % & 
fii M ffi^ means, the ducal possessions had been divided, 
and his ministers were often rising against him. L. No\v, 
here etc. Remoter people are not submissive, and, ivitli 
your Jiclp t he cannot attract them to him. In his own ter 
ritory there are divisions and downfalls, leavings and separa 
tions, and, i^ilJi your liclp, he cannot preserve it. /. re- 
gnum divisum concidit distrahiturque in partes, ncc potestis 
conservare. K. factions, dissensions, outbreaks and dis 
solutions. Couv. penehc vers sa ruine, et se divise en 
plusieurs parties. Vous ne s;u r ez [xis lui conserve! son 
integrite. 

13. C. ) f K^ U -{lL> The screen-wall before the 
gate. L. And yet he is planning these hostile movements 
within our state. I am afraid that the sorrow of the Ke-sun 
family with not be on account of Chuen-yii, but will be 
found within the screen of their own court. Z. sed in- 
veniantur honorarium diathyrum intra. K. within the 
walls of your master s own palace. Couv. Je crains bien 

ne recontre de grands embarras mais dans 1 in- 

terieur meme de sa maison. 

CIIMTKR II. --USUKPICD RIGHTS CARRY 

782 



THE ANALECTS. XVI, I, II. 



m 



* is 



ft $. M $* -til MH nb S 

> 

Ji -ill M n IRJ^ * A 

T SftlKM-di^ 



unsubmissive he attracts them by the promo 
tion of culture and morality, and when he 
has attracted them he makes them contented. 
12. But here are you two, Yu and Ch iu, as 
sisting your Chief, yet though an outlying 
people are unsubmissive, he cannot attract 
them, and though the State is disorganised 
and disrupted he cannot preserve it: 13. 
and yet he is planning to take up arms 
within his own State. I myself fear that 
Chi-sun s cause for anxiety does not lie in 
Chuan-yii, but within his own gate-screen." 
CHAPTER IL Confucius said: "When 



XVI. II. Till-; ANAI.F.CTS. 

NOIKSIS WITH Til KM. J ]* and ^ ^ Under 
Heaven, and The Son of I leaven. $* Thereabouts Cf. 

i|i ;,if VIIL C. ft 2. ilii], ||5 M * n rTii 

^ )flS S^ W flH (^ According to the ancLnt imperial 
regulations, nobles might not make changes in manners 
(ritual etc"!, or music, nor on their o\vn authority enter upon 
an expedition. $ft \\\ ^ $ \[i $J^ A steward, or minis- 
tcr s minister. j JFj? ^ J|: j{,j Jt ^ ^ > ^ 
The further they stray from the right, the quicker tlk.-y are 
brought to ruin. I,, says: "The Son of Heaven" (at 
this time) was fast becoming an empty name, the piinces of 
states were in bondage to their great officers, and those 
again at the mercy of their family ministers. L. When 
etc. ceremonies, music and punitive inilit.uy expeditions 

proceed from the emperor. When bad etc. princes as 

a rule, the cases will be few in which they do not lose their 
power in ten generations great office; s five genera 
tions. When the subsidiary ministers of tJic great officers 
hold in their grasp the orders of the kingdom etc. Z. 
ritus, musica, et armis infligendae punitiones etc., si a regulis 
procedunt circiter decem intra aetates, puici non amittent 
etc. K. the initiation and final decision in matters of re 
ligion, education and declarations of war, form the supreme 
prerogative of the Kmpcror. During abnormal conditions 
etc. that prerogative passes into the Ivinds of the princes 

seldom that ten general ions pass before they lose it. 

Couv. Quand etc. 1 empereur regie lui meme les cere 
monies, la musique, les expeditions militairespcur soumettre 

les feudataires desobeissonbj les families des tcliou heou 

conservcnt ratement. i-^ur autorite au-dela de dix generations. 

784 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. II. 



ft 



" 

Hi 1$ 31 3c ili m fli] T II 

ft fS IN 5s il ^ l 4i ^ 





good government prevails in the Empire, 
civil ordinances and punitive expeditions 
issue from the Emperor. When good go 
vernment fails in the Empire, civil ordinance 
and punitive expeditions issue from the 
nobles. When they issue from a noble, it is 
rare if his kingdom be not lost within ten 
generations. When they issue from a noble s 
minister it is rare if his kingdom be not lost 
within five generations. But when a minis 
ter s minister holds command in the king 
dom, it is rare if it be not lost within three 



XVI. II, III. THE ANALKCT. 

2. C. |f ^p ffi if/. $i It means they might not 
act on their own initiative. L. \\ hen right principles pre 
vail etc. government will not be in the hands of the great 
officers. K. in the hands of a nobility or of a ruling 
class. Couv. la haute administration n est pas etc. 

3- C. M # uij -p fnt ft a, # -3E U 
f$i f* ift tt\ \Yhen a ruler has not lost control, the 
lower people will have no secret discussions, but not because 
their mouths are muzzled that they dare not speak. I,, 
no discussions among the common people. Z. tune plebis 
homines non disceptabunt. K. not meddle with the 
government. Couv. les particuliers ne sont pas admis a 
deliberer sur les affaires d Ktat. 

CHAPTER III. A DECADENT RACE. This is a 
concrete instance of the principles laid down in last section. 
C. On the death (in KG. 638) of Duke Jr^ his heir ^ 
7$ was slain by ^ ^f Jf;^ and jj Q son of a concubine 
enthroned, but he lost the reigns of government. The four 
who followed him were puppets in the hands of the three 
families, descendants of Duke ftf^ Their titles were Jj^ 
%^ Iig and jg^ in the reign of which last these words 
must have been uttered. The four ministers were 3$^ ^^ 
Zfi and ^n ; and at this time one of their (the ^ family) 
employees, named [^} [fg (XVII. i) was the re; 1 ruling 
power. The older Commentators interpret jjf^ by fij jji^ 
i.e. the gift of rank and office. The later commentators by 
IT BU tribute and levies. L. left the ducal house, now 
for etc. The government has been in the hands of the 
Great Officers etc. On this account the descendants etc. 
are much reduced. Z. vectigalia abierunt etc. attenuati 

786 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. II, III. 



?L * T 



o 



* at ji # T 

* -tit m M * *r 
ta ^ z m & m 

lit $c A ^ E fl J 

generations. 2. When there is good govern 
ment in the Empire its policy is not in the 
hands of ministers. 3. And when there is 
good government in the Empire, the people 
do not even discuss it." 

CHAPTER III. Confucius said : " The 
revenue has departed from the Ducal House 
for five generations, and the government has 
devolved on ministers for four generations. 

787 



XVI. Ill, IV, V. THE ANALECTS. 

sunt. K. It is now etc. since the appointments to offices 
in the State have been taken away etc. lost all power and 
are now living in obscurity. Couv. Lcs revenues publics 
out passe cle etc. la puissance de ces tiois grands seigneurs 
louche a son terme. 

CHAPTER IV. FRIENDS WHO HKLP AND 
HARM. ^ ^f etc. There are three friendships which 
are beneficial ...... injurious, fc fg etc. fc is verbal, 

-To make a friend of the upright C. ^/ ffl Jt J \%\ it 

a, & m m m K m, &% w mm # & ml 

Me who makes friends with the straight learns his faults, 
with the faithful grows in sincerity, with the experienced in 
creases his intelligence, gg ^ =!<] ^ ft jfc ffi jjjj ^ 



K P IS BB M M -S K- ^Vell up in strict polite 
ness but not straight ; skilled in pleasing flattery, but not 
sincere ; practised in empty talk, but with no solid informa 
tion. L. There are etc, advantageous, injurious. Friend 
ship with the upright ; friendship with the sincere, much 
observation etc. the man of specious airs ; the insinuatingly 
soft ; the glib-tonguecl etc. Z. congredi rectum, conjugi 
sincere, sociari multorum scio, utililati erit ; congredi ex- 
pertum fucandi, peritum blandiendi, pronum garrulitati, 
clamno erit. K. upright, faithful, much information ; 
plausible men, insinuating manners, glib-tongued. Couv. 
1 amitie avec un h(mme qui parle sans detours ; sincere; de 
grand savoir ...... sont utilcs. Habitue a t romper par une 

fausse apparence d honnetete ; habite a flatter ; grand par- 
leu r ...... sont nuisibles. 

CHAPTER V. HELPFUL AND HARMFUL 

788 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. Ill, IV, V. 

JE E 

?L g ^ It ft ?L 

* % % ft m =? 

ft ft m ^ B 









That, alas! is why the descendants of the 
three brothers Huan are so reduced ! " 

CHAPTER IV. Confucius said : "There 
are three kinds of friends that are beneficial, 
and three that are harmful. To make friends 
with the upright, with the faithful, with the 
well-informed, is beneficial. To make friends 
with the plausible, with the insinuating, with 
the glib, is harmful" 

CHAPTER V. Confucius said : " There 
;8 9 



XVI. V, VI. THE ANALECTS. 

PLEASURES. The three pronunciations and meanings 
of *}4 all occur in this aphorism, H ^ Yao , To enjoy ; 
88 |J4 \V* Music; $* *jg and ^ Ix) <* j oy> delight. 
C. QK in m 3E W & m # , To discrimi 
nate the niceties of the regulations and of the musical tones. 
K Ul> H j J f {t fin N n 6JK results in extravagance 
and in ignoring restraint; ft *Jf\ M J Iff tS BB IS Iffl 
^^ results in remissness and dislike of hearing good 
(things said of others), g. *^ jjlj ft ffi jjj ^ ^ A 
results in profligacy and hobnobbing with low class people. 
L. There are three things men find enjoyment in which 

are advantageous; injurious discriminating study of 

ceremonies and music, speaking of the goodness of 

others, having many worthy friends etc. extravagant 

pleasures; idleness and sauntering; pleasures of feasting etc. 
Z. delectari effreni voluptate, licentioribus vagationibus, 
epularum deliciis, intertrimento sunt. K. Pleasure derived 
from the study and criticism of the polite arts etc. Plea 
sure in dissipation, in extravagance, in mere conviviality etc. 
Couv. Aimer a donner libre cours a ses convoitises, 
aimer a perdre son temps et a courir ga et la, aimer les 
festines ct les plaisirs deshonnetes etc. 

CHAPTER VI. A TIME TO SPEAK A\P A 
TIME TO BI^: SIIJ-:XT. Or, \Vlien attending upon a 
man of rank there are three errors. His word not having 
come to one, yet to speak etc. C. ~fi ~f ~fi fg f^ ^ 
M fflK Cieneral name fora man of character and position. 
tt * @^ ^ Mb ? n K U Having no eyes, that 
is unable to discriminate either address or looks, want of 
discernment. |!$ ^ ^ g }(lj H ft Z ^ 

790 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. V, VI. 



& ? ?L f & 15 g| 

o 

W ? m % !; II H 

M H m & 81 IS * 



fl m ^ if ^ r g it 

2 * s il ^ S: A 



are three ways of pleasure seeking that are 
beneficial, and there are three that are harm 
ful. To seek pleasure in the refinements of 
manners and music, to seek pleasure in 
discussing the excellences of others, to seek 
pleasure in making many worthy friends, 
these are beneficial. To seek pleasure in 
unbridled enjoyment, to seek pleasure in 
looseness and gadding, to seek pleasure in 
conviviality, these are harmful." 

CHAPTER VI. Confucius said : " There 
are three errors to be avoided when in the 
presence of a superior: to speak before 

791 



XVI. vi, vir. 



TIIK ANAI.KCTS. 



To speak at the right time is the way to avoid these faults. 
L. to which they who stand in the presence of a man of 
virtue and station are liable. They may spjak when it 
does not come to them to speak, this is called rashness. 

concealment without looking at the countenance 

etc. blindness. Z. assistentisad insignem virum dantur tria 
errata. Si ejus sermo nondum te attigerit et loquaris, vocatur 
praecipitantia ; occultatio ; ccecitas. K. To speak out 
when one is not called upon to speak etc. fmward ; dising 
enuous ; blindness Couv. Quand vous ctes en presence 
d un homme distingue par etc Si vous lui addressez la 
parole, avant qu il vous intei roge, c est precipitation; dis 
simulation ; aveuglcment. 

CHAPTER VII. --THE VICES OF YOUTH, 
MATURITY AND OLD AGE. Or, The wise man has 
three prohibitions. =fc fe may mean, Immature, or, not 
yet under control, pjij Mature, or, under control. C. 
Jfil M. % J& ffi t* &. 4-: #\ What organic form 
depends upon for existence. |f Rj jj -jg, J^Jl j| /if 
^ H J ^ n Jfil n, W\ fill -liL, To know to beware 
of these impulses according to their respective periods and 
to govern them by high principle, is to avoid becoming 
their servant, ig A PI K A ^ ffll M t!L , ^ K A 
3$ ; M.^ What the Sage lias m common with other 
men is physical force ; wherein he differs from others is his 

will force, jfo M. 4\ H.V ffij K, i< Si .R 1 ] S nj jBi 

$e -HL, & * jfii HL> K ft > HL, a 

-f l -JC ,ii 55, ik JgJl ^-- W Ifij fS ji -315 liL, 

His physical poweis sometime or other decay, his will 
power never decays. Youthful lack of control is the asser- 

792 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. VI, VII. 



t 

E ?L n m 

o 

* $ -T ft 

5E ? ffn 



<-~ 4-3 l5 I E 

> 



JfiL ^ JfiL ^ ^ ^ ^ 

being called upon, which may be termed 
forwardness ; not to speak when called upon, 
which may be termed reticence ; and to speak 
before noting his superior s expression, which 
may be called blindness." 

CHAPTER VII. - - Confucius said : 
" There are three things the higher type of 
man is on his guard against. In the period 
of youth, before his physical nature has 
settled do\vn, he guards against lust. Having 
reached his prime, when his physical nature 

793 



XVI. VII, VIII. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

tion of the physical, abstention from lust the assertion of 
the will. The wise man nurtures his will power, conse 
quently the older he grows the loftier becomes his moral 
tone. Youth is understood as till 30, middle age till 50, 
and old age follows. L. In youth when the physical 

powers are not yet settled etc strong physical 

powers full of vigour etc. quarrelsomeness old, animal 

powers are decayed etc. covetousness. Z. sanguine ct 
spiritibus nondum confirmatis, quod cavere est, impudicitia 
continentur etc. K. In youth, when the constitution of 
his body is not yet formed etc. lust; strife; greed. Couv. 
lorsque le sang et les esprits vitaux sont toujours en mouvc- 
ment etc. les plaisirs des sens ; les querelles ; la passion 
d acquerir. 

CHAPTER VIII THE AWE OF THE NOBLE 
MINI). i. Or, The chiin-tzu has three objects of deep 
respect. ^ \ is said to be /ff fjg /ff { ,/y ; men of 
character and position ; probably " his superiors " would 
be the best translation. C. -] ^ /$ f^ ;> ;7J; ^ 
Hold in awe and dread. ^ fo ft ^ 0? JK JIi 1U 
The correct law bestowed by Heaven on man, moral 
obligation. {j :J(: uj JJJ. \\\\ J(: ffi jj-jf m ff g ^ ; | f ^ 

llg EL : BB ft i\ l ffl J a ^ ^c ^-, Knowing 
the awe o! Heaven s Law, he is unremittingly guarded and 
anxious that this weight}- gift of Heaven be not lost. L. 
stand in awe of the ordinances of Heaven etc., of great 
men etc., of the words of the sages. Z. veretur ca-li 
nuir.en ; magnos viros ; Sanctorum verba. K. lie holds 
in awe the Laws of God, persons in authority, and the 
words of wisdom of h.nly men. Couv. 11 respect la 

794 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. VII, VIII. 

A 



A % * IK & -n 



16 55 S $ ^ 3ft 

\ ^ ^ m 

S ^ JfiL 

has now attained its mature strength, he 
guards against combattveness. When he 
has reached old age, and his physical nature 
is already decaying, he guards against acqui 
sitiveness." 

CHAPTER VIIL i. Confucius said: 
" The man of noble mind holds three things 
in awe. He holds the Divine Will in awe ; 
he holds the great in awe ; and he holds the 

795 



XVI. VIII, IX. THE ANAI.KCTS. 

volontc clu Cicl (la loi naturclle) ; les liommcs eminents en 
\c."tu ct en dignite ; Ics maximcs dcs sages. 

2. }5|l Improperly familiar, ff^ ;$ jfo \\l^ Make 
fun of, deride. L. The mean man does not know ele. ; 
disrespectful to great men ; etc. Z. parvifacit magnos 
viros, ludificatur etc. K. disrespectful to those in authori 
ty, and contemns etc. Couv. traite sans respect etc. ; 
tourne en derision etc. 

CHAPTER IX. THE ARISTOCRACY OF 
LEARNING. /}{ [Jjj #-jj ^ r> possessed of inborn wisdom, 
is the sign of the 2J? J^^ in which rank Confucius declined 
to class himself, see VII. 19. C. 0c|^ fi 1 , 1 ] ;fj $f ^ Jjf^ 
Limited ability, or perception. /^ #[1^ ^ ^JU .Uj, H> [$] 

^> ^ :JC il ^ l^]> ^ JK, :JC *D - -l!L, ft S 

-T- ffi 4^ ^ i i"> Although the innately wise, the 
\\ise by study, and even the wise despite limited ability, 
differ in natural iiifts, yet their wisdom is one and the same, 

o J 

hence the wise man only values learning. L. Those who 
are born with the possession of knowledge are the highest 
class of men. Those who learn, and so readily get posses 
sion of knowledge, are the next. Those who are dull and 
stupid and yet compass the learning etc. /. Oui nativa 
sapiunt sapicntia, prima sunt ordinis ; qui studio addiscunt 
earn etc. ; qui obtusi student ei etc. K. The highest class 
of men are those born with a natural understanding. 1 he 
next acquire by stud} and application. There are others 
born naturally dull elc. Couv. Ceux en qui la connais- 
sancc des principes de la sagcsse est innee, sont dcs homines 
tout-a-fait superieurs ; accjuiercnt }>:ir 1 etude ; malgre leur 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. VIII, IX. 



Ira *n ?L B; A tit 1 

* ^ ^ AM /K 

^ _h fli * A 

X 3fc ill ^ & * 

lii ^ rfn A ill 5n 

^ ffl rfn *D Z m ^ 

precepts of the Sages in awe. 2. The baser 
man, not knowing the Divine Will, does not 
stand in awe of it; he takes liberties with 
the great ; and makes a mock of the precepts 
of the Sages." 

CHAPTER IX. Confucius said: " Those 
who have innate wisdom take highest rank. 
Those who acquire it by study rank next. 
Those who learn despite natural limitations 
come next. But those who are of limited 

797 



XVI. ix, x. TIII-: AN. \LKCI~S. 

pen d intclligence, travaillent etc., ni intelligence ni volonte 
d apprcndre, ferment la dernieie classe d hommcs. 

CHAPTER x. NIXK POINTS OF CARE. Or, 

When looking he thinks of clearness, when hearing he 
thinks of comprehending etc. JJJ, means thought, or care 
for. L. translates by l< thoughtful consideration," " an 
xious lo : and " thinks of." /. by " euras," " intendit " 
" attendit," and " cogitat" K. by "aims at," and "his 
object was," Couv. by " donne une attention spcciale," 
" s applique," " a soin," " pensc " and " consulte," C. 
i $$ $? S R J 013 f!& ^ li> When nothing obscures 
the vision ^physical or mental) all is distinct and visible. 

m * p/ r m m m & 0? ^ IK ^ hen nothing 

obstructs all is clear and audible. {^ j JJ- jHj ^f> 
\\ hat .shows in his face. |f^ @ ^ f[jj tl\ ^^ s niove- 
nicnts, manner. \ [][) )!jj U ^ ^^ with enquiry he 
does not harbour doubts. m, fg J|!j ^ ,^> jg A I5\- 
thinking of the subsequent difficulties his anger is brought 
under control. I,. The superior man has nine things 
which are subjects with him of thoughtful consideration. 
In regard to the use of his eyes, lie is anxious to see clear 
ly ; cars, hear distinctly ; countenance, benign ; demeanour, 
respectful ; speech, sincere , doing of business, reverently 
careful ; doubts about, questions others ; angry, difficulties 
his anger will involve him in ; sees gain to be got, righteous 
ness. Z. Sapiens habet no vein curas ; in visu intendit 
claritati, sagacitati, comitati, modestiae, fklelitate, sedulitati, 
interrogare, secutura incommoda, justitiam. K. Xine 
objects which a wise man aims at. In the use of his eyes 
his object is to see clearly ; distinctly ; gracious ; sciious ; 

798 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. IX, X. 



!B S JL ?L Sr -Hi 






T 



ability and yet will not learn, these form 
the lowest class of men." 

CHAPTER X. Confucius said: "The 
Wise man has nine points of thoughtful care. 
In looking, his care is to observe distinctly; 
in listening, his care is to apprehend clearly ; 
in his appearance, his care is to be kindly ; 
in his manner, his care is to be respectful ; in 
speaking, his care is to be conscientious ; in 
his duties, his care is to be earnest ; in doubt, 
his care is to seek information ; in anger, he 

799 



XVI. X, XI. Till- ANALECTS. 

sincere ; earnest, etc. Couv. a bien voir ee qu il regarde ; 
a bien entendre ce qu il ecoute ; un air affable ; unc tenue 
irreprochablc ; sincere ; diligent ; d intcrrogcr ; aux suites 
facheuses de la cole-re ; la justice. 

CHAPTER XL MK\ OF HIGH PURPOSE. i. 
J : $; To test scalding water by putting in the hand, i e. 
to shrink from. C, M. ft\ ^ M JflJ ^ *? M , M 
ft KJ & ;> te Si m 2. ^ Truly to recognise 
good and evil, and sincerely love or hate it, was possible 
only to disciples like Yen, Tseng, Minand Jan. |gf 3V 
US -lli> The two sayings were probably ancient ones 
quoted by Confucius. L. Contemplating good, and 
pursuing it, as if they could not reach it ; contemplating 
evil, and shrinking from //, as they would from thrusting 
the hand into boiling water : I have seen etc. Z. 

aspicientes bonum quasi nequeant assequi ; ego audivi 

hujusmodi proverbium. K. Men who, when they see 

what is good and honest, try to act up to it, avoid it 

as if avoiding scalding water etc. Couv. A la vue d un 
mal a eviter, se retirer conime si Ton avait mis la main 

dans I eau bouillante ; c e.st un principe que j ai appris 

des ancicns. 

2. Or, Secluding themselves to excogitate their ideas, 
Uhen) in the practice of right living exhibiting and expand 
ing their Way. C, ft H,y -ft %[ -f- ft {[fi sp jjj^ ffe 
(iS BB >JC 3i> % ^ ^ II}] & ^ In those days only 
one like Yen-tzu apj)roached to this, but he only succeeded 
in its private not in its public manifestation, for unfortunate 
ly he died young. L. Living in retirement to study their 
aims etc. Z. At latitantes clomi ad rimandas suas 

800 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. X, XI. 



3fc m O W t *H: 

JK J^l [10 ^ ^ ^ 

-ti ^4*. .* tq /-* H /?H 

ft 3R X IE, 7 A it 



it 



PP 

^ A fti in 



has a care for the consequences ; and when 
he has opportunity for gain, his care is whe 
ther it be right ? 

CHAPTER XL- -i. Confucius said: 
" They look upon the good as if fearing not 
to reach it, and upon evil as if testing scald 
ing water, I have seen such men, as I have 
heard such sayings. 2. They dwell in 
seclusion to think out their aims, and prac 
tise right living in order to extend their 

801 



XVI. xi, xn, xni. TIIK ANALKCIS. 

notiones, ct -cxerccntcs acquitatun ad proclcndam suain 
doctrinani etc. K. But men who live in retirement etc. 
Couv. Se preparcr dans la retraite etc. etc. (et dans la vie 
publique) pratiqucr la justice, afin d etendre an loin rinflu- 
enee de sa vcrtu etc. 

CHAPTER XII. WORTHLESS WEALTH AND 
PRAISEWORTHY POVERTY. This chapter is a frag 
ment. The usual ^L -~jf- \2\ is absent and the last clause 
is disconnected, hence the last clause of XII, 10 is usually 
read here. See below. i. glj, A team of four horses. 
For Duke Ching see XII. I i. Po-I and Shu-Ch i see V. 
22 : VII. 14, L. The duke King etc. the people did not 
praise him for a single virtue. Po-I etc. died of hunger 
etc. Z. mortis die, populus nullani invenit virtutem quam 
cclebrarct etc. K. but on the day of his death the peo 
ple had not a good word to say of him. Couv. A sa 
mort le peuple ne trouva aucune vertu a loner en lui. Pe-i 
etc. Le peuple n a pas encore cesse de celebrer leurs 
louanges, etc. 

2. The clause already translated in XII. jo q. v. is 
believed to belong to and is generally read here, ji$ /p 
& tt> * m & ^ 3C f Z m f^ C. says: A 
m ^ ffi ft ft ffB ffi K W- llL, Men do not 
[)raise mere wealth, but exceptional (virtue and talenO. /. 
Vere non pcnsat divitias, sed solum [)ensat cxcellentiani, 
illud nonne de his dictum? 1 C!ouv. non a cause dc leurs 
richesses, niais seulement a cause de leur rare vertu. Ces 
deux vers cle Chcti king ne peuvcnt-iis pas leur etre ap 
pliques justement ? 

CHAPTER XIII. DISCIPLE AXD SON, NO DIE- 

802 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. XI, XII, XIII. 



Ifv 





T /C ^1 T W IM 51: S it fifl 

o " 

* lfl 3TK $ 9 Z S A S 

W ^ DT 1 f ^ W ili f - 

- 

^ f 6 ^ ^P l^f ^ P^ ^ 

3^ In ^L j P IH XX *} 



principles, I have heard such sayings, but 
I have never seen such men." 

CHAPTER XII. i. Duke Ching of Ch i 
had a thousand team of horses, but on the 
clay of his death, his people .knew of no 
virtue for which to praise him. Po-I and 
Shu-Ch i starved to death at the foot of 
Mount Shou-Yang, and down to the present 
the people still praise them. 2. Does not 
that illustrate this ? 

, CHAPTER XIII.--I. Ch en K ang once 
asked Po Yii : " Have you ever had any 
lesson different from the rest ? " 

803 



XVI. XIII. THE ANALECTS. 

FKRKNTIAI. TRKATAIKXT. i. Ch cn K ang is the 
T" $T f I- 1O - fft iCl was gig the son of Confucius. 
Sec Intro. V. ^f- 7/] etc. And have you, sir, had any 
special lesson? C. ~fc jy ^ ;7g $ i A> M *& IS 
l it "T~> K ang spied on the Sage for selfish motives, 
surmising that he certainly in private favoured his son. L. 
I lave you heard any \QSsw\sfromyourfather different etc. 
Z. cxtraordinariam auclitionem. K. any special lesson 
from your father ? Couv. des cnseigncmcnts particuliers 
qu il ne communiquait pas a ses disciples. 

2. The quickened steps were in token of respect. $It 
PJl B" Nothing with which to talk, no refinement of con 
versation. L. No. He was standing alone once etc. If 

o 

you do not learn the Odes, you will not be fit to converse 
with. Z. Nisi studeas Versions, non habebis uncle 
loquaris. K. If you do not study poetry, you cannot 
make yourself agreeable in conversation. Couv. Un jour 
qu il se trouvait seul, comme je traversais la salle d un pas 
rapide, Avez-vous etudie le Cheu King? Pas encore. 
n aurez pas cle sujets de conversation. 

3- fe ^ ji Nothing on which to stand. L. If you 
do not learn the Rules of Propriety, your character cannot 
be established. Z. Nisi studeas Ritibus, non habebis 
undo consistas. K. If you do not study the arts, you 
will lack" judgment and taste. CYuv. Si vous n etudiez 
pas le Li-Ki, votre vertu n aura pas de fondement solide. 

4. I .. I luive heard only these two things from him. 
Z. Audivi hajc duo. Couv. \\.-ila les deux enseiimc- 

o 

ments c]i:e j ai recus. 

5- C. JL -f- to 3E T- ft i d it I"J A, & W. 

804 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. XIII. 



foT t/: ili ^ M I* & * * t = 
Kr * it M HSrl -til ^ M 

il ^ ffiJ M ^ * S * 

o 

^ o rfn II S ii X il ^ ^ o M -Hi 

ir^ti e M r* m m t 

2. " No," was the reply, " but he was once 
standing alone, and as I hastened across the 
hall, he remarked : Have you studied the 
Odes? No, I replied. If you do not 
study the Odes, he said, you will have 
nothing to use in conversation. On going 
out I set myself to study the Odes. 3. 
Another day, he was again standing alone, 
and as I hastened across the hall, he asked : 
Have you studied the Rules of Ceremony? 
No, I replied. If you do not study the 
Ceremonies, you will have no standing. On 
going out I set myself to study the Ceremo 
nies. 4. These are the two lessons I have 
received." 

805 



XVI. XIII, XIV. THE ANALECTS. 

/L &> 3$ iS. fl: ~f Confucius taught his son no dif 
ferently from his disciples, so Ch en K ang thought he kept 
his son at a distance. L. quite delighted, said, I asked 
etc. I have heard about the Odes ; rules of Propriety ; 
the superior man maintains a distant reserve towards h : s 
son. Z. abstrahi a suo filio. K. does not treat even his 
son with familiarity. Couv. le sage no donne pas d ense- 
ignements secrets et particulicrs a son fils. 

CHAPTER XIV. THE STYLE OF ADDRESSING 
A PRINCESS. C. In clauses of this description there is 
no evidence to show by whom they were uttered, whether 
they were ancient sayings, or the utterances of the Sage 
himself. E. suggests that it may have been spoken to 
rectify some disorder of the times. ^ -/ft ^ {\l \\ ife 
means equality (with the husband). In -^c A> a Consort, 
the ^ is said to mean | i.e. helpmeet. She modestly 
styles herself /J> iff Eittle maid, i.e. handmaiden. As to 
fj :fe A the Commentators generally interpret it as 
Prince s Consort. An unaccepted interpretation takes ^J 
as rjr an adjective, the directing Consort, referring to her 
position as controlling the household. J ^\ Our prince 
of little virtue was the way they spoke of their own prince, 
hence % ^ \ was Our Consort etc. K. Madame ; 
Madame, my lady ; Our good little princess ; Madame, 
your princess. Couv. Son aide; petite fille ; Dame qui 
aide le prince ; leur petite Dame ; Dame qui aide le prince. 



806 



THE ANALECTS. XVI. XIII, XIV. 

m 

A m * A A a f R 31 lit - 7u 

o " 



H m /]> A * ill 

n n m m 






5. When Chen K ang came away he re 
marked with delight, " I asked one thing and 
obtained three, I have learnt about the 
Odes, I have learnt about the Ceremonies, 
and I have learnt that the Wise man keeps 
his son at a distance." 

CHAPTER XIV. The wife of the Prince 
of a State is called by the Prince himself 
Fu-ren. The fu ren calls herself, ( Hsia 
Tung. The people of the State call her, 
1 Chun Fu-ren. When speaking of her to 
one of another State they call her, Kua 
Hsiao Chiin ; but one of another State would 
also call her, Chiin Fu-ren. 

807 



XVII. I. THE ANALECTS. 



VOLUME IX. 



BOOK XVII. 



RECORDING UNSUITABLE CALLS AND 
SUNDRY MAXIMS. 

CONTENTS. The last book opened with the Chief of 
the Chi clan, who had usurped the ducal authority. This 
opens with Yang IIuo, the Chi Comptroller, a Minister s 
minister, see XVI, 2, 3 who had usurped his chief s power 
with all which that included. 

CHAPTER I. -CONFUCIUS POLITE TO A US 
URPING MINISTER. i. BJ If His name was [\ 
See note on XVI. 3 et al. C. He was nominally the 
administrator of the Chi family, ^ J ^ R > The 
Chi family were administrators of Lu, the Duke being a 
mere cipher. Yang Huo had confined his chief Chi Huan, 
and sought to make himself sole administrator of Lu, 
whence he was driven out in B. C. 502, \J% JJ & [A] /fin 
f FflJ -/- [HI I&> He wanted Confucius to visit him, but 
Confucius would nut go, so Yang Huo sent him a present. 

-k ^k ~4\ H5 K :i: ^ ft 5* K : Jl : f M H ! J i\ : . ?t : K i 11 ^ 

When a minister sent a present to a man of position, ii the 
latter were not home to receive it, it was his duty to go and 
return thanks in person; hence Yang IIuo sent t he pre 
sent when Confucius was out, who also timed his visit to 

808 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. J, 



VOLUME IX. 



BOOK XVI I. 



RECORDING UNSUITABLE CALLS AND 
SUNDRY MAXIMS. 



c ^ 



m ?L T- & 

1$ II IL 

K ?L -T 

^ 

CHAPTER I i. Yang Huo wanted to 
see Confucius but Confucius would not go to 
see him, so he sent Confucius a present of a 
sucking pig. Confucius, timing his visit 
when the other would be out, went to tender 

809 



XVII. I. THE ANALECTS. 

escape the minister. jf$ is used in the sense of f?jj\ L. 
similar. Z. volebat conventum captavit tcmpus illius 

absentiac offenclit in via. Couv. choisit le moment ou 

lang IIouo n ctait pas chez lui. 

2. *fg etc. To embosom his precious gifts and mislead 
his country. fH might almost be translated patriot. - %f- 
ifc =JK Liking to pursue state business. )$ ^ ;} ! iK 
are taken as jg| yf< ; ^ f#> lnc years do not wait for 
us. fg is "Yes," "all right." C. fg ^ & ^ ft] <fe 
S JS fS^ ^ ^ K iS 8U >"^ns to hide one s 
virtue and not succour the country in its tribulation, rjjj^ 
JK -IJL, Frequently. ^ H* H i i ^ 2i ^ fi Z ^> 
Not avail oneself of the opportune concurrence of events. 
3$ fi II B ill] * ^ tf. a?, (about to) means as 
yet indefinite, i.e. Confucius gave a polite assent, though 
with no real intention of serving under or advancing the 
aims of Yang Huo. L. Come, let me speak with you. Can 
he be called benevolent who keeps his jewel in his bosom 
and leaves his country to confusion? Anxious to be 
engaged in public employment, and yet is constantly losing 
the opportunity of being so? Right ; I \\ill go into ofllcc. 
Z. hiim recoiulens suum thesaurum, el tuibatum relin- 
quens suum legnum, poterit dici pius ? A mans ope ran 

publicis rebus prudeiis? anni hand nos manent bene, 

ego mc X geram magistratum. K. \\ hether he is a good 
man \\lio hides the treasures of his knowledge and leaves 
his country to go astray. Misses every chance that comes 
to him etc. Yes, J \\ill enter the public service. Couv. 
Celui qui tient son tresor (sa sagcssc) cache chins son sein, 
et laisse son pa\ s dans le trouble, mcritc-t-il d etre a[)pele 

810 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. I. 



ffij 



* TIT ur f t rFn if ?l 
$c II 1 I* & a ? 

> o 

his acknowledgements, but met him on the 
way. 2. " Come " he said to Confucius, " let 
me have a word with you. For a man," he 
said, " to hide his talent in his bosom, 
and thus share in his country s misguidance, 
can he be called a lover of his fellow men ? " 
" He cannot," was the reply. " For a man 
who would like to take part in public affairs 
to be continually losing his opportunity, can 
he be called wise?" " He cannot," was the 
reply. " Days and months are passing by, 

Sii 



XVII. I, II. TIIK ANAI .LCTS. 

bicnfaisant? Bien; j excercerai unemploi, (quand le temps 
en sera venuX 

CHAPTKR II.- BORN ALIKK BUT GROWING 
UP UNI. IKE.- -Or, The natures of men are mutually near, 
in practice they are mutually apart Here Confucius does 
not declare wheiher man is by nature good, or merely in- 
i.ncent; though the former is implied in f|> J,|j I. i; 
Muicius was the first to introduce into the Confucian cult 
the definite doctrine that man is by nature good ; Mencius 
HI. I. i. This clause forms part of the opening stanzas 
of the H # $U c - Ufa 0? fl" tt> ft St ff ifiJ t"? 

# OL, M Tl ft W ^f 3 ^ ^ hi] ^ m M 
:JE ^J ifii fi M ^ W *fi Sfi HL, fit ff ^ W H J 
?;, W m m W M, *? AL iff *ll > ^> I hc 

meaning O f nature here is mot the moral nature, but) 
the natural temperament, in which, indeed, men do differ 
in respect of good and evil, but at the very outset none 
differs greatly from another, those \vho are trained in good- 
ncss becon e good and in evil evil, hence it is in the training 
that the differentiation begins. -}\- f| fa ][!] ft OD ^ J3U 
Ji{! 1 if. ^ 3%^ But if we di;ciu-s fundamentals then 
human nature is //, and // cannot l)e an\ thing but good. L. 
says in regaid to 5i H ln - lt - it; is " llis complex, actual 
nature, with its elements of the material, the animal, and the 
intellectual, by association with which, the perfectly good 
moral nature is continually being led astray " in other words 
St. Paul s "the flesh." L. By nature, men are nearly 
alike, by practice they get to be wide apart. V.. homines 
natura invicem approximant, moium consuetudine invicem 
cl .Mtant. K. Men in their nature are alike, but by practice 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. I, 11. 



m & 
ft a 



tRTyears do not wait for us." " That is so," 

said Confucius, " I will take office presently." 

CHAPTER II - -The Master said : " By 

nature men nearly resemble each other ; in 

practice they grow wide apart." 

813 



XVII. II, HI. THE ANAI.F.CTS. 

they become widely different. Couv. Les homines sont 
tons semblables par lour nature ;par leur constitution physi 
que a lours facultes naturellcs^ ; ils different par los 
habit inks qu ils contractcnt. 

CHAPTER III.- ONLY THK \\ ISK ST AND DUL- 
LKST NKYKR CHANCE. Or, Only the uppermost 
Aviso and the lowermost stupid do not change. /f Io 
move, chancre. C. jfc 7# -h ? BS ?> A ;> SC f{ 

til 2r K X *f M - &, ffij ^H T? 0? us 

?? ^?> This is a continuation of the last chapter. Alon^ 
with tlio natural similarity of human temperament there is a 
definite admixture of good and evil, which r,o trainim; can 
remove. .f -"f- says of the good who can never be shaken 
there are two classes, JL tt )W Ti ^ -lil> 3C ^ iVJ ff 
T rS ^ ^ ^ lllose wll are b r [lturc ^^ogethor 
good, and those with the unchangeableness of the vor\- 
btupitl ; of the latter class there arc two kinds, the f_J H 
fj M5 ^?f> (themsoh os their own enemies ) of Mencius 
(IV. I. X^ ; the ft ^ ^? *|i ^ KJl ^ fS, the fl 3& 

%i fi & & ^ $3 ; tllosc Vv k liarnl ^ icmy ^ vcs lj y 

thrusting gnodness aside and not believing in it; and those 
who throw themselves away by putting it from them as 
beyond their capacity. 15ut he continues that the ~f jS 
need not be ignorant men, on the contrary they may be 
men of great ability, but by cutting themselves off from 
goodness they reveal their real obtuscncss. 1 .. There are 
only the win: of the highest class, and the stupid etc. who 
cannot be changed. Z. non mutantur. K. men of the 
highest understanding, grossest dulness, who do not change. 
Couv. II n y a que deux classes d hommes qui ne 

814 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. II I. 



T IF- 



fct 



CHAPTER III. The Master said : " It 
is only the very wisest and the very stupidest 
who never change." 



XVII. Ill, IV. TI1K ANALECTS. 

changent jamais de concluitc; Ics plus sages (qui sont tou- 
jours parfaits), ct Ics plus insenses (qui nc vculcnt ni s inst- 

ruirc ni se corriger), 

CHAPTER IV. A MISUNDERSTOOD JEST. i. 
\Vu was in the district of Ji}^ and Tzii Yu (flg) was in 
charge of it, VI. 12. L. translating from f ft says it 
was called Wu " from its position, precipitous and favoura 
ble to military operations, but Tsze Yew had been able, by 
his course, to transform the people, and make them change 
their mail and helmets for stringed instruments and sing 
ing." is a silk string for an instrument. C J^ ? 
g ,&, Lutes and guitars. T Wf &. ffit ^ 3$ &C> 
& Li A 15 i $C &> Tzu Yu educated them in the 
arts of manners and music, hence the citizens were all play 
ing and singing. L. The Master having come to \Yoo- 
ch ang heard there etc. K. heard the sounds of music 
and singing amongst the people. 

2- ^ M> Smilingly. C. /h .^ fii> "$ r S ^> 
The appearance of a smile, that is was pleased with it. gj 

IT ^ fa ^ &^ W * HI Jft ;fc S -til. WIl > u - se 

this great principle ( )g |J| ) in ruling so small a place? 
L. Why use an ox-knife to kill a fowl? Z. juguhiturus 

o-allinam etc. K. wit h a mischievous smile in his look, 
t-> 

remarked, To kill a chicken why use a knife used for 
slaughtering an ox. Couv. Pour tucr etc. couteau qui 
sert a depccer Ics boeufs? 

3- c - ^fi" : f h A &. fi I? > Tllc Uvo tcnns 
are used in reference to position, ruler and ruled. The 
phrase quoted was ,-jJ || a general expression of the 
Sage s. L. Formerly, Master, I heard you say, When 

816 



THE ANALECTS. VXj[. IV. 



na . w 

ft El Jfl W 





dfc 



HI] =? ~% 7] n r $ 

r. > ^ 


"^ 

CHAPTER IV. i. When the Master 
came to Wu-ch eng he heard (everywhere) 
the sound of stringed instruments and sing 
ing; whereupon he smiled and laughingly 
said, " Why use a cleaver to kill a chicken ? " 
3. " A while ago, Sir," replied Tzu Yu, " I 
heard you say : When men of rank have 

learnt Wisdom they love their fellowmen ; and 

817 



XVII. IV, V. THE AXALKCTS. 

the man of high station is well-instructed, lie loves 

easily ruled. Z. Sapiens pracses A studet sa|>i- 

entiae ete. facilis niandatur. K. When the gcntKnun of a 
country are highly educated t tc. sympathise with the 
people ; amenable to government. Couv. 1 ctudc ete. 
rend les officiers bienfaisants ct les homines du peuple 
facile a gouverner. 

4. H _- 7 > Boys, or Gentlemen. C. -Jg : f- Jjf 
m flK X fi P 1 J A ^ He commended 
Tzii Vu s sincerity, and relieved the perplexity of his fol 
lowers. L. My disciples, etc. only in sport. /. jocus 
scilicet. K. Onh- spoken in jest. Couv. IUcs enfants 
etc. n ctait qu unc plaisanterie. 

CHAPTER V. HOPE SPRINGS ETERNAL.- Cf. 
XVII. I. Date circa 501. i. C. Kung-shan Fu-rao, also 
4V lU 3\J ffi^ st >^ ~$ > was a minister of the ^r House, 
who with \$j }jl had confined the head of that family, 
Jif -jf^ and now had seized the ^ fief of |J^ the inten 
tion being to obtain complete control of ^^ By ^} is 
meant a formal invitation, which necessitated special envoys 
and display. L, \Yhen he was holding Pe, and in an 
attitude of rebellion, invited the Master to visit him etc. Z. 
usurpata Pi, rebellaverat. Couv. maitre de la ville de Pi, 
s etait revoke. 

2. The first and last . arc verbs; There being no 
going at all, why must there be a Kung-shan s going. 
C. says ~fc is M^ indicative not imperative, and inter 
prets thus: $1 |& # M^ M fff tt ^> M ^ & llj 
^ ^_|: ap^ Since your principles make r.o headway, there 
is nowhere to go, why (of all places) must you go to 

818 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. IV, V 

5 

& 111 m fi ifi, A 



a a 

&, ^ o ^ r 

^ ill H 



when the common people have learnt Wis 
dom they are easily commanded V 4. " My 
disciples ! " said the Master, " Yen s remark 
is right. What I said before was only in 
jest." 

CHAPTER V. i. When Kung-shan 
Fu-rao was holding Pi in revolt (against the 
House of Chi), he sent for the Master, who 
was inclined to go to him. 2. But Tzu Lu 
was displeased, and said : " Verily there is 

819 



XVII. V, VI. Till: ANAI.KCTS. 

Kung-shau? L. Indeed you cannot go ! \\ hy must you 
think of going to sec etc. V.. nusquam ire cst jam; quid 
ncccssc K-s familiam aclirc. K. Indeed, you cannot go. 
\\ liv should you think of <roini>" to sec sucli a man ^ Couv. 

* ^ o o 

ii n est pas d endroit oil il conviennc d aller. Ouclle 
i ecessitc y a-t-il d aller trouvcr Ic chef de la famillc Kounc* 

O 

cllOLl. 

3. ^ etc. For, if one call me, is it likely to be in 
vain ! The ;] and 3J arc emphatic, but the ill: is taken 
impersonally. C. S ? Sic , V ; i& JfJ ^ .[li^ lie 
would certainly make use of me. ^ Jf ]] ff" M Jj *Q 
K Bl ~jj\ Means that he might revive the ancient 
doctrines of Cliou in eastern 1 .11, i.e. do in the eastern part 
what Wen and \Yu had done in the western. jjjj $g 
^ !!: ^\ 5-IJ -Jt (2 ^ jjg 24 ffic HL, I Jut he finally 
did r.ot go, because he recognised it would be impossible 
to produce reformation. L. Can it be without some rea 
son that he has invited ME? If an} one 1 employ me may 
I not malic an eastern Chou ? 1C. It cannot be for noth 
ing etc. I would establish a new empire here in the Kast. 
Couv. Celui cjui m a im-ile, l a-t-il fait sans inie intention 
veritable etc. ne ferais-je [vis icvivre en orient les princi[)es 
des fondateurs etc. 

C1IA1TKR VI. FIVE ASPECTS OF VIRTUK 

C - ft >i Hi. tf m ib ~ti- IflJ ffl fe 5^ He who 

does these fi\ r e things will f:r.d his heart fixed ;:r.d his [n m- 
ciples settled. JJ- ^ \-\ ]^ M *j ^ ^ ^ means, 
he so acts wherever he goes,-- ( \\n amongst tribes of bar 
barians, ft -ft ~ [3 : |A) ^f. |m jpf ^ & jfjj -^ 
The five were thus detailed because Tzu Chang came short 

$20 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. V, VI. 

yv 

t 5T. -T -T -?- =ff ^ ft & 

& ?L $ -15 Si S Li 

m ft -t IK] Jt ill $c Z M 

I! 1 .] Ji t IS ^ * ill ^ 

o 

T fg ^ ili ^J rTij -f -= ^ 
S If IL /i5] $c s: H LlJ 

nowhere at all to go, why then must you 
think of going to Kung-shan?" 3. <; Here 
is one calling me, and can he be doing it for 
nothing"? answered the Master. "If one 
be willing to employ me, may I not make 
an eastern Chou ? " 

CHAPTER VL Tzu Chang asked Con 
fucius the meaning of Virtue, on which Con- 
fucious replied : " To be able everywhere 
one goes to carry five things into practice con 
stitutes Virtue. On begging to know what 

821 



XVII. VI, VII. THE ANALECTS. 

therein, jf^ ffi ^ ^^ Rely upon. L. To be able 
to practice five things everywhere under Heaven etc. 
Gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness and kind 
ness. If you are grave, you will not be treated with 
disrespect. If earnest, accomplish much. If kind, employ 
the services ot others. /. Si obsequiosus, tune non con- 

temnetur, si sedulus, tune habebit effectum ; si beneficus 

etc. mandet aliis. K. Earnestness, consideration for 
others, trustworthiness, diligence and generosity. Couv. 

pratiquer cinq choses partout et toujours, la gravite du 

mainticn, la grandeur d amc, la sincerite, la diligence, et la 
bienfaisance. La gravite du mainticn inspire respect etc. 

CHAPTER VIL HUNG UP EIKE A BITTER 
GOURD. i. Cf. caps i and 5. C. fft fff, * *, 
Ml R ^L I 1 & $ ilL> ^ H- s i was a minister of the 
Chin Slate, commandant for the Chao House of Chung 
Mou, modern Honan s& C S Jff^ : {g; | IjlfK L. invit 
ing him to visit him etc. 

2 - : n ^K <-tc. Formerly Yu heard from you, Master, 
saying etc. He, \\ho in his o\\ n [lerson, is doing what is 
not good. C. i^ fa fi \\i^ Ilimscli. ^ A> ^ 
A -Jl- ${( -liL^ I } ocs not cuter his party; fuj ^J makes it 
^ A ^IE feU 1 - Master, ormerly, etc. \\henaman 
in his own person, is guilt} of doing evil etc. not associate 

with him if you go to him, \\hat shall be said ? Z. 

et magister ilium adit; quomodo hoc? K. will not asso 
ciate even with those who are nearly related to him, when 
such etc. guilty oi evil-doing. Couv. ne faisait pas socicte 
avec un hommc engag< : dans une cntreprise coup:iblc. 
Convient-il cjue vous alliex ie voir ? 

822 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. VI, VI f. 



m m =r-~- ir & & % w ^ 
^ [iii & w & nil it * $ 

^ & m B g $ w Hi] it it 

^ & & =8 iF A #J A 1 ic 
T> ^ % ft B ffi fli] B 

o 

A ^ tt3 ^ iij m n ^ 

> o 

they were, he was told : " They are respect, 
magnanimity, sincerity, earnestness, and 
kindness. With respect you will avoid 
insult, with magnanimity you will win all, 
with sincerity men will trust you, with 
earnestness you will have success, and with 
kindness you will be well fitted to command 
others." 

CHAPTER VII. i. Pi Hsi sent a formal 
invitation and the Master was inclined to go. 
2. But Tzti Lu observed : " Once upon a 
time, I heard you say, Sir,- With the man 
who is personally engaged in a wrongful 
enterprise, the man of honour declines to 

825 



XVII. VII, VIII. THE ANALI CTS. 

3- C. jg^ ;$ -tiL Thin, fine, f^ ^ Jfl ^ To 
dye or clip in some black substance, also described as *?. 
f alum, or a strong lye ; ^ X ^ f $ ^ ifb $. L!> 
Meaning that another man s misdeeds could nut defile Con 
fucius, /ft* ^ J$^ etc. jjjj Iffi ~ 8 J JlS ^ ""I. Uhcn 
a man can be ground without his principles becoming 
attenuated etc. he is then beyor.cl formal permissions or 
prohibitions. L. Yes etc. But is it nol; said that it a 
thing- etc. ground without being made thin? really \\hile, 
steeped in a dark fluid without being made black ? Z. 
durum? pjifricatur quin attenuetur ; album, tingitur quin 
nigrescat. K. really hard, you may pound it and it will 
not crack ; really white, you may smirch it etc. Couv. 
objet ties dur n est pas entamc par le frottement? 
objet essentiellement blanc ne devient pas noir par le 
teinture? 

4. Or, Am I then a bitter gourd,- fit only to be hung 
up and not eaten ? C. $j /Jv ^ K " !& M ^ fib 

fc f^^ A M # Ail iL - ii- A boule y URl han s s in 

one place and cannot drink or eat, but men are different, 
i.e. even Sage s need meat and drink. This is the usual 
interpretation (sec {;,"j Jy which says : 7^ il ^\ ^ >R it 

$: li n ^ Tl T ft -llL > but lllc otlk r sccms more natural 
and does the Sage more credit. L. Am I a bitter gourd ! 
How can I be hung up out of the way of being- eaten. Z. 
Oui potero suspcndi et 1:011 manducaiv? 1\. Am I after 
all onl\- a bitter gourd to be hung up and nut eaten at all. 
Couv. Suis-je done une courge \vntrue, qui peut etre 
suspeiidue, et ne pas manger ou n etre [)as mangee ? 

CIIAlTliR VIII. Tl IE SIX YIRTUKS AND 

824 



THE ANALECTS. XV11. VII 



8g g ifff ili ? 3 Z 

m n it * * B ft 

ffij E ifff fig B m 



associate. Pi Hsi is holding Chung-mou in 
revolt, what will it be like, Sir, your going 
there ? " 

3. " True," said the Master, " I did use 
those words, but is it not said of the really 
hard, that you may grind it but it will not 
grind down ; and is it not said of the really 
white, that you may dye it but it will not 
turn black ? 4. Am I indeed a bitter gourd ! 
Can I, like that, be hung up and not eaten ! " 

825 



XVII. VIII. THE ANALECTS. 

THEIR SIX ECLIPSES. I. The six words, or virtues, 
are {^ Ifg., ff^ [fiu 5J> and HI); and the six things 
that throw their baleful shade over them are ^ $K WU 
^C> HI and fo^ The virtues arc hidden from sight by 
the vices induced through neglect of training. C. ^ 
JS ft -llL> To throw into the shade, obscure, dull, eclipse. 
L. Yew, have you etc. to which are attached six bccloud- 
ings etc. Z. sex notiones cum suis sex obstructionibus. 
K. the six virtues and their failures. Couv. six paroles 
etc. et les six ombres etc. 

2. C. m jg ? Pfl 51 jtjg M & m * K Accord 
ing to rule, when a superior asked some point, the inferior 
stood up to reply ; that is why Confucius asks Tzii Lu to 
sit down, see $g ItU I Part I, iii, 21. 

3. To take pleasure in goodness but not to take pleasure 
in studying (its principles), that which puts in the si a le 
here is indiscretion. C. ^ H ? ^ fS> $S $ &? ^ 

M ^> ^ KJL W 3t- SU M ^fl ffr IK, rhe six 

words are all admirable characteristics, but if one only 
enjoys them without studying to know the principles 
involved in them, then each has its own overshadower. t& 
? : "*T PS ""I M ^ KK ^^ <c tnose wno arc cas ^y taken 
in, cf VI 14- tS> nl" ^5 rti ft JE?C IB ^ 0? -ll- 
Means those who wander far and wide in their pursuits, 
with never a resting place ; vague and superficial ; fljg i~f 
says like the -peculations of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzii. [[$ 
Bi J {? " I l* AJ %> Injuiious to others. (^ is described 

^JL\ eager and unable to hold anything back, like the son 
who testified against his father for appropriating a sheep). 

826 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. VIII. 



A 

* 



CHAPTER VIII. i. The Master said: 
"Yu, have you ever heard of the six good 
words and the six things that obscure 
them?" " Never," was the reply. 2. "Sit 
down then, and I will tell you." 3. " Love 
of kindness without a love to learn finds 
itself obscured by foolishness. Love of 
knowledge without a love to learn finds 

827 



XVII. VIII, IX. THE ANALKCTS. 

9} ~ff Hi) , $S lne product of strength of character. 
BJ ^K" JB . IKK Th c -substance from which courage 
springs. J{-; gg tfi^ Haste, impatience, intolerance. Tzu 
Lu deemed courage a virtue, but through not learning to 
control it he lost his life. L. There is the love of being 
benevolent without the love of learning, the beclouding 
here leads to a foolish simplicity ; knowing, dissipation of 
mind; sincere, injurious disregard of consequences; 
straightforwardness, rudeness ; boldness, insubordination, 
firmness, extravagant conduct. Z. Amare humanitatem 
sine amare discendi, hujus vitium, inscitia ; scientiam, evaga- 
tio ; fidelitatem, offensio ; ingenuitatem, imprudentia ; 
strenuetatem, perturbatio ; fortitudinem, temeritas. K. 
First, there is the mere love of morality ; that alone, without 
culture, degenerates into fatuity ; knowledge, dilettantism ; 
honesty, heartlessness ; uprightness, tyranny ; courage, 
recklessness ; strength of character, eccentricity. Couv. 
Le defaut de celui qui aime a se montrer bienfaisant, et 
n aime pas a apprendrc, c est le manque de discernement ; 
la science, tomber dans 1 erreur ; tenir ses promesses, nuire 
aux autres ; la franchise, d avertir et de reprendre trop 
librement etc. ; du courage, troubler d ordre ; fermete 
d ame, la temerite. 

CHAPTER IX. THE EDUCATING INFLUENCE 
OF POETRY. i. This is said to have been uttered 
after Confucius had completed his editing of the ( )des, and 
perhaps " the Odes " would be a more correct term than 
"Poets" or "Poetry." ^ The, this. C. /J> "J\ #$ 
T* -l!i> Disciples. L. I\Iy children, why do you not 
study the Book of Poetry. Z. O filioli, quare etc. 

828 






THE ANALECTS. XVII. VIII, IX 

^ -tn it ^ -tn 

$ * $ 

it iff $c $ 

m i -m it 



itself obscured by loose speculation. Love 
of honesty without a love to learn finds itself 
obscured by harmful candour. Love of 
straightforwardness without a love to learn 
finds itself obscured by warped judgment. 
Love of daring without a love to learn finds 
itself obscured by insubordination And love 
for strength of character without a love to 
learn finds itself obscured by intractability." 

CHAPTER IX. ]. The Master said: 
"My young disdples, why do you not study 

829 



XVII. IX, X. THK ANALECTS. 

Carminum libro. K. poetry. Couv. Mcs enfants, etc. 
Chcu King. 

2. C. [$> ^ J& 5*U Stimulate tlie will. L. The 
Odes serve to stimulate the mind. Z. possumus nos 
excitare. K. Calls out the sentiment. Couv. nous 
exciter a la pratique de la vcrtu. 

3. C. ;#f\ |i \\} f j^^ To examine one s progress. 
L. for purposes of self-examination. Z. possumus nos 
inspicere. K. stimulate observation. Couv. a nous ex 
aminer nous-memes. 

4- C. %\] ffp ^F* Sfe^ To sociability and not to 
roaming. L. the art of sociability. Z. possumus 
sociales evadere. K. enlarges the sympathies. Couv. 
a traiter convenablement avec les hommes. 

$ C. ffi flfj T* #> Vexation borne without anger. 
L. regulate feelings of resentment. Z. possumus jure 
indignari. K. moderate the resentment felt against injus 
tice. Couv. a nous indigner justement. 

6. I... From them you learn the more immediate etc. 
Z. propiori servire patri, remotiori etc. K. while it has 
lessons for the duties of social life. Couv. a remplir nos 
devoirs etc. 

7. L. From them we become largely acquainted with 
etc. Z. ct multa scire de avium etc. K. At the same 
time makes us acquainted, with the animate and inanimate 
objects in nature. Couv. II nous fait connaitre beaucoup 
etc. 

CHATTER X. WITHOUT TOETKY LIKE FAC 
ING A I5LANK WALL. C. $ M ^ -llL, To learn, 
so to speak. The two are the titles of the two first books 

830 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. IX, X. 



-r- 



m 
a 



^ ^c ^ 3t a a 

the Poets? 2. Poetry is able to stimulate 
the mind, 3. it can train to observation, 4 
it can encourage social intercourse, 5. it 
can modify the vexations of life ; 6 from it 
the student learns to fulfil his more imme 
diate duty to his parents, and his remoter 
duty to his Prince ; 7 and in it he may 
become widely acquainted with the names of 
birds and beasts, plants and trees." 

CHAPTER X. The Master said to his 
son Po Yii: "Have you done the Chou 

831 



XVII. X, XI, XII. THE ANALECTS. 

in the Ode.; p/f tt ft ffi # W K #> their con 
tents all relate to self culture and regulation of the family. 

.IE 11 ifiK etc. - m te Iff Ji> * * Tl l fN 

Not a thing visible, nor a step possible. L. Do you give 
yourself to etc. The man who has not studied etc. wall. 
Is he not? Z. tu an non operaberis etc. K. A man 
who has not studied those books will be out of his element 
wherever lie goes. Couv. Ktudie/.-vous etc n est-il pas 
comme un homme qui se tiendrait visage tourne vcrs un 

mur. 

CHAPTER XL VAIN OBLATIONS. The meaning 

seems to be that an offering, whether to the living or the 
dead, or, the material of worship in general, does not 
constitute jp?K any more than do mere instruments consti 
tute music. The offering is a token of reverence as the 
instruments are tokens of harmony. C. f fin }$ , &. 

^ ft JW fi 8SK ?li Un &. S $kWl nl 1 ! ^> 

Respect and its exhibition in gems and silk is //; harmony 
and the expression of it according to // is the meaning of 
music. L. " It is according to the Rules of propriety." 
they say ; " it is etc." Are gems etc. all that is meant by 
propriety. " It is Music eh ? Z. Rituni dici, ritum 
nuncupari, qui inquam gcmmas et serica significat ? K. 
Men speak about Art ! Art! Do you think that merely 
means painting and sculpture. Couv. Ouand on parle 
iTurbanite et qu on vante 1 urbanitc, veut on parler seule- 
ment des pierres precieuses etc, 

CHAPTER XII. AFRAID OE BICIXG FOUND 
OUT. C. j$, fa lie &> ^tcrn, ^, ^ || IJL, 
IVeak. /h A> ^Ifl K -&> One of the petty kind. 2%^ 

832 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. X, XI, XT. 

1 

T- ^ 3 & it ^ 

f| il B ffi B A 

x> -S It ifi) it ffii 

M 07-5: :/ ^ ^ 

M ti fc it -m m n 
ft s m 5 a IE ^ 

> o 

Nan and the Chao Nan ? The man who does 
not do the Chou Nan and the Chao Nan is 
as if he stood with his face right up against a 
wall, eh?" 

CHAPTER XL The Master said : " Of 
ferings ! they say, Offerings ! Can mere 
gems and silk be called offerings ? Music ! 
they say, ( Music ! Can mere bells and 
drums be called music ? " 

CHAPTER XII. --The Master said: 
" He who assumes a stern appearance while 

833 



XVII. XII, XIII. THE ANALKCTS. 

& it^ Dig through a partition wall, ffi^ ^ j^ Climb 
over a wall. H JI: fa S & ft ffij ft* K A *II -ill, 

It means that he Ins imposed a baseless character on people, 
and is in constant dread of being found out. L. He who 
puts on an appearance of stern firmness, while inwardly he 
is weak etc. small, mean people ; yea, is he not like etc, ? 
Z. habitu severi, intus autem flaccidi etc. K. austere in 
his look, but a weakling and a coward at heart, sneak 
ing thief or a cowardy pickpocket. Couv. Ceux qui en 
apparence sont rigides obscrvateurs des prcccptcs de la 
sagesse, et au fond n ont aucune energie, ne ressemblent-ils 
pas a ces hommes de la lie du peuple qui (la nuit) passent 
a travers ou par-dessus les murs pour voler etc. 

CHAPTER XIII. LET WELL ALONE. G ffl 
3$ jal) i& . SlU H as the meaning of common, vulgar. 
jRf is ^ Honest. Jgu & A gJi # -til. The 
honest man amongst his villagers. The meaning is brought 
out by Mcncius VII. ii. 37. Wan Chang asked : " Their 
whole village calls them honest men, and wherever they 
go they are honest men, why did Confucius call them 
despoilcrs of (or robbers of) virtue? Mencius replied, 
" If you want to prove them in the wrong, you can raise 
nothing against them. If you would blame, there is nothing 
to blame. They follow current customs, and throw in their 
lot with an unclean generation, assuming to he conscienti 
ous in heart and pure in action so that others are pleased 
% with them, moreover, they think themselves right, hence 
you cannot take them with you in the ways of Yao and 
Shun." Their motto is ; ^ JJf |H; .^ $ $f j!I; ^ $ 
W\ TJ ^^ " Being born in this age, live as this age docs, 

834 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. XII, XIII. 



m -T 



A 



inwardly he is a weakling, can only be com 
pared with the common herd ; indeed is he 
not like the thief who sneaks through or 
skulks over walls ? " 

CHAPTER XIII. The Master said 
"Your honest countryman is the spoiler ol 
morals." 

835 



XVII. XIII, XIV, XV. THE ANALECTS. 

be good and let that suffice. 1 The meaning seems to be, 
Your good old lory is a barrier to progress. L. Your 
good careful people of the villages arc the thieves of virtue. 
Z. vicorum integerrimi snnt virtutis pcrnicies. K. Your 
meek men of respectability etc. unmercifully destroy all 
sense of moral sentiment in man. Couv. Ceux qui pas- 
sent pour hommcs de bicn etc. ruincnt la vcrtu. 

CHAPTER XIV. LIGHTLY COME, LIGHTLY 
GO. C. The Wise man stores up what he hears and 
experiences, for the nourishment of his character ; to hear 
by the way and talk about it as he goes along is to lose it. 
L. To tell, as we go along, what etc. is to cast away our 
virtue. Z. in via audita statim in via cnunciare, virtus est 
projectio. K. To preach in the public streets the com 
monplaces which you have picked up in the way is to 
throw away all your finer feelings. Couv. Repetcr en 
chemin a tons les passants etc. c est jetcr la vertu an vent. 

CHAPTER XV. ANXIETY ABOUT POSITION 
INDUCES SERVILITY.- 1. C. g|J ^ Mf M P8 
^ *L SK A term for the despicable and low down. L. 
There are those mean creatures! How impossible it is 
along with them etc. Z. abjecti homulli ! qui possis etc. 
K. These despicable men etc. Couv. Convient-il (de 
faire admcttrc a la cour) cles homines abjects, et cle servir 
etc. 

2. The ; it may mean office or desire. $jj j~f 
says it means ^V -] [ wealth and honours. L. While 
they have not got their aims their anxiety is how to get 
them etc. Z. li cum nondum id obtinuerint, anguntur ut 
illud obtineant etc. K. Before they gain their position, 

836 



THE ANALECTS XVII. XIV, XV, 

E m 



B fl B 





0* lUc W -iil M 

o o 

n $r & ^ 

CHAPTER XIV. --The Master said: 
" To proclaim on the road what you hear on 
the \vay is virtue thro\vn away." 

CHAPTER XV. i. "These servile fel 
lows ! " said the Master. " How is it possible 
to serve one s Prince along with thfim? 2. 
Before obtaining their position they are in 
anxiety to get it, and when they have got it 

837 



XVII. XV, XVI. THE ANALECTS. 

their only anxiety is how to obtain it etc. Couv. Avant 
d avoir obtcnu les charges, ils ont en peine do Ics obtcnir etc. 

3- c. /j, flij ijt m m j., * jw 12 x : 3^ # 

^i K / $: flD LU The lower in rank perform the 
most loathsome offices, the higher are parricides and regi 
cides, all through fear of losing their position. L. When 
they are anxious lest such things should be lost, there is 
nothing to which they will not proceed. Z. nihil erit quo 
non pertingant. K. nothing which they would not do. 
Couv. Alors, ils ne reculent devant aucun crime, pour 
etc. 

CHAPTER XVI. THE FAULTS OF THE ANCI- 
ENTS HAD GROWN INTO VICES. i . ^ ; 
;g Perhaps there is the non existence of these. 

c. M. & at 2p HIJ m m, m m K ft m z 

ffi-^ When the physical temperament has lost its balance 
it was called Jj ; so also when there was obliquity of the 
disposition. L. Anciently men had their failings, which 
now perhaps are not to be found. Z. tres defectus. K. 
three kinds of imperfections in their character. Couv. 
sujets a trois defauts. 

2. C. fa #, ig m iS> Vulls too high, inde 
pendent, too high-spirited. Jt nn ^ ^J /J> > Were 
not held by minor restraints. Jg ]^lj ffi ^c [^] ^^ 
Overstep the greatest bounds. -^ ;^- ^ Vj- -^ jg^ 
Holding themselves too stiffly. Jf , il 1 , 1 ^J ^ Pft ^.^ 
Angular and severe. & ;jl g|j ^ jj, fft ^ Anger 
and offence result in wrangles, tg ^f 11,-f fljc xf> Ijj]^ 
Unenlightened, ignorant. \fi tf\ ffi ft jf,j : ^^ Taking 
the straightcst road. ^ ]J|J f^ ^ ^ fj ^ Cherish- 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. XV, XVI. 



-tn z = 









til 



they are in anxiety lest they lose it; 3. and 
if men are in anxiety about losing their posi 

tion there is no length to which they will not 

i 
g- 

CHAPTER XVI. i. "In olden times," 

said the Master, " the people had three faults, 
which now-a-days perhaps no longer exist. 
2. High spirit in olden times meant liberty 
in detail, the high spirit of to-day means 
utter looseness. Dignity of old meant re 
serve, dignity to-day means resentment and 

839 



XVII. XVI, XVII, XVIII. THE ANALECTS. 

ing secrecy in order to act improperly. L. The high- 
mindedness of antiquity showed itself in a disregard of 
small things ; wild license ; stern dignity, grave reserve, 
quarrelsome perverseness ; stupidity, straightforwardness, 
sheer deceit. Z. Priscorum spiritus elatio erat lascivula, 
effrenatio ; severitas, rigida, iracunda pugnacitas ; ruditas, 
simplex, versutia et nil aliud. K. Passionate, impetuous men 
in old time loved independence, wild licence ; proud men, 
modest and reserved, touchiness and vulgar bad temper ; 
simple men, artless and straightforward, hides cunnino. 
Couv. ceux qui avaient de grandes aspirations, negligeai 
ent les petites choses, licence ; constant dans leurs resolu 
tions, peu accessibles, coleres et intraitables ; ignorants, 
siniples et droits, fourbes. 

CHAPTER XVII. A repetition of i. 3. 

CHAPTER XVIII. TRIUMPHANT WRONG IS 
ABHORRENT.-C. jfc, JH (^ Red is a virgin 
colour; ^ ffi {5 c f X. 6, purple is a mixed colour (of 
black and red. the black dulling the red). %fe J ^ Ya 
means correct, (but cf IX. 14). ^ ftft jfc ^ Ovei , 
turn and ruin. The keen tonguecl can make things look 
the very opposite, the worthy unworthy and vice versa, so 
that if a Prince believed them, it would not be difficult to 
overthrow his country. L. I hate etc. takes away the 
lustre of vermilion ; songs ot Cheng confound the music of 
the Ya, sharp mouths overthrow kingdom etc. /.. odi 
ostrum detrahens minio ; perturbantes graviorcm musicam ; 
acutum os etc. K. scarlet dims the perception for ver 
milion ; modern popular airs etc. spoil the taste for good 
music ; smartness of speech etc. Couv. Je n aimc pas la 

840 



THE ANALECTS. XVII. XVI, XVII, XVIII. 

A -t 

o 

^ M 1? t *5 -til jS ?t 

O "% 

m m * IE m -m 

M as? z * fin n &